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Biological Science 5th Edition Freeman Quillin Allison Instructors Manual

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Biological Science 5th Edition Freeman Quillin Allison Instructors Manual

ISBN-13: 978-0321841803 ISBN-13: 978-0321841803

 

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Biological Science 5th Edition Freeman Quillin Allison Instructors Manual

ISBN-13: 978-0321841803 ISBN-13: 978-0321841803

 

 

 

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CHAPTER
Population Ecology
54
Learning Objectives: Students should be able to…
• Use life tables to describe how likely it is that individuals in each age class in a population
will survive and reproduce.
• Calculate the growth rate of a population from life-table data or from direct observation of
changes in population size over time.
• Describe the variety of patterns in population size changes over time.
• Explain the link between understanding population dynamics and applying the data to
endangered species.
Lecture Outline
• A population is a group of individuals from the same species that live in the same area at
the same time.
• Population ecology is the study of how and why the number of individuals in a population
changes over
time.

I. Distribution and Abundance
1. Abiotic and biotic factors both determine the range of a species.
2. The range of a species can also be considered at different scales.
a. The population density of the common lizard varies throughout its range.
(Fig. 54.1)
3. In general individual organisms can be arranged in different patterns.
a. random—position of each individual is independent of the others
b. clumped—organisms associate in groups
c. uniform—even distribution usually associated with competition
4. A metapopulation is a population of populations connected by migration.
5. Immobile organisms are easy to assess by using quatrats or transects and simply
counting individuals.
6. Mobile animals are more difficult to assess. Mark-recapture studies are one method.
(Quantitative Methods 54.1)
a. The relationship between marked and unmarked individuals can be expressed as
m2/n2 = m1/N. (Eq. 54.1)
b. m1 is the number of animals marked in the first sample; m2 is the number of marked
individuals in the second sample; n2 is the total number of individuals in the second
sample; N is the total population size.
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
555
7. Students should be able to complete this example: Suppose researchers marked 255
animals and later were able to trap a total of 162 individuals, of which 78 were
marked. What is the estimate for the total population size?
II. Demography
A. Demography is the study of factors that determine the size and structure of populations
through time.
1. Analyzing birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and emigration rates is fundamental
to demography.

2.
A
generation is the average
time between
a mother’s
first offspring
and
her daughter’s

first
offspring.
B. Life tables
1. Formal demographic analyses of populations are based on a type of data set called a
life table, which summarizes the probability that an individual will survive and reproduce
in any
given year
over
the course of its lifetime.

2.
Lacerta vivipara:
a case study

a.
Researchers
set
out to estimate the life table
of a low-elevation population of
L.
vivipara
in the Netherlands with the goal
of
comparing
the results to data from

other
L.
vivipara
populations.

b.
The
data allowed them
to calculate the number
of individuals that survived each
year
as well as the number
of
individuals
produced per
female.
(Table
54.1)
(1)
An
age class is
a group of
individuals
of a
given age.
3.
Survivorship

a.
Survivorship
is
the proportion
of offspring
produced
that
survive, on
average, to a

particular
age (lx,
where x
represents the age
class
being considered).
b.
Survivorship
is
calculated by
dividing
the
number
of individuals
in
a given age
class
by
the number
of individuals that existed as offspring: lx
= Nx
/No.
(Quantitative
Methods 54.2,
Eq. 54.2)

c.

To recognize general patterns in survivorship and make comparisons among populations
or species, biologists
plot the logarithm
of the number
of survivors versus

age,
which is called a survivorship curve.
(Fig.
54.2;
BioSkills
6 in
Appendix B)

(1)
Type
I curve:
Survivorship
throughout
life
is high.
(2) Type II curve: Constant mortality occurs throughout life.
(3) Type III curve: The death rate is high early in life.
4. Fecundity
a. Fecundity is the number of female offspring produced by each female in the population.

b.
The
net reproductive
rate of a population
is calculated as:
R0
= Σ
lx
mx.
(Quantitative
Methods 54.2,
Eq. 54.3)

c.

Lifetime reproduction is a function of fecundity at each age (mx) and survivorship to
each age class (lx). If R0 is greater than 1, the population is increasing. If R0 is less
than 1, the population is declining.
d. Age-specific fecundity is the number of female offspring produced by a female in
age class x.
556 INSTRUCTOR GUIDE FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 5e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
5. Students should be able to use the data in Table 54.1 to determine how many female
offspring an average L. vivipara female produces over the course of her lifetime,
and describe whether the population is growing, stable, or declining.
C. The role of life history
1. An organism’s life history consists of how it allocates resources to growth, reproduction,
and activities related to
survival.
2.
It
is not possible
for an organism
to have both high
fecundity
and high
survivorship.
A
trade-off
exists between survival
and reproduction.

