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Anatomy and Physiology 9th Edition Patton Thibodeau Test Bank

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Anatomy and Physiology 9th Edition Patton Thibodeau Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323298834

ISBN-10: 0323298834

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Anatomy and Physiology 9th Edition Patton Thibodeau Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323298834

ISBN-10: 0323298834

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 9th Edition

 

Chapter 42: Urinary System

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following is (are) classified as an accessory organ of the urinary system?

 

  1. Ureters
  2. Urinary bladder
  3. Urethra
  4. All of the above

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Introduction

 

  1. The shape of the kidney could best be described as _____-shaped.

 

  1. bean
  2. pear
  3. pea
  4. potato

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The calyces of the kidney join together to form a large collection reservoir called the:

 

  1. renal columns.
  2. renal pyramids.
  3. renal pelvis.
  4. hilum.

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. There are how many openings in the urinary bladder?

 

  1. One
  2. Two
  3. Three
  4. Four

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urinary Bladder

 

  1. The function of the urinary bladder is to:

 

  1. serve as a reservoir for urine before it leaves the body.
  2. expel urine from the body, aided by the urethra.
  3. help concentrate the urine in periods of dehydration.
  4. do both A and B.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. One difference between the male urethra and the female urethra is the male urethra is:

 

  1. shorter.
  2. part of two different body systems.
  3. unique in that there are no additional ducts that merge with it.
  4. both B and C.

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. At the beginning of the “plumbing system” of the urinary system, urine leaving the renal papilla is collected in the cuplike structures called:

 

  1. renal columns.
  2. renal pyramids.
  3. calyces.
  4. ureters.

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Urine is conducted from the kidney to the urinary bladder through a tube called the:

 

  1. renal column.
  2. renal pelvis.
  3. urethra.
  4. ureter.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Substances travel from the glomerulus into Bowman capsule by the process of:

 

  1. diffusion.
  2. active transport.
  3. filtration.
  4. osmosis.

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. Of all the blood pumped per minute by the heart, approximately ____ goes through the kidneys.

 

  1. 1/5
  2. 1/3
  3. 1/2
  4. 3/4

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Cells called podocytes make up the:

 

  1. parietal layer of Bowman capsule.
  2. visceral layer of Bowman capsule.
  3. glomerulus.
  4. proximal tubule.

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The portion of the nephron that empties into a calyx is the:

 

  1. distal tubule.
  2. loop of Henle.
  3. collecting tubule.
  4. proximal tubule.

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Which of the following is not a part of the glomerular-capsular membrane?

 

  1. Parietal layer of Bowman capsule
  2. Visceral layer of Bowman capsule
  3. Glomerular endothelium
  4. Basement membrane

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. A portion of the nephron that can lie within the medulla is the:

 

  1. proximal tubule.
  2. Bowman capsule.
  3. distal tubule.
  4. loop of Henle.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Approximately how much blood flows through the kidneys per minute?

 

  1. 500 ml
  2. 750 ml
  3. 1200 ml
  4. 3500 ml

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. In the kidney, blood flows from the interlobular artery into the:

 

  1. glomerulus.
  2. efferent arteriole.
  3. afferent arteriole.
  4. peritubular capillaries.

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Reabsorption, as performed in the kidney, may be defined as the:

 

  1. movement of molecules out of the tubule and into the peritubular blood.
  2. movement of molecules out of the peritubular blood and into the tubule for excretion.
  3. movement of water and solutes from the plasma in the glomerulus, across the glomerular-capsular membrane, and into the capsular space of Bowman capsule.
  4. volume of plasma from which a substance is removed by the kidney per minute.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. Which of these statements is not true of the kidney?

 

  1. The kidney is usually located next to the vertebrae from T12 to L3.
  2. The kidney is retroperitoneal.
  3. The kidney is protected by a heavy layer of fat.
  4. All of the above are true of the kidney.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Which of the following is not a normal function of the kidneys?

 

  1. Synthesize prostaglandins
  2. Regulate blood sugar
  3. Produce hormones
  4. Regulate blood electrolytes

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. The normal osmotic pressure of the capsular filtrate is _____ mm Hg.

 

  1. 60
  2. 32
  3. 18
  4. 0

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. A drop in systemic blood pressure would cause the filtration rate to:

 

  1. increase.
  2. decrease.
  3. stay the same.
  4. vary depending on the level of AHD in the blood.

