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Basic Nursing 7th Edition Potter Perry Stockert Hall Test Bank

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Basic Nursing 7th Edition Potter Perry Stockert Hall Test Bank

ISBN: 9780323058919

 

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Basic Nursing 7th Edition Potter Perry Stockert Hall Test Bank

ISBN: 9780323058919

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Potter: Basic Nursing, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 21: Growth and Development

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A student nurse who works in a pediatric clinic is assisting with an assessment on a young child who is not yet walking. She knows that it is considered a delayed gross motor ability if the child does not walk by _____ months.
A. 16
B. 18
C. 20
D. 22

 

 

ANS:   C

A critical period of development refers to a specific phase or period when the presence of a function or reasoning has its greatest effect on a specific aspect of development. For example, if a child does not walk by the age of 20 months, there is delayed gross motor ability, which slows exploration and manipulation of the environment. The success or failure experienced within a phase affects the child’s ability to complete the next phases.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    572

OBJ:    Describe the growth and development changes that occur in individuals from conception through old age                              TOP:    Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. According to one growth and development theorist, individuals need to accomplish a particular task before successfully completing the stage of growth and development. Each task is framed with opposing conflicts, such as trust versus mistrust. Who developed this theory?
A. Sigmund Freud
B. Jean Piaget
C. Eric Erikson
D. Lawrence Kohlberg

 

 

ANS:   C

Erik Erikson divided life into eight stages, known as Erikson’s eight stages of development. According to this theory, individuals need to accomplish a particular task before successfully completing the stage. Each task is framed with opposing conflicts, such as trust versus mistrust. Each stage builds upon the successful attainment of the previous developmental conflict.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge             REF:    572

OBJ:    Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists                                    TOP:    Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. This model of personality development is grounded in the belief that two internal biological forces drive the psychological change in a child: sexual (libido) and aggressive energies. Who is responsible for developing this theory?
A. Sigmund Freud
B. Jean Piaget
C. Eric Erikson
D. Lawrence Kohlberg

 

 

ANS:   A

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) provided the first formal structured theory of personality development. Freud’s psychoanalytic model of personality development is grounded in the belief that two internal biological forces drive the psychological change in a child: sexual (libido) and aggressive energies.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge             REF:    572

OBJ:    Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists                                    TOP:    Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Which of the following people developed the theory of cognitive development, which describes children’s intellectual organization and how they think, reason, and perceive the world?
A. Sigmund Freud
B. Jean Piaget
C. Eric Erikson
D. Lawrence Kohlberg

 

 

ANS:   B

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) developed the theory of cognitive development, which describes children’s intellectual organization and how they think, reason, and perceive the world.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge             REF:    573

OBJ:    Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists                                    TOP:    Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. According to one theorist, moral development depends on the child’s ability to accept social responsibility and to integrate personal principles of justice and fairness. Which of the following individuals is responsible for the theory of moral development?
A. Sigmund Freud
B. Jean Piaget
C. Eric Erikson
D. Lawrence Kohlberg

 

 

ANS:   D

According to Kohlberg (1964), moral development is one component of psychosocial development. It involves the reasons an individual makes a decision about right and wrong behaviors within a culture. Moral development depends on the child’s ability to accept social responsibility and to integrate personal principles of justice and fairness.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge             REF:    573

OBJ:    Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists                                    TOP:    Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Margaret has just found out she is pregnant. The nurse at the clinic told her that she should stop smoking, avoid alcohol, and avoid eating king mackerel because of the high mercury content in the fish. Although this advice should be followed during the entire pregnancy, the fetus is most vulnerable to adverse affects in the _____ trimester.
A. first
B. second
C. third
D. final

 

 

ANS:   A

Exposure to potential teratogens can affect fetal development during any of the trimesters; however, vulnerability is increased during the first trimester when fetal cells are differentiating and organs are forming.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    574

OBJ:    Identify factors that promote or interfere with normal growth and development of individuals at each stage of life                 TOP:    Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. A student nurse is in her community health clinical rotation. She is visiting a family with a new baby. Which of the following statements made by the mother of a 1-month-old infant indicates the need for client education?
A. “My baby should double his birth weight by the time he is 6 months old.”
B. “I shouldn’t give my baby any cow’s milk until he is at least a year old.”
C. “My baby has been fussy lately; I believe he is probably cutting his teeth.”
D. “I shouldn’t put my baby on a fluffy pillow to sleep.”

