Sale!

Aging and Society A Canadian Perspectives 7th Edition Campbell Novak Test Bank

$80.00 $12.99

Aging and Society A Canadian Perspectives 7th Edition Campbell Novak Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0176562265
  • ISBN-13:978-0176562267

 

Description

Aging and Society A Canadian Perspectives 7th Edition Campbell Novak Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0176562265
  • ISBN-13:978-0176562267

 

 

 

Be the best nurse you can be:

Nursing test banks are legit and very helpful. This test bank on this page can be downloaded immediately after you checkout today.

Here is the definition of nursing

Its true that you will receive the entire legit test bank for this book and it can happen today regardless if its day or night. We have made the process automatic for you so that you don’t have to wait.

We encourage you to purchase from only a trustworthy provider:

Our site is one of the most confidential websites on the internet. We maintain no logs and guarantee it. Our website is also encrypted with an SSL on the entire website which will show on your browser with a lock symbol. This means not a single person can view any information.

Have any comments or suggestions?

When you get your file today you will be able to open it on your device and start studying for your class right now.

So this is a digital download that is automatically given to you after you checkout today.

Free Nursing Test Questions:

CHAPTER 14: DEATH, DYING, AND BEREAVEMENT

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. According to the text, how do most seniors view their deaths?
  2. as an impending event
  3. as a distant event
  4. as a tragic event
  5. as a welcome event

 

ANS: B                        REF: 336                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following individuals exemplifies the concept of social death?
  2. Mary, who is 69 and has dementia
  3. George, who is frail but is still mobile
  4. Phillip, who lives in a nursing home
  5. Gertrude, who is 106 years old and living at home

 

ANS: A                        REF: 336-337               BLM: HO

 

  1. In the ancient past, how did people perceive death and dying?
  2. as a tragic consequence of a difficult life
  3. as a wonderful journey to peace and tranquility
  4. as a mysterious transition
  5. as a confusing and depressing event

 

ANS: C                        REF: 337                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Death in Canada today most often takes place in which of the following locations?
a.at home
b.at a hospice
c.in a retirement community
d.in a hospital or nursing home

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   338                           BLM: HO

 

  1. In 2008, what percentage of deaths were senior deaths?
  2. 57%
  3. 68%
  4. 72%
  5. 78%

 

ANS: D                        REF: 337                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Life expectancy at birth in 2006–2008 stood at 78.5 years for males and at what age for females?
a.76.4
b.79.5
c.83.1
d.87.8

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   337                           BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is considered as a “disease of old age?”
  2. arthritis
  3. osteoporosis
  4. macular degeneration
  5. pneumonia

 

ANS: D                        REF: 337                     BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following diseases caused 23% of all Canadian deaths in 2008?
  2. heart disease
  3. cancer
  4. stroke
  5. Alzheimer’s disease

 

ANS: A                        REF: 337                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following diseases caused 3.4% of Canadian men to die in 2008?
  2. influenza and pneumonia
  3. chronic lower respiratory diseases
  4. diabetes
  5. strokes

 

ANS: C                        REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Motiwala and colleagues (2006), where did almost half of deaths in Ontario occur in 2001–2002?
  2. at home
  3. at a nursing home
  4. in a hospice
  5. in a hospital

 

ANS: D                        REF: 337                     BLM: REM

 

  1. In 2008, which of the following diseases caused a higher percentage of death for men than for women?
  2. influenza and pneumonia
  3. stroke
  4. Alzheimer’s disease
  5. malignant neoplasms (cancer)

 

ANS: D                        REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Wilkins (2006), which type of stress has an especially strong effect on older women?
  2. emotional stress
  3. psychological stress
  4. physical stress
  5. social stress

 

ANS: B                        REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to the National Population Health Survey (NPHS), which of the following items increases the risk of death?
  2. increased alcohol consumption
  3. increased level of education
  4. being overweight
  5. functional limitation

 

ANS: D                        REF 338                      BLM: REM

 

  1. In 1926, what percentage of deaths occurred in infants and children under the age of five?
  2. 1/3
  3. 1/2
  4. 2/3
  5. 3/4

 

ANS: A                        REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Today, most people die of which of the following?
a.acute illness
b.chronic illness
c.poverty
d.accidents