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. The ion most likely to be reabsorbed after the reabsorption of sodium ions is:

 

  1. potassium.
  2. chloride.
  3. phosphate.
  4. both B and C.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Under normal conditions, most nutrients are reabsorbed in which portion of the nephron?

 

  1. Proximal tubule
  2. Ascending loop of Henle
  3. Distal tubule
  4. Collecting tubule

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Regarding reabsorption in the proximal tubules, which of the following statements is not true?

 

  1. Sodium is actively transported out of the tubule fluid and into the blood.
  2. Chloride ions are actively transported into the blood plasma.
  3. Glucose and amino acids are transported with sodium and passively move out of the tubule fluid by means of the sodium cotransport mechanism.
  4. About half of the urea present in the tubule fluid passively moves out of the tubule, leaving half the urea to move on to the loop of Henle.

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Which of the following is the approximate threshold level for the reabsorption of glucose?

 

  1. 100 mg/100 ml
  2. 300 mg/100 ml
  3. 200 mg/100 ml
  4. 250 mg/100 ml

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. The substance most often measured to determine normal kidney function is:

 

  1. creatinine.
  2. glucose.
  3. sodium.
  4. potassium.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Indicators of Renal Dysfunction

 

  1. The portion of the nephron tubule that is essentially always impermeable to water is the:

 

  1. proximal tubule.
  2. distal tubule.
  3. collecting tubule.
  4. ascending loop of Henle.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Filtrate in which part of the nephron tubule has the highest osmolality?

 

  1. Proximal tubule
  2. Ascending loop of Henle
  3. Descending loop of Henle
  4. Distal tubule

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Urine formation involves all the following processes except:

 

  1. filtration.
  2. catabolism.
  3. reabsorption.
  4. secretion.

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true of the ureter?

 

  1. The ureter is approximately 28 cm long.
  2. The ureter conducts urine inferiorly from the kidney to the bladder.
  3. The ureter is composed of two layers of tissue—an inner mucous layer and an outer fibrous layer.
  4. All of the above are true of the ureter.

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. When aldosterone is released, secretion of _____ occurs.

 

  1. ammonium
  2. hydrogen
  3. potassium
  4. sodium

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Tubular Secretions

 

  1. In the ascending limb of Henle:

 

  1. sodium and chloride are reabsorbed from the tubule fluid.
  2. the tubule fluid becomes dilute (hypotonic).
  3. antidiuretic hormone causes the cells to become more permeable to water.
  4. both A and B occur.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. ADH has the greatest effect on the reabsorption of water in the:

 

  1. proximal tubule.
  2. ascending loop of Henle.
  3. descending loop of Henle.
  4. distal tubule.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. The movement of substances out of the _____ best describes secretion in the formation of urine.

 

  1. blood into the tubule
  2. blood into Bowman capsule
  3. tubules into interstitial fluids
  4. glomerulus into the tubules

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Tubular Secretions

 

  1. Which of the following ions is not normally secreted into the distal or collecting tubules?

 

  1. Potassium
  2. Hydrogen
  3. Ammonium
  4. Sodium

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Tubular Secretions

 

  1. The movement of molecules out of the tubules and into the peritubular blood defines:

 

  1. glomerular filtration.
  2. secretion.
  3. micturition.
  4. reabsorption.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. In which parts of the nephron do all of the following functions occur: passive reabsorption, active reabsorption, passive secretion, and active secretion?

 

  1. Proximal tubule and the renal corpuscle
  2. Collecting duct and the distal tubule
  3. Collecting duct and the ascending limb of Henle
  4. Collecting duct and the descending limb of Henle

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Summary of Nephron Function

 

  1. Water will move by osmosis only in the presence of ADH in the:

 

  1. distal tubule.
  2. collecting duct.
  3. ascending limb of Henle.
  4. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Which of the following is not a normal constituent of urine?

 

  1. Nitrogenous wastes
  2. Hormones
  3. Pigments
  4. Plasma proteins

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urine Composition

 

  1. The percentage of water in urine is approximately _____%.

 

  1. 55
  2. 65
  3. 80
  4. 95

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urine Composition

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true?

 

  1. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney.
  2. The right kidney is often slightly larger than the left kidney.
  3. The kidneys extend above the level of the twelfth rib.
  4. The kidneys are retroperitoneal.