3.
Fitness
trade-offs
occur because every
individual
has a restricted amount
of time and
energy
at its disposal;
that is,
its resources are limited.

4.
If
a female
lizard
devotes a great deal of energy
to feeding a large number
of offspring

as
they
develop,
it is not
possible
for her to devote that
same energy
to her immune
system,
growth,
nutrient stores, or other traits
that increase survival.

5.
In
almost
all
cases,
biologists find that life
history
is shaped by
natural
selection in a
way
that maximizes
an individual’s
fitness
in its environment.

6.
Students
should be able to (1) predict how
survivorship
and fecundity should compare
in L.
vivipara
in the
warmest versus
coldest parts
of their range, and (2) comment
on why females
in these
populations lay many eggs instead of giving birth to a
relatively
small
number of live young.

7.
In
general, organisms
with high fecundity
tend
to
grow
quickly,
reach
sexual maturity

at
a young
age, and produce many
small eggs or seeds.
8.
In
contrast, organisms
with high survivorship
tend to grow slowly
and
invest resources
in
traits that reduce damage
from
enemies
and increase their own ability
to
compete
for
water, sunlight, and food.
9.
An Arabidopsis
thaliana
plant and a coconut palm
represent
the two ends of a broad

continuum
of life-history
characteristics. (Fig.
54.3)
III. Population Growth
A. Quantifying the growth rate
1. Populations are affected by birth and immigration rates as well as death and emigration
rates.
2.
A
population’s
growth rate is the change in the number
of individuals
in the population
(ΔN)
per unit
time
(Δt).
3. If no immigration or emigration is occurring, then the growth rate is equal to the number
of individuals
(N)
in the
population
times
the difference between the birth
rate per
individual
(b)
and the death
rate per individual
(d).

4.
The
difference between the
birth rate and the
death rate per individual is called the
per-capita
rate
of increase and
is symbolized
r.

5.
A
species
with
a certain life history
has an
intrinsic rate of increase (rmax)
that does not
change.
But at any
time,
each population
of that species has an instantaneous growth

rate,
or per-capita
rate of increase,
symbolized
by
r.
B. Exponential growth
1. Exponential growth occurs when r does not change over time. It does not depend on
the number of individuals in the population. Therefore, it is density independent.
(Fig. 54.4)
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 54 Population Ecology 557
2. In nature, exponential growth has been observed in two circumstances:
a. A few individuals found a new population in a new habitat.
b. A population was devastated by a storm or other type of catastrophe and then began
to recover, starting with a few surviving individuals.
3. In reality, it is not possible for growth to continue indefinitely because the habitat
would not have enough resources for the number of individuals present.
4. When a population stabilizes at the maximum number that can be supported by the resources
available,
that population has reached
the habitat’s
carrying
capacity.

C.
Logistic
growth

1.
The
carrying
capacity
(K)
of a habitat depends
on a large
number
of
factors: food,
space,
water,
soil
quality,
resting or nesting
sites, and the
intensity
of
disease and
predation.
Carrying
capacity
may
change from
year
to year, depending
on conditions.

2.
The
logistic growth equation describes logistic
population
growth,
or changes in the
growth
rate that occur as a function of
population
size. Just as exponential growth
is
density
dependent, logistic growth
is density
dependent.

3.
Discrete
growth
(Quantitative
Methods 54.3)

a.
Biologists use
N
to symbolize
population
size. N0
is the population
size at time zero,
and
N1
is the population
size
one breeding interval later.

b.
The
growth rate is calculated
as λ
=
N1/N0,
where λ
is the finite rate of increase.
(Eqs.
54.4 &
54.5)

c.

The size of the population at the end of year t is calculated as Nt = N0λ
t
. (Eq. 54.6)
This equation summarizes how populations grow when breeding takes place seasonally.
The size
of the population
at time t
is equal to the
starting size times
the
finite
rate of increase multiplied
by
itself
t
times.