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   338                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Your cousin has cancer, and although she is not in pain, she has only a few months to live. According to Motiwala and colleagues (2006), where will your cousin most likely die?
  2. at hospital
  3. in a nursing home
  4. at home
  5. in hospice

 

ANS: C                        REF: 338                     BLM: HO

 

  1. According to a study by Menec and colleagues (2007), where did most people aged 85+ have the greatest likelihood of dying?
  2. in a nursing home
  3.    at a hospital
  4. in a hospice
  5. at home

 

ANS: A                        REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is true according to the disengagement theory?
a.Retirement and withdrawal from society lead to low life satisfaction.
b.A smooth transition of power from one generation to the next occurs when the two generations work together.
c.An awareness of death causes people to ease their way out of social life.
d.Fear of death causes many older people to lose their perspective and feel that their lives have no meaning.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   339                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following describes a problem with the disengagement theory and its approach to death?
a.It is based on the idea that older people grow to accept death as they age.
b.It does not describe how a person will react to his/her approaching death.
c.It places emphasis on the ego transcendence stage of aging rather than the generativity stage.
d.It focuses on the social effects of dying, and says little about how older people feel about it.

.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   339                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Erikson’s (1963) theory of ego development says that, in the last stage of life, a person reviews his/her life, ties up loose ends, and prepares for death. What does Erikson call this process?
a.the pre-generative stage
b.ego integrity
c.euthanasia
d.mortality recognition

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   339                           BLM: REM

 

  1. In the last part of the last stage of Erikson’s theory of ego development, the person experiences which of the following?
a.a deep concern for others and for the culture he/she will be leaving, thereby achieving ego transcendence
b.a need to overcome the Fear of Death vs. Life Transcendence conflict, thereby coming to terms with both life and death
c.a full withdrawal from his/her social roles and acceptance of death as inevitable, passively waiting for it
d.a full acceptance of his/her death, but the desire to keep on living to achieve some final goal he/she has set

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   339                BLM: HO

 

  1. Studies that compare older and younger people find that older people express more concern about which of the following aspects of death?
a.the pain of dying
b.the fear of dying
c.the process of dying
d.the emotional trauma of dying

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   339                           BLM: HO

 

  1. According to Duffy and colleagues (2006), which of the following do dying individuals want?
  2. to feel their life was worth living
  3. to have their responsibilities taken care of
  4. to have a pain-free death
  5. to die with dignity

 

ANS: B                        REF: 340                     BLM: REM

 

  1. When do people deal with death the best?
a.when they have strong religious beliefs or no belief at all
b.when they have mild religious belief
c.when they have a severe acute or chronic illness
d.when they have seen friends or close family die

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   341                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following buffers people from the fear of death, according to Wink (2006)?
  2. pain medication and competent medical staff
  3. friends and family
  4. a strong religious belief
  5. understanding one’s disease and its progression

 

ANS: C                        REF: 341                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Your aunt Grace has just learned that she has breast cancer, and she is in a state of denial. Which stage number is denial within Kubler-Ross’s death and dying model?
  2. first
  3. second
  4. third
  5. fourth

 

ANS: A                        REF: 342                     BLM: HO

 

  1. Which stage of Kubler-Ross’s death and dying model involves anger directed at the doctor, a spouse, or even God?
a.first
b.second
c.third
d.fourth

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   342                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What are the two aspects of the depression phase of death and dying (Kubler-Ross, 1969)?
a.mourning present losses and mourning future losses
b.fear of death and fear of dying
c.denial and acceptance
d.despair and anger

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   342                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the final stage of death and dying, according to Kubler-Ross?
a.bargaining stage
b.acceptance stage
c.optimistic stage
d.depression stage

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   342                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which trait is common to all five stages of Kubler-Ross’s stage theory of death and dying?
a.fear
b.despair
c.hope
d.acceptance

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   342                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Why do researchers such as Leming and Dickinson (2011) criticize Kubler-Ross’s stage theory of death and dying?
a.They feel that the theory does not take into account the effects of dying on family or friends of the patient.
b.They feel that it cannot accurately predict how an individual will respond to the dying process.
c.They feel that it accurately describes the dying process for most patients, but it does not provide enough information on how others should respond to the patient during each stage.
d.They feel that not all patients experience the same emotions, needs, and coping methods.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   343                           BLM: HO