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Which of the following structures does not enter or leave through the hilum of the kidney?

 

  1. Calyx
  2. Renal artery
  3. Renal vein
  4. Ureter

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the proximal tubule?

 

  1. Highly convoluted
  2. Nearest to Bowman capsule
  3. Second part of the renal tubules
  4. Contains microvilli

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. If the Tmax for glucose in the nephron was 300 mg/100 ml and a person had blood glucose level of 380 mg/100 ml, there would be:

 

  1. 300 mg/100 ml of glucose in the urine.
  2. 80 mg/100 ml of glucose in the urine.
  3. 80 mg/100 ml of glucose in the blood leaving the kidney.
  4. both A and C.

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. The nitrogenous wastes in the urine are usually the result of protein catabolism. They include all except:

 

  1. urea.
  2. ammonia.
  3. creatinine.
  4. amino acids.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urine Composition

 

  1. A good description of the urinary system function is that it:

 

  1. produces urine.
  2. balances blood plasma.
  3. maintains the dynamic consistency of the internal fluid environment.
  4. does all of the above.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Introduction

 

  1. What is the first branch of the segmental artery?

 

  1. Interlobar arteries
  2. Afferent arterioles
  3. Lobar arteries
  4. Arcuate arteries

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Vessels of the Kidneys

 

  1. Which blood vessels empty into the glomerulus?

 

  1. Interlobar arteries
  2. Afferent arterioles
  3. Lobar arteries
  4. Arcuate arteries

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. Which blood vessel drains the vasa recta?

 

  1. Lobar vein
  2. Arcuate vein
  3. Interlobular vein
  4. Both B and C

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. Fluid in the nephron would flow through these structures in which order?

 

  1. Proximal tubule, loop of Henle, bowman capsule, distal tubule, collecting duct
  2. Bowman capsule, loop of Henle, proximal tubule, distal tubule, collecting duct
  3. Bowman capsule, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, collecting duct
  4. None of the above are in the correct order.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure

 

  1. Which structure of the kidney narrows as it exits the kidney to become the ureter?

 

  1. Renal pyramids
  2. Renal pelvis
  3. Renal columns
  4. Hilum

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. In the average bladder, what amount of urine would cause a moderately distended sensation and the desire to void?

 

  1. 250 ml
  2. 100 ml
  3. 600 ml
  4. 150 ml

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Micturition

 

  1. The mechanism for voiding begins with:

 

  1. the relaxation of the internal sphincter.
  2. the contraction of the muscles of the bladder.
  3. the relaxation of the external sphincter.
  4. a parasympathetic impulse sent to the bladder.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Micturition

 

  1. Which nitrogenous waste is the most abundant found in urine?

 

  1. Uric acid
  2. Urea
  3. Ammonia
  4. Creatinine

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Composition of Urine

 

  1. Which hormone tends to increase the amount of urine produced?

 

  1. ANH
  2. Aldosterone
  3. ADH
  4. Both B and C

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Which hormone tends to decrease the amount of urine produced?

 

  1. ANH
  2. Aldosterone
  3. ADH
  4. Both B and C

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. As the amount of sodium reabsorbed by the distal convoluted tubule increases, the amount of _____ increases.

 

  1. potassium ions absorbed also
  2. hydrogen ions absorbed also
  3. potassium ions secreted
  4. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Tubular Secretions

 

  1. If the glomerular hydrostatic pressure is 67 mm Hg, the glomerular osmotic pressure is 28 mm Hg, the capsular hydrostatic pressure is 17 mm Hg, and the capsular osmotic pressure is 0 mm Hg, the effective filtration pressure (EFP) would be _____ mm Hg.

 

  1. 22
  2. 56
  3. 78
  4. There is not enough information to determine the EFP.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. What effect do aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) have on urine volume?

 

  1. Because water reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules doesn’t require ADH, the aldosterone mechanism must work separately from the ADH mechanism to maintain homeostasis of the fluid content in the body.
  2. Both aldosterone and ADH decrease distal and collecting tubule absorption of sodium, which in turn causes an osmotic imbalance that drives the reabsorption of water from the tubule.
  3. Because water reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules requires ADH, the aldosterone mechanism must work in concert with the ADH mechanism if homeostasis of the fluid content in the body is to be maintained.
  4. Both aldosterone and ADH increase distal and collecting tubule absorption of sodium, which in turn causes an osmotic imbalance that stops the reabsorption of water from the tubule.