 

 

ANS:   C

The first tooth to erupt is usually one of the lower central incisors at the average age of 7 months. Most babies have six teeth by their first birthday.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    575

OBJ:    Use critical judgment to determine appropriate teaching topics for individual patients across the life span     TOP:               Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. The mother of a toddler is concerned that her son is not eating enough, although he has not lost any weight. She tells the nurse that her son used to have a very good appetite, but now does not eat as much as he did a couple of months ago. What is the best response for the nurse to provide?
A. “You should try to get him to eat, even if it is only cereal.”
B. “He needs a lot of protein for growth during his toddler years.”
C. “Toddlers have periods when they aren’t growing as fast and they don’t need to eat as much.”
D. “Why don’t you let him eat off of your plate instead of making him his own plate.”

 

 

ANS:   C

Slower growth rates often occur with a decrease in caloric needs and a smaller food intake. Confirming the child’s pattern of growth with standard growth charts is reassuring to parents concerned about their toddler’s decreased appetite (physiological anorexia). Encourage parents to offer a variety of nutritious foods, in reasonable servings, for mealtime and snacks.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis                  REF:    576

OBJ:    Use critical judgment to determine appropriate teaching topics for individual patients across the life span     TOP:               Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Kevin is the father of 11-year-old Harry, who is being seen at the clinic for his annual check-up. As part of anticipatory guidance, you instruct Kevin that accidents and injuries are major health problems affecting school age children. Kevin asks what the number one cause of death is in this age group and your response is:
A. drowning.
B. motor vehicle accidents.
C. fire.
D. firearms.

 

 

ANS:   B

Accidents and injuries are major health problems affecting school-age children and are the causative factor in a large number of deaths in this age group. Motor vehicle accidents, followed by drowning, fires, burns, and firearms are the most frequent fatal accidents.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    579

OBJ:    Specify the physical and psychosocial health concerns of infants, children, adolescents, and adults                                    TOP:    Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Margery is the mother of 8-year-old Bonnie. Margery has brought Bonnie in to the health clinic for her annual check-up. She is concerned about the high blood pressure in her family and asks the nurse if there is some way to know if Bonnie is at risk for hypertension. What is the nurse’s best response?
A. “Blood pressure elevation in childhood is the single best predictor of adult hypertension.”
B. “There is no way of knowing because there are so many variables involved.”
C. “If you are concerned about hypertension, you need to keep Bonnie on a low sodium diet.”
D. “Childhood obesity is the single best predictor of adult hypertension.”

 

 

ANS:   A

Blood pressure elevation in childhood is the single best predictor of adult hypertension. This recognition has reinforced the significance of making blood pressure measurement a part of every annual assessment of the child.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    579

OBJ:    Identify specific nursing interventions for the health promotion of patients across the life span      TOP:            Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. The transition from childhood to adulthood, in terms of the psychological maturation of the individual, is known as:
A. puberty.
B. adolescence.
C. menarche.
D. preadolescence.

 

 

ANS:   B

Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, usually between 13 and 18 years of age but sometimes extending until graduation from college. The term adolescence refers to the psychological maturation of the individual.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge             REF:    579

OBJ:    Describe the growth and development changes that occur in individuals from conception through old age                              TOP:    Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. A nurse is caring for a 5-year-old child who is hospitalized for stabilization of asthma. To provide age-specific care, which of the following is the most appropriate action by the nurse?
A. Allowing the child to handle medical equipment
B. Responding immediately to the child’s every need
C. Telling the child he has to be good while in the hospital
D. Rationalizing the child’s complaints as part of the developmental process

 

 

ANS:   A

These strategies can be used to reduce preschooler’s fears when they are hospitalized: allowing children to sit up when performing assessments and procedures; allowing the child to see and handle equipment; allowing the child to assist with the procedure if appropriate; giving simple and factual information to these children because they have a great sense of imagination.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis                  REF:    578

OBJ:    Describe the growth and development changes that occur in individuals from conception through old age                              TOP:    Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. A recent graduate nurse has been assigned to be a primary nurse on a geriatric unit. After completing a review of development and aging, the nurse recalls that changes during the climacteric signify:
A. a transition from middle to late adulthood.
B. the ability of the older adult to achieve sexual arousal.
C. a time when cognitive performance begins to peak in middle age.
D. a decline of reproductive capacity caused by a decrease in sexual hormones.

 

 

ANS:   D

Women experience changes in menstrual cycle, flow, and cervical mucosa. Men experience prostate enlargement. Men can experience a decrease in fertility but may be able to father children. Few changes occur in cognitive development; ability to solve problems is based on past experiences.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge             REF:    584

OBJ:    Specify the physical and psychosocial health concerns of infants, children, adolescents, and adults                                    TOP:    Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. A patient is experiencing incisional pain after an operation. When using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the nurse realizes that for the patient to return to a prehospitalized status, the patient needs to progress beyond:
A. belonging.
B. self-esteem.
C. self actualization.
D. safety and security.