 

  1. According to Kubler-Ross, which of the following statements can be made about her stages-of-dying model?
a.All patients follow a similar series of stages in the death and dying process.
b.Most dying patients adopt one of five attitudes: anger, bargaining, denial, acceptance, or depression.
c.Dame Cicely Saunders’ stages-of-death-and-dying model should be rejected, due to its impressionistic methods and unscientific presentation.
d.Patients can skip stages, stages can overlap, or people can go back over the same stage many times.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   343                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What does Kubler-Ross (1969) state about different illnesses and their death trajectories?
a.They can create new stages of dying.
b.They create different trajectories of death.
c.They have no significant effect on the pattern of response by patients.
d.They can cause a patient to deviate from the normal pattern of dying.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   343                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following terms defines the typical public social conventions that occur after an individual passes away?
  2. grieving
  3. sorrow
  4. bereavement
  5. mourning

 

ANS: D                        REF: 343                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Your great Aunt Beverly’s husband lives in a nursing home after he had a stroke. He has dementia and needs continuous care. She is saddened to be alone in her home and she grieves for her husband as he used to be. She is also sorrowful, in expectation of his impending physical death. What type of grief is your great Aunt Beverly experiencing?
  2. anticipatory grief
  3. disenfranchised grief
  4. delayed grief
  5. exaggerated grief

 

ANS: A                        REF: 343                     BLM: HO

 

  1. What proportion of bereaved people go through morbid grieving?
a.a small percentage
b.25%
c.50%
d.a large percentage

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   344                           BLM: REM

 

  1. Northcott and Wilson (2008) say that the pattern of grieving depends on all EXCEPT which of the following?
a.the gender of the bereaved person
b.how the patient dies
c.how suddenly the death occurred
d.the age of the bereaved person

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   344                           BLM: REM

 

 

  1. According to Kahana (2006), what comes to an end in a woman’s life when she is widowed?
  2. her freedom
  3. her former identity
  4. her financial security
  5. her social life

 

ANS: B                        REF: 344                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Onrust and Cuijpers (2006) found a high rate of which of the following among widows in the first year of widowhood?
a.smoking
b.alcoholism
c.major depressive disorder
d.illness

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   344                           BLM: REM

 

 

  1. According to a study by Mancini et al. (2006), what percentage of widows/widowers demonstrated chronic grief?
  2. 6.9%
  3. 15.6%
  4. 24.7%
  5. 32.8%

 

ANS: B                        REF: 344                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Wolff and Wortman (2005), what behaviour did men tend to exhibit more frequently after the loss of a wife?
  2. socializing
  3. remarrying within a year
  4. smoking and drinking
  5. travelling

 

ANS: C                        REF: 345                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Marital ties persist after the loss of a spouse, exemplifying which of the following?
a.a primary indicator of abnormal grief adjustment.
b.the reason that some widows and widowers decide against remarriage after the death of a spouse
c.behaviour that is acceptable for older people but dysfunctional for younger people
d.a form of morbid grieving that should be treated if it becomes prolonged

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   345                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is true in the informed consent context of dying?
a.The staff and the family know that the patient is dying but do not tell the patient.
b.The staff, the patient, and the family all know that the patient is dying, but no one speaks about it.
c.The staff and the patient know that the patient is dying but do not tell the patient’s family.
d.The patient has a right to know about the physicians choice of treatment.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   345                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an ethical conflict that doctors face when they treat dying patients?
a.defining the exact criteria for death
b.convincing the family to remove a person from life support
c.deciding what to do when treatment that extends a patient’s life also prolongs his/her suffering
d.ongoing court battles over the legal status of euthanasia and the culpability of doctors

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   345                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which type of document authorizes relatives or doctors to withdraw or withhold artificial methods of life support in the case of a terminal illness?
a.a writ of cessation
b.a living will
c.a medical directive
d.an order in absentee

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   347                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Directives most often take the form of which of the following?
a.the flexible power of attorney
b.the estate will
c.passive euthanasia
d.the durable power of attorney and the living will

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   347                           BLM: HO

 

 