 

ANS: C

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. What effect on the treatment of secondary hypertension would you expect from angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs?

 

  1. When secondary hypertension occurs, the cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete renin, which in turn results in angiotensin production and increased blood pressureRemember, giving ACE inhibitors may reduce the production of angiotensin and lower the blood pressure.
  2. Secondary hypertension is caused by stenosis of the renal arteryRemember, ACE inhibitors will relax the vessel, thus reducing blood pressure.
  3. Secondary hypertension is caused by stenosis of the renal arteryRemember, ACE inhibitors will decrease atherosclerotic plaque and result in a lower blood pressure.
  4. ACE inhibitors will not have any effect on secondary hypertension.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Secondary Hypertension

 

  1. Why would the response of the kidney to arteriosclerosis actually compound the problem of hypertension?

 

  1. When the kidney responds to narrowing of a renal artery due to this disease, it will not cause any changes in kidney function or status.
  2. When the kidney responds to widening of a renal artery due to this disease, it will cause an increase in blood pressure and an increase in kidney perfusion.
  3. When the kidney responds to narrowing of a renal artery due to this disease, it will cause a decrease in blood pressure and possibly even death.
  4. When the kidney responds to narrowing of a renal artery due to this disease, it will cause an increase in blood pressure and ischemia of kidney tissues.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Hypertension

 

  1. Which statement best explains the process of filtration in the nephron?

 

  1. Filtration occurs as a result of passive and active transport mechanisms from all parts of the renal tubules; a major portion of reabsorption occurs in the proximal tubule.
  2. Filtration is the movement of molecules out of peritubular blood and into the tubule for excretion.
  3. Filtration is the movement of molecules out of the tubule and into peritubular blood.
  4. Filtration is the movement of water and protein-free solutes from plasma in the glomerulus into the capsular space of Bowman capsule.

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. If a person becomes dehydrated, which hormone would you expect to find in high concentration in the blood?

 

  1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  2. Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
  3. Para-aminohippurate acid (PAH)
  4. Prolactin (PRL)

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Which statement best explains why the insertion of a urinary catheter would be an ineffective treatment for renal suppression?

 

  1. Renal suppression occurs when effective filtration pressure falls to zero and the kidneys shut downRemember, a urinary catheter would not help this situation.
  2. Renal suppression occurs when effective filtration pressure is elevated and urine production is increased, thus allowing free-flowing urine. A urinary catheter isn’t needed in this situation.
  3. Renal suppression occurs when there is a disruption of nervous input to the bladder, resulting in loss of control of voiding. A urinary catheter would not be a treatment for the condition.
  4. Renal suppression is caused by a urinary tract infection, and a urinary catheter would not be effective in treating this condition.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. Which statement identifies two blood indicators of renal dysfunction and best explains why they can be as such?

 

  1. Increased urea and creatinine levels in the blood indicate the inability of the kidney to filter creatinine and urea.
  2. Glucose in urine and complete blood count elevations indicate the kidney’s inability to produce red blood cells.
  3. pH and specific gravity elevation indicate kidney dysfunction because an increase in solutes prevents the kidney from filtering correctly.
  4. Albumin and acetone decreases indicate that the kidney is unable to reabsorb these in the loop of Henle.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Blood Indicators of Renal Dysfunction

 

  1. Which best explains why a person who has uncontrolled diabetes mellitus voids a large amount of urine?

 

  1. Excess glucose “spills over” into urine, thereby decreasing the solute concentration of urine (and decreasing the solute concentration of plasma), which in turn leads to diuresis.
  2. Excess glucose “spills over” into urine, thereby increasing the solute concentration of urine (and decreasing the solute concentration of plasma), which in turn leads to diuresis.
  3. Low levels of insulin stimulate the kidney to not reabsorb water in the tubules.
  4. Decreased glucose is caused by withdrawal of sugar from urine, causing an increase in urine production.

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. Within the male urethra, how is urine prevented from mixing with semen during ejaculation?