(1)
In
a sense, λ
works like the interest rate at a
bank. For species that breed
once
per
year,
the “interest”
on the population
is compounded
annually.

d.
If
a population’s
age structure
is stable, then
its finite rate
of increase has a simple

relationship
to
its net
reproductive rate: λ
= R0/g
where
R0
is the net
reproductive
rate
and g
is the generation time. (Eq.
54.7)

4.
Continuous
growth
(Quantitative
Methods 54.3)

a.
A
population’s
per-capita increase is symbolized
r
and is defined as the per-capita
birth
rate minus
the per-capita death rate.
b. The relationship between the finite rate of increase and the per-capita growth rate is
λ = e
r
, where e is the natural logarithm, or about 2.72. (Eq. 54.8) (See BioSkills 6 in
Appendix B.)
c. The size of the population at the end of year t is calculated as Nt = N0e
rt
. (Eq. 54.9)
This equation summarizes how populations grow when they breed continuously.
Because r represents the growth rate at any given time and because r and λ are so
closely related, biologists routinely calculate r even for species that breed seasonally.

d.
The
instantaneous rate of increase,
r,
is also directly
related
to the net reproductive
rate: r = ln R0/g. (Eq. 54.10)
5. In summary, biologists have developed several ways of calculating and expressing a
population’s growth rate. λ has the advantage of being easy to understand, and R0 has
the advantage of being calculated directly from life-table data. Although r is slightly
558 INSTRUCTOR GUIDE FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 5e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
more difficult conceptually, it is the most useful expression for the growth rate
because it is independent of generation time and is relevant for species that breed
either seasonally or continuously.
6. Applying the models
a. Students should be able to solve the problems at the end of Quantitative Methods
54.3.
7. Graphing logistic growth
a. Density-dependent graphs have three sections: (Fig. 54.5a)
(1) Initially growth is exponential, meaning that r is constant.
(2) N increases to the point at which competition for resources or other densitydependent
factors begins to
occur. Growth
rate begins to decline.
(3)
Eventually
the growth rate reaches
0; that
is, the habitat’s
carrying
capacity
is
reached.

b.
For
example,
both
species of Paramecia
exhibit logistic
growth, but
the carrying

capacities
differ. (Fig.
54.5b)
D. What limits growth rates and population sizes?
1. Density-independent factors change birth rates and death rates irrespective of the
number of individuals in a population.
2. Density-dependent factors are usually biotic and change in intensity as a function of
population size.
3. A closer look at density dependence
a. Researchers studied the bridled goby, a coral-reef fish. They stocked artificial reefs
with varying densities of adult gobies. After 2.5 months, they captured all the
gobies and computed the growth rate of individuals, the survival rate, and the
immigration rate.
b. Adult gobies survive better when population density is low. More juvenile gobies
immigrate successfully when population density is low. Higher rates of predation
and disease might occur in dense populations. (Fig. 54.6a)
c. There is a strong density-dependent relationship for clutch size in sparrows.
(Fig. 54.6b)
d. Density-dependent changes in survivorship and fecundity cause logistic population
growth. In this way, density-dependent factors define a particular habitat’s carrying
capacity.
4. Carrying capacity is not fixed. It varies in space and time because conditions in some
years are better than in others.
IV. Population Dynamics
A. Population dynamics are changes in populations over time.
1. Researchers have uncovered a wide array of patterns in natural populations in addition
to exponential and logistic growth.
B. How do metapopulations change through time?
1. Because humans are reducing large, contiguous areas of forest and grasslands to isolated
patches or
reserves, more
and more
species
are
being forced into
a metapopulation
structure⎯a
population
of populations.
(Fig.
54.8)
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 54 Population Ecology 559
2. Ilkka Hanski and colleagues showed that metapopulations exist in nature. They performed
a mark-recapture
study
on
the Glanville
fritillary
butterfly.
They
found a

migration
rate of 9%,
which was high enough
to recolonize
extinct populations.
They

also
confirmed that some
populations
had gone
extinct while others had been created.
3.
Given
enough
time,
each population
within
the
larger
metapopulation is expected to
go
extinct. The
cause could
be catastrophic, such as a storm
or oil spill, or a disease
outbreak
or a sudden
influx
of predators.