  1. A living will sets out which of the following?
a.the attorney’s right to make financial decisions on a person’s behalf
b.the doctor’s right to terminate treatment
c.the ill person’s right to his/her wishes at the end of life
d.the nurse’s right to choose intensive and aggressive treatments

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   347                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Jerry was in a car accident and is now in a coma. He has a written order on his medical chart that indicates that he is not to be revived should his heart stop. What is the name for this medical order?
  2. fail-to- revive order
  3. do-not-resuscitate order
  4. advance-directive order
  5. living-will order

 

ANS: B                        REF: 347                     BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following statements can be made regarding doctors and directives?
a.Doctors increasingly welcome having directions on the type of care a patient wants.
b.Doctors resent being forced to make decisions based on laws.
c.Doctors often make no effort to determine if the patient has a living will, and even ignore it if one does exist.
d.Doctors fear prosecution for stopping treatment or not treating secondary illnesses.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   347                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Your mother has asked you and your sibling to sign a document stating that she has chosen the two of you to make decisions on her behalf, should she lose her mental capacity to do so as she ages. What is the name of this type of document?
  2. a living will
  3. an incapacitated wish
  4. a power of attorney
  5. an advanced instruction

 

ANS: C                        REF: 347                     BLM: HO

 

  1. According to Garrett and colleagues (2008), what percentage of Canadians aged 75+ have an advance directive?
  2. 17%
  3.    28%
  4. 32%
  5. 39%

 

ANS: D                        REF: 347                     BLM: REM

 

  1. What is one of the main problems with advance directives?
a.They are not enforceable by law in Canada, and therefore doctors and family frequently disregard them.
b.Many people cannot or will not write a living will because their religion condemns it as a form of suicide.
c.In some cases people will change their minds as they near death, but they will not get a chance to change their advance directive.
d.It does not fulfill its main function of relieving doctors of responsibility for stopping treatment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   349                           BLM: HO

 

  1. The modern hospice was the creation of which of the following individuals?
a.Saunders
b.Kubler-Ross
c.Gray
d.Genseric

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   350                           BLM: REM

 

  1. By eliminating a patient’s pain, hospices seek to accomplish which of the following?
a.building up the patient’s hope of recovery and creating a positive attitude
b.giving patients the opportunity to remain active and at work
c.relieving a patient’s fear and anxiety and ensuring that the person dies in comfort
d.decreasing the anxiety of friends and family over the patient’s condition

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   350                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Pain control in hospices such as St. Christopher’s is based on which of the following?
a.meditation and mental techniques that allow the patient to control his/her pain yet remain alert
b.hypnotism
c.adjustment of drug dosage
d.teaching the patient to understand his/her situation and deal with it realistically

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   350                           BLM: HO

 

  1. In hospices, medical staff base pain control on which two techniques?
a.adjusting the dosages until the patient is pain-free, and giving the next dose before the previous dose has worn off
b.giving the patient only enough drugs to reduce the pain, and waiting until the patient shows signs of pain before giving the next dose
c.teaching the patient to overcome chronic pain without the use of drugs, and using drugs only when acute pain becomes severe
d.giving the patient a low dosage to overcome chronic pain, and providing the patient with drugs so that he/she can adjust dosages for his/her comfort

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   350                           BLM: HO

 

 

  1. In a hospice, what do staff members mainly focus on?
a.helping the patient to deal with both the emotional and the spiritual aspects of dying
b.prolonging life
c.helping the family and friends of dying patients
d.the comfort and well-being of the patient

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   350                           BLM: HO

 

  1. When did the first palliative care units open in Canada?
  2. the mid-1960s
  3. the mid-1970s
  4. the mid-1980s
  5. the mid-1990s

 

ANS: B                        REF: 350                     BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the term for programs that do the same work as hospices, but that exist within an acute care hospital?
a.general care programs
b.ICUs (Intensive Care Units)
c.palliative care units
d.no-code-blue wards

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   350                           BLM: REM

 

 

  1. According to the Quality End-of-Life Coalition of Canada (2008), what percentage of dying Canadians have access to high-quality hospice palliative care at home?
  2. 3/4
  3. 2/3
  4. 1/2
  5. 1/3

 

ANS: D                        REF: 350                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Dupere, what percentage of Canadians in 2006 had access to palliative care services?
  2. 3%
  3. 8%
  4. 15%
  5. 19%