 

  1. Conscious control of a sphincter muscle guarding the bladder opening
  2. Contraction of the detrusor muscle of the bladder
  3. By the urinary meatus
  4. Reflex closure of sphincter muscles guarding the bladder opening

 

ANS: D

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Urethra

 

  1. The microvilli on the luminal surface of each epithelial cell in the proximal tubule wall will:

 

  1. form a brush border that increases absorptive surface area of the entire inner surface of the proximal tubule.
  2. form an electrical gradient that drives the diffusion of negative ions from the filtrate into the interstitial fluid.
  3. participate in the countercurrent mechanism, which allows the contents to flow in opposite directions.
  4. increase the secretory surface area of the entire inner surface of the proximal tubule.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. Which of the following is not a primary function of the loop of Henle?

 

  1. The loop of Henle reabsorbs water from the tubule fluid in its descending limb.
  2. In addition to reabsorption, the loop of Henle secretes hydrogen ions.
  3. By reabsorbing salt from its ascending limb, it makes the tubule fluid hypotonic.
  4. Reabsorption of salt in the ascending limb also creates and maintains a high osmotic pressure.

 

ANS: B

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle

 

  1. Autoregulation of glomerular filtration by tubuloglomerular feedback helps protect the kidney:

 

  1. from rapid systemic arterial pressure variations that would otherwise cause large glomerular filtration rate changes.
  2. from rapid systemic venous pressure variations that would otherwise cause large glomerular filtration rate changes.
  3. by contracting the walls of the efferent arterioles, thus increasing systemic blood pressure.
  4. by relaxing the walls of the efferent arterioles, thus reducing systemic blood pressure.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Terry has lupus erythematosus and has been complaining of feelings of urgency, pain in urination, and the appearance of blood in the urine. More than likely, Terry is suffering from:

 

  1. interstitial cystitis.
  2. renal calculi.
  3. renal ptosis.
  4. renal sarcoma.

 

ANS: A

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Glomerular Disorders

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. A cushion of fat normally encases a kidney and helps hold it in position.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Generally, the right kidney is larger than the left kidney.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Each renal papilla juts into a cuplike structure called the renal pyramid.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The outer portion of the kidney is referred to as the cortex.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. There are three openings in the floor of the urinary bladder—two from the ureters and one into the urethra.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The urinary meatus is the tube leading from the bladder to the exterior.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. In both males and females, the urethra serves urinary and reproductive functions.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The principle organs of the urinary system are the kidneys.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. A glomerulus is a group of capillaries located in a Bowman capsule.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The capsular space is a microscopic space between the glomerulus and the parietal layer of Bowman capsule.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The renal corpuscle is another name for the nephron.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure

 

  1. The kidney could best be described as pear-shaped.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The kidneys are located in the right and left iliac regions of the abdomen.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The outer portion of the kidney is called the medulla.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. As the basic functional unit of the kidney, the nephron’s function is blood plasma processing and urine formation.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Blood leaves the glomerulus through efferent arterioles and then moves into peritubular capillaries.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. Blood leaves the glomerulus through efferent venules.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. Blood enters the glomerulus through afferent arterioles.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. The renal tubule is made up of simple squamous and simple cuboidal epithelium.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure

 

  1. The kidneys influence secretion of the hormone aldosterone.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. A hydrostatic pressure gradient causes fluids to move from the glomerulus into Bowman capsule.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. A hydrostatic pressure gradient drives the filtration of much of the plasma into the nephron.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. When compared with most other capillaries in the body, the capillaries in the glomerulus have many more pores.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. Glomerular endothelium is similar to tissue capillary endothelium in that both have approximately the same number of pores, or fenestrations.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. The reabsorption of electrolytes by the peritubular capillaries will cause obligatory water reabsorption.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. When the mean arterial blood pressure doublesRemember, does glomerular filtration.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. The kidney filters out only harmful and excess material.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. Glomerular hydrostatic pressure and filtration are directly related to systemic blood pressure.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. Filtrate in the descending limb of the Henle loop has the highest osmolality.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Both ADH and aldosterone attempt to decrease normal urine output.