4.
Migration
from
nearby
populations can reestablish
populations in these
empty
habitat
fragments.
In this way,
there
is a balance
between extinction and recolonization.
C. Why do some populations cycle?
1. Population cycles are regular fluctuations in size that some populations exhibit.
2. For example, the snowshoe hare and lynx populations in northern Canada exhibit
regular cycling. (Fig. 54.9)
3. Two hypotheses were proposed for an experiment: (Fig. 54.10)
a. Hares use up all of their resources when population density is high, and they starve.
In response, lynx also starve.
b. Lynx populations reach high density in response to an increase in hare density.
Lynx eat so many hares that the prey population crashes.
4. The data support the hypothesis that hare populations are limited by the availability of
food as well as by predation and that these two factors interact. This explains why
when hares are at high density, individuals are weakened by nutritional stress and
therefore more susceptible to predation.
V. Human Population Growth
A. Age structure in human populations
1. Analyzing an age pyramid can give biologists important information about a population’s
history.

2.
In
countries where
industrial and technological development
is advanced
and average
incomes
are
relatively
high, the age pyramid
of the population
tends
to be even. (Fig.

54.11a)

3.
The
age pyramid
predicted for developed
countries in
2050
highlights
their major public
policy
concern: How to care for
an increasingly
aged population.
4.
In
contrast, the age distribution is bottom-heavy
in
less-developed countries. (Fig.
54.11b)
5. The age pyramid predicted for less-developed countries in 2050 illustrates their major
public policy concern: providing education and jobs for an enormous influx of young
people who will want to be starting families.
6. Overall population size will increase dramatically in developing countries. Even
though the number of children per female (fecundity) will drop, there will be so many
women having children that the number of offspring born per year is expected to stay
high.
B. Analyzing change in the growth rate of human populations
1. The growth rate for humans has been increasing since about 1750, leading to a steeply
rising curve over the past few centuries. The highest values occurred between 1965
and 1970, when population growth averaged 2.04% per year. (Fig. 54.12)
560 INSTRUCTOR GUIDE FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 5e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2. It is not possible to overstate the consequences of recent and current increases in human
population.
It is the primary
cause of habitat loss, declines in living standards,

mass
movement
of people, political instability,
and acute
shortages of water and
other
resources.

3.
The
one encouraging
trend
in the data is that
the growth
rate of the human
population

has
already
peaked
and begun to
decline.

4.
Will
the size of the human
population
peak
in your
lifetime?

a.
Population
growth
has slowed over the past few years;
now it is 1.2%
per year.

Humans
are ending
a period
of rapid growth
that lasted well over 500
years.
How
quickly
growth
rates decline and the maximum
population size is ultimately

reached
will depend
on changes in fertility
rates and the course of the AIDS epidemic.

b.
Extrapolating
the world’s
population to the
year
2050 is
based on three different
fertility
rates: (Fig.
54.13)

(1)
High fertility⎯nearly
11 billion
(2)
Medium
fertility⎯about
9.3 billion
(3)
Low fertility⎯8
billion
c.

The future of the human population hinges on fertility rates—on how many children
each of the women living today decides to have.
VI. How Can Population Ecology Help Conserve Biodiversity?
A. Using life-table data
1. Population projections enable biologists to alter values for survivorship and fecundity
at particular ages and assess the consequences.
2. Using the life table data in Figure 54.14a, calculations are shown to predict how many
adults (of 1000 introduced lizards) will survive and how many offspring from each age
class will be produced. (Fig. 54.14b)
3. Figure 54.14c extends the calculations by predicting what will happen as the offspring
of the original females begin to breed.
4. Students should be able to continue the analysis into the third year and predict
whether the population of lizards will stay the same, decline, or increase over time.
5. Studies performed on life-table data support some general conclusions.
a. Whooping cranes, sea turtles, spotted owls, and many other endangered species
have high juvenile mortality, low adult mortality, and low fecundity. (Fig. 54.15)
b. Climate change has enormous implications for the life-history traits of populations.
Example: Temperature determined sex in reptiles—significant implications for
growth rates.
6. In some cases, projections made from life tables may be too simplistic to be useful.
B. Preserving metapopulations
1. Conservationists draw heavily on concepts and techniques from population ecology
when designing programs to save species threatened with extinction.
2. A small, isolated population—even one within a nature reserve—is unlikely to survive
over the long term. (Fig. 54.16)
3. Results on the Glanville fritillaries have important messages for conservation biologists.
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 54 Population Ecology 561
a. Areas being protected need to be large enough in area to maintain large populations.
b. If that is not possible, smaller tracts of land should be connected by corridors of
habitat so that migration is possible.
c. Land where populations have emigrated should be preserved so that immigration is
possible.
Chapter Vocabulary