 

ANS: C                        REF: 350                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Julia lives in Toronto, and her mother, who is 74 years old, lives in Winnipeg. Julia is worried about her mother, as she has terminal cancer, and she lives alone in an apartment. Julia refuses to believe that her mother is seriously ill, and so she decides to go to Winnipeg to demand medical treatment for her mother. According to Northcott and Wilson (2008), what is the term used to describe Julia’s behaviour and actions regarding her mother’s situation?
  2. the prodigal daughter syndrome
  3. the California daughter syndrome
  4. the lost child phenomenon
  5. the black sheep phenomenon

 

ANS: B                        REF: 351                     BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term for actively helping someone relieve his/her suffering and achieve a painless death?
a.euthanasia
b.healthcare consent
c.palliative care
d.prognosis

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   352                           BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the role of the doctor in physician-assisted suicide?
a.gives an ill patient the means to commit suicide
b.files a motion with the courts to gain permission to assist in ending patients lives
c.requests to be removed from caring for patients with terminal illness if they do not agree with the idea of doctor assisted suicide
d.takes the means of suicide upon him-/herself to actively end patients’ lives

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   352                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term for the process of killing someone because he/she asks for death or to relieve his/her suffering?
a.active euthanasia
b.passive euthanasia
c.palliative care
d.third degree murder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   352                           BLM: REM

 

  1. Uncle Ross is in a coma, and doctors inform you that he will not recover. Your aunt doesn’t want him to suffer. Someone makes the decision to end Uncle Ross’s life. What is the term used to describe this scenario?
  2. active euthanasia
  3. non-voluntary euthanasia
  4. mercy killing
  5. involuntary euthanasia

 

ANS: B                    REF: 352                            BLM: HO

 

  1. Which country passed the Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act?
  2. Canada
  3. The United States
  4. France
  5. The Netherlands

 

ANS: D                     REF: 352                            BLM: REM

 

  1. In 2009, the Netherlands reported a number of cases of physician-assisted suicide. Where did 80% of those patients die?
  2. in a hospice
  3. at home
  4. in a hospital
  5. in a nursing home

 

ANS: B                     REF: 352-353           BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following countries now permits physician-assisted suicides in cases of advanced terminal illness?
  2. The United States
  3. Canada
  4. France
  5. Sweden

 

ANS: A                     REF: 353                            BLM: HO

 

  1. What is another name that is commonly used as a substitute for “euthanasia”?
  2. manslaughter
  3. murder
  4. mercy killing
  5. medicine-induced death

 

ANS: C                     REF: 353                            BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following can eliminate the question of responding to requests for active euthanasia?
a.the cessation of treatment of dying patients
b.laws that make active euthanasia illegal
c.using the closed awareness context for dying
d.symptom control and good palliative care

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   353                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the function of funeral practices and rituals?
a.to help resolve family conflicts
b.to help the bereaved family cope with grief and to re-establish community bonds after the loss of a community member
c.to take the bereaved family’s attention away from the death of the individual, and reaffirm life’s deeper meaning
d.to give family and friends the opportunity to cut ties with the deceased and continue on with their lives

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   355                           BLM: HO

 

 

 SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. Compare and contrast what constitutes a “good” death and a “bad” death.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

The good or bad death depends on a number of criteria. Dying from a heart attack that occurs in one’s sleep

at home or dying with loved ones near are versions of what most people consider a good death. Dying in the

hospital in pain, without dignity, and surrounded by strangers following a long agonizing “struggle” with

cancer would be considered a bad death by most people.

 

It should be noted that what constitutes a good or bad death depends upon one’s point of view. From the

point of view of the dying senior, the criteria for a good death include a lack of pain during the dying

process, a quick death, dying at home surrounded by loved ones, maintaining a sense of dignity, having a

sense of control, and being prepared to die. From the point of view of the dying person’s significant

others, death may be viewed as good when it relieves family members of the burden of care or minimizes

financial costs to family members. From the point of view of society as a whole, death may be viewed as

good when it makes minimal demands on social resources and facilitates the transfer of authority, power,

and wealth.