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Creatinine is often measured to determine normal kidney function.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Indicators of Renal Dysfunction

 

  1. Urine consists of approximately 75% water.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urinary Composition

 

  1. Glycosuria refers to blood in the urine.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Glucose in the Urine

 

  1. In the proximal tubule of the nephron, glucose and amino acids are transported with sodium and actively move out of the tubule fluid by means of the sodium cotransport mechanism.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Both sodium and glucose are moved into the peritubular capillaries by the active transport process.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. With increased ADH, urine becomes hypotonic to blood.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. An increase in ADH causes a decrease in the osmolarity of urine.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Aldosterone tends to increase urine volume, thereby promoting water loss.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. ADH and aldosterone both attempt to decrease urine output.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. An increase in solutes in the urine will cause an increase in the urine output.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. A person with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus will have a higher-than-normal solute concentration in the urine.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. The volume of urine is normally determined by the glomerular filtration rate.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Freshly voided urine is generally acidic.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Characteristics of Urine

 

  1. About 10% of the blood pumped by the heart per minute goes to the kidneys.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Vessels of the Kidneys

 

  1. The urinary system can be seen as a urine producer and a blood plasma balancer.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Introduction

 

  1. The connective tissue that anchors the kidney to the surrounding structures is called the renal cortex.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The renal pyramids are in the medulla of the kidney.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The calyx surrounds the renal papilla.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Kidney disease can be diagnosed by taking a tissue sample by means of a needle biopsy.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Kidney Biopsy

 

  1. In the blood vessels in the kidney, lobar arterioles divide to become segmental arterioles.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The kidney is similar to the hepatic portal system because it has a venule connecting two capillary beds—the glomerulus and the peritubular capillaries.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The renal artery branches directly from the abdominal aorta.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Gravity moves urine from the kidney to the bladder through the ureter.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Ureter

 

  1. The fibrous adventitia covers only the superior surface of the bladder; the rest is covered by the parietal peritoneum.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urinary Bladder

 

  1. The detrusor muscle is the name given to the smooth muscle that makes up the bladder.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urinary Bladder

 

  1. Contraction of the bladder and relaxation of the internal sphincter are controlled by the sympathetic nervous system.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Micturition

 

  1. The proximal tubule is called “proximal” because it is nearest to Bowman capsule.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. One factor that influences the hydrostatic pressure of the glomerulus is the difference in diameter between the efferent and afferent arterioles.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. The myogenic mechanism helps regulate GFR by regulating the diameter of the efferent arterioles.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Nitrogen wastes are removed only by the urinary system.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Excretion

 

  1. Electrolytes are excreted by both the urinary and integumentary systems.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Excretion

 

  1. The respiratory system is the only system that removes carbon dioxide from the body.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Excretion

 

  1. The kidneys are surrounded by fat and are enclosed by the parietal peritoneum.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The hilum is a concave notch on the lateral side of the kidney.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Structures such as the ureter and blood vessels enter and leave the kidney through the hilum.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The blood vessel that surrounds the loop of Henle is called the vasa recta.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure

 

  1. The urinary bladder is a collapsible bag located behind the symphysis pubis.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The folds in the bladder wall are called rugae.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The bladder has two main functions: to serve as a reservoir for urine until it leaves the body and, aided by the urethra, expels urine from the body

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urinary Bladder

 

  1. The transitional epithelium that lines the bladder wall is one factor that allows the bladder to distend.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The three openings on the bladder floor make up the trigone.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The prostatic urethra is found only in men.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Micturition is the process of voiding urine.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The mechanism of voiding urine begins with the involuntary relaxation of the external sphincter muscle.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The male urethra is about twice as long as the female urethra.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The kidney and bladder are the principal organs of the urinary system.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. When urine “backs up,” causing swelling in the renal pelvis and calyces, the condition is called hydronephrosis.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Proteinuria can indicate damage in the glomerular-capsular membrane.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The primary cilium of the epithelial cells lining the renal tubules act as mechanoreceptors to regulate the flow of filtrate through the tube.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The function of the slit diaphragm is to prevent the filtration slits from closing under pressure.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The fenestrations increase the porosity of the glomerulus.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The proximal tubule is the second part of the nephron but the first part of the renal tubules.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Just as in the lumen of the small intestine, the lumen of the proximal tubule has microvilli.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. In the loop of Henle, the descending limb is thicker than the ascending limb.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus release renin.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Renin is released in response to a rise in blood pressure in the afferent arteriole.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The macula densa is considered a mechanoreceptor.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The macula densa is considered a chemoreceptor.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The renal fasciae anchor the kidney to surrounding structures.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Urea is a nitrogenous waste product excreted by the kidney.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. Intense exercise causes temporary proteinuria. This is caused by minor kidney damage from the intense exercise.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Changes in Glomerular Filtration Rate

 