 

 

ANS:   D

Individuals need to satisfy each level before moving on to the next. Belonging occupies the third stage, where threats to relationships create anticipatory loneliness and alienation. Self-esteem occupies the fourth stage, and threats create alienation. Self actualization is the highest level that one can achieve—the realization that one has reached their highest potential. Safety and security occupies the second stage, and threats to security (such as pain) produce feelings of insecurity.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    573

OBJ:    Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists                                    TOP:    Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. A pregnant teenager asks the clinic nurse why she cannot smoke during the first trimester. Remembering growth and development, what is the nurse’s best response?
A. “The distribution of body hair can be altered.”
B. “The organ systems are beginning to develop.”
C. “Development of fingers and toes can be affected.”
D. “The sex of the baby is determined in the first 3 months.”

 

 

ANS:   B

During the first trimester, fetal cells differentiate and develop into essential organ systems. During the second trimester most organs are complete and able to function. During the third trimester, skin thickens, lanugo disappears, and central nervous system is established.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    574

OBJ:    Identify factors that promote or interfere with normal growth and development of individuals at each stage of life                 TOP:    Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. A nurse is conducting a community-based education class. A strategy for positive health habits is:
A. daily monitoring of blood pressure.
B. adhering to a regular exercise regimen.
C. adhering to a daily exercise regimen and abstaining from alcohol consumption.
D. following the most popular diet to control the effects of weight gain.

 

 

ANS:   B

Community health programs are designed to prevent illness, promote health, and detect diseases. Actively plan screening sessions that lend themselves to health teaching and counseling. Regular exercise, a healthy diet, and periodic blood pressure monitoring contribute to a healthy lifestyle.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    589

OBJ:    Identify factors that promote or interfere with normal growth and development of individuals at each stage of life                 TOP:    Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. A patient asks about strategies that can be used to aid in weight reduction. The nurse can inform the patient to follow a well-balanced diet, including selections of low-fat foods such as:
A. grilled chicken.
B. hot dog with relish.
C. hamburger and French fries.
D. baked potato with bacon and cheese.

 

 

ANS:   A

Refer to the food guide pyramid for healthy choices. Young, middle age, and older adults are interested and want to be informed about health practices.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    591

OBJ:    Use critical judgment to determine appropriate teaching topics for individual patients across the life span     TOP:               Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. A 90-year-old patient constantly tells the nurse stories about life many years ago. The nurse encourages this behavior because reminiscence or life review ____________________.

 

ANS:

is a technique that facilitates an individual’s preparation for the end of life

 

Reminiscence, or life review, is a technique that facilitates an individual’s preparation for the end of life. It is an adaptive function of older adults that allows them to recall the past for the purpose of assigning new meaning to past experiences.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis                  REF:    587

OBJ:    Use knowledge of growth and development to enhance use of the nursing process for individuals across the life span     TOP:    Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Postmenopausal women are at risk for skeletal changes. When developing a plan of care, a nurse should remember to teach patients that weight-bearing exercises _________________.

 

ANS:

help to reduce the loss of bone mass experienced by postmenopausal women related to decrease in hormones

 

When middle-age adults seek health care, nurses need to develop goals for positive health behaviors. For example, women need to increase the calcium in their diets to decrease the risk for osteoporosis. Simple things like increasing dietary calcium and calcium supplements are effective. In addition, exercise and fitness clubs, for example, give men and women the opportunity to participate in many physical activities. These activities help improve balance, coordination, and activity tolerance.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    588

OBJ:    Use critical judgment to determine appropriate teaching topics for individual patients across the life span     TOP:               Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. A pediatric nurse is caring for a group of 6 and 7 year olds. The nurse remembers that, according to Kohlberg, moral development is a component of psychosocial development. Moral development depends on the child’s ability to do which of the following? Select all that apply.
A. Integrate social responsibility
B. Have absolute obedience to adults in authority
C. Integrate principles of justice and fairness
D. Integrate decisions of right and wrong

 

 

ANS:   A, B, C

Children learn to cope with rules and expectations of school and peers.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    573

OBJ:    Compare the frameworks for growth and development as described by major developmental theorists                                    TOP:    Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. A nurse is performing an admission assessment on a middle age patient. A normal change seen in this age-group includes which of the following? Select all that apply.
A. Graying and loss of hair
B. Decreased hearing acuity
C. Decreased function of cranial nerves
D. Decreased strength of abdominal muscles
E. Loss of accommodation

 

 

ANS:   A, B, D, E

The cranial nerves, motor responses, and sensory system remain intact.

 

PTS:    1                      DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    583

OBJ:    Describe the growth and development changes that occur in individuals from conception through old age                              TOP:    Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:   Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

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