 

In addition, students could mention some or all of the criteria as mentioned in Exhibit 14.3 on page 340

 

REF: 340

 

  1. List and explain the five responses to the loss of a spouse.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

A study done by the Changing Lives of Older Couples in the United States included over 1,500 people

before widowhood. This study detailed the frequency and variety of reactions to a spouse’s death.

Because it looked at pre-loss mental health, the study could assess the effect of loss on psychological

well-being, and it found five responses to the loss of a spouse:

 

  1. chronic grief (defined as pre-loss depression, high post-loss depression at 6 to 18 months);
  2. common grief or recovery (low pre-loss depression and high post-loss depression at 6 months with

improvement at 18 months);

  1. resilience (low pre- and low post-loss depression at 6 and 18 months);
  2. depressed-improved (high pre-loss depression and low post-loss depression at 6 and 18 months); and
  3. chronic depression (high pre-loss depression and high post-loss depression at 6 and 18 months).

 

REF: 344

 

  1. Explain the differences between assisted suicide and euthanasia (active and passive).

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

People often confuse assisted suicide and active euthanasia. If you commit suicide, you kill yourself. If

you ask for euthanasia, you ask someone else to kill you. The confusion arises when you ask someone

to help you commit suicide. For example, you might ask your doctor to prescribe a lethal dose of

medicine. If you take this medicine yourself, then the term “assisted suicide” applies, or more accurately,

“physician-assisted suicide.” Alternatively, if the doctor injects this medicine into your vein, causing your

death, then the term “active euthanasia” applies. If a doctor allows death to happen; for example, by not

putting a person on a respirator, by taking someone off a respirator, or by not resuscitating a person whose

heart has stopped, this care strategy is called “passive euthanasia”: that is, allowing death to occur by

withholding or withdrawing treatment. Medical professionals do not label the practice of allowing a

patient to die as euthanasia.

 

REF: 351-353

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Explain the five stages of death, as developed by Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

Kubler-Ross developed one of the first descriptions of the dying process from the point of view of the modern

patient. She did so by speaking with patients who faced death from cancer. Kubler-Ross described five

stages that her patients went through before they died.

 

  1. First, people deny that they are dying. They say, “Not me.” They may believe that the doctor has the

wrong X-rays or someone else’s tests. They may go from specialist to specialist looking for a new

diagnosis. They may not even hear the doctor tell them they have a fatal illness.

  1. Second, people feel angry. They begin to believe that they will die. “Why me?” they ask. At this

point, people blame the doctors or their spouse or God for their illness.

  1. Third, they begin to bargain. They say, “Yes, me, but …” and try to make deals with the hospital staff.

They may promise to be a good patient and to follow doctor’s orders, if only they will get better. They may

bargain with God, promising to go to religious services or to live a more pious life. They may bargain with

God for one more summer at the cottage, or for enough time to see a child get married, a grandchild born, or

to have their next birthday.

  1. Fourth, they feel depressed. Their illness gets worse, and they know they will die. They say, “Yes,

me,” and they feel a great sadness. Kubler-Ross says that depression has two stages. In the first stage,

people mourn present losses—the loss of family, career, and the things they love, such as a home, car, or

cottage. In the second stage, they mourn future losses—the loss of good times to come, the chance to see

children or grandchildren grow up, and other future events. People start to say goodbye at this stage.

  1. Fifth, people accept death. They say, “My time is close now … it’s okay.” They say goodbye to

family and friends and die in peace.

 

REF: 342-343

 

  1. Interview someone about euthanasia. How does he/she feel about it? Should Canada legalize euthanasia?

Why or why not?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

Students should provide the person’s definition of euthanasia, and how the person understands the concept of

euthanasia. Also, the goal of the essay is for the student to come to understand the concept of the process of

euthanasia, and to see how other individuals perceive the process of when and why euthanasia should be

legalized or not in Canada.

 

REF: 351-353

 

  1. Interview someone who has a living will. What types of advanced directives are included? Who has the

individual appointed as his/her surrogate or spokesperson? Has the individual discussed the directives with

the surrogate/spokesperson? How did the individual decide what information to include in the living will?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

The goal of this essay is to assist the student to become familiar with the concept of a living will. He/she

will learn about the types of wishes, or advanced directives, that a person includes in his/her living will, and

why he/she chose the directives and person he/she has chosen as his/her spokesperson.

 

REF: 347