  1. Intense exercise causes temporary proteinuria. This is probably caused by an increase in permeability of the nephron’s filtration membrane.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Changes in Glomerular Filtration Rate

 

  1. Most reabsorption occurs in the loop of Henle.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. The loop of Henle and the vasa recta have a countercurrent structure.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. The ion pumps in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle can maintain an osmotic difference of 400 mOsm across the wall of the tubule.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. The descending limb of the loop of Henle is usually in osmotic equilibrium with the interstitial fluid.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. The fluid at the top of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is about 100 mOsm, which makes it hypertonic to most other body fluids.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. Just like the kidneys, the ureters are retroperitoneal.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. The yellowish pigment in the urine is derived from the breakdown of old red blood cells.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urinary Composition

 

  1. The osmolality of the urine excreted by the body can be as high as the osmolality in the medulla’s interstitial fluid.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. A hormone that affects reabsorption in the kidney is made in the wall of the heart.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. ANH reinforces and adds to the effect of aldosterone.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. The urochrome pigments impart a yellowish color to the urine.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Urinary Composition

 

  1. In the average bladder, about 500 ml of urine causes moderate distention and a desire to void.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Micturition

 

  1. Chronic kidney failure is a condition that progresses through four stages; the last one is called uremic syndrome.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Renal and Urinary Disorders

 

  1. Mesangial cells may have the same role in the nephron as the glia cells do in the nervous system.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Mesangial cells may have a role in regulating blood flow through the glomerular loop.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The interlobular artery carries blood directly to the glomerulus.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. Voiding and micturition refer to the same process.

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Micturition

 

  1. Just as in the bladder, the ureter is lined with transitional epithelium, which allows it to stretch without damage.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Ureter

 

  1. About 85% of the nephrons are juxtamedullary nephron, which means that the Henle loop extends into the medulla of the kidney.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Podocytes on the parietal walls of Bowman capsule help support the slit diaphragms that allow filtrate to leave the blood and enter Bowman capsule.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Bowman Capsule

 

  1. The juxtaglomerular apparatus has components in both the distal convoluted tubule and the afferent arterioles.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Distal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. The collecting duct receives filtrate from many different nephrons.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Collecting Duct

 

  1. One important function of the slit diaphragms is the prevention of large molecules such as proteins from passing through.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Bowman Capsule

 

  1. If the Tmax for glucose was 300 mg/100 ml and a person had a glucose of 325 mg/100 ml, that person would have a glucose level of 25 mg/100 ml in the blood leaving the kidney and 300 mg/100 ml in the urine.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. Glomerular osmotic pressure and capsular osmotic pressure are equally important in determining the GFR.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. Negative ions such as chloride and phosphate are pulled out of the filtrate by the positive charge established by the sodium that was actively transported into the blood.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. Even though urea is a waste product, it is reabsorbed into the blood in the proximal convoluted tubule.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. The parts of the nephron most effected by the hormone ADH are the proximal and distal convoluted tubules.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Ducts

 

  1. Any material such as water or glucose that enters the collecting duct will be lost to the body in the urine.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Ducts

 

  1. As the amount of sodium increases in the blood around the distal convoluted tubule, the amount of potassium or hydrogen ions in the filtrate increases.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Tubular Secretions

 

  1. The tubes of the nephron are about 3 cm long.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure

 

  1. About 180 liters of filtrate is formed each day.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. The sum of glomerular hydrostatic pressure and capsular hydrostatic pressure is the total force driving fluid from the glomerulus into Bowman capsule.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. About 99% of the fluid filtered into Bowman capsule is reabsorbed.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. Three processes are important in the formation of urine: filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. Capsular osmotic pressure can be assumed to be zero.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. Glomerular filtration rate can never be zero.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. Osmosis in the kidney relies on the availability of and proper function of aquaporins.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. As the aldosterone concentration increases, the amount of potassium reabsorbed into the blood increases.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Tubular Secretions

 

  1. Penicillin can be cleared from the blood by tubular secretion.

 

ANS: T

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Tubular Secretions

 

  1. Nitrogenous wastes such as urea, uric acid, and ammonia are lost in the urine, and of these, uric acid is the most abundant.

 

ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Composition of Urine

 

MATCHING

 

Place in correct anatomical order the structures of the pathway of urine leaving the distal tubule, beginning with the number 1.

 

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7

 

  1. Renal papilla

 

  1. Calyx

 

  1. Renal pelvis

 

  1. Collecting duct

 

  1. Ureter

 

  1. Urethra

 

  1. Urinary bladder

 

  1. ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: E

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS: G

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

Starting with the afferent arteriole, place the parts of the nephron in correct anatomical order, beginning with the number 1.

 

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7

 

 

  1. Distal tubule

 

  1. Glomerulus

 

  1. Ascending limb of the loop of Henle

 

  1. Descending limb of the loop of Henle

 

  1. Proximal tubule

 

  1. Bowman capsule

 

  1. Collecting tubules

 

  1. ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: E

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: G

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

Match each of the structures of the nephron with its description, function, or location.

 

  1. Distal convoluted tubule
  2. Glomerulus
  3. Bowman capsule
  4. Loop of Henle
  5. Proximal convoluted tubule
  6. Collecting duct
  7. Peritubular capillary
  8. Vasa recta

 

  1. Tube nearest to Bowman capsule

 

  1. Structure into which the proximal convoluted tubule empties

 

  1. Name given to the blood vessel surrounding the loop of Henle

 

  1. Name given to the blood vessel in Bowman capsule

 

  1. Blood vessel that surrounds the tubules of the nephron

 

  1. Structure other than the collecting duct in which adjustment of blood pH can occur

 

  1. Part of the nephron that establishes a countercurrent multiplier mechanism

 

  1. Cup-shaped structure surrounding the glomerulus

 

  1. ANS: E

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: F

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Loop of Henle

 

  1. ANS: H

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: B

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: G

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS: A

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Summary of Nephron Function

 

  1. ANS: D

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. ANS: C

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

OTHER

 

  1. List functions of the urinary bladder.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. What structures make up the renal corpuscle?

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Outline the flow of blood through the kidney tissue.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Gross Structure

 

  1. Determine the filtration pressure based on the following values:

 

  1. The glomerular hydrostatic pressure is 55 mm Hg.
  2. The glomerular osmotic pressure is 27 mm Hg.
  3. The capsular hydrostatic pressure is 18 mm Hg.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Filtration

 

  1. Explain why a person who has uncontrolled diabetes mellitus voids a large amount of urine.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a popular type of drug used to reduce high blood pressure. They act by preventing the activation of angiotensin. Briefly explain how the drugs can lower blood pressure.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Synthesis

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Trace the movement of filtrate through the nephron from the afferent arteriole to the collecting duct.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Describe the internal structure of the kidney.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Kidney

 

  1. Explain how the loop of Henle establishes a solute concentration gradient from the top of the loop to the bottom of the loop.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle

 

  1. Explain how ADH regulates the amount of urine produced and explain how the loop of Henle allows ADH to increase water absorption.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle | Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Explain how the active transport of sodium out of the nephron tubules acts as the driving force for the passive transport of other materials.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Corky was in a diving accident that resulted in her spinal cord being severed. She was paralyzed from the waist down and, as a result, became incontinent. Her physician was concerned about the continuous residual urine buildup. What was the reason for this concern?

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Synthesis

REF:

TOP: Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. While washing her picture window, Martha sustained a large, deep laceration to her leg when the ladder accidentally crashed through the window as she attempted to reposition it. She experienced a large loss of blood before the paramedics arrived. Her blood pressure was very low, and her heart rate was rapid and thready. The paramedics treated her aggressively with intravenous fluids and pressure to stop any more blood loss. They were also concerned about Martha’s renal function. Why?

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: The Big Picture: Urinary System and the Whole Body

 

  1. It is true that women suffer from urinary bladder infections more often than men do. Why?

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Memorization

REF:

TOP: Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Assume that the nephron is able to return 150 mg/100 ml of glucose back to the blood. If the blood entering the glomerulus contains 192 mg/100 ml of glucose, what is the glucose concentration of the blood leaving the nephron and the concentration of the urine being formed?

 

ANS:

Blood: 150 mg/100 ml of glucose

Urine: 42 mg/100 ml of glucose

 

DIF: Application

REF:

TOP: Reabsorption

 

  1. A person had been working hard on a hot day and had been perspiring freely and drinking very little water. If a blood sample were taken, would you expect ANH or ADH to have the greater concentration? Explain your answer.

 

ANS: Answers will vary.

 

DIF: Synthesis

REF:

TOP: Regulation of Urine Volume

 

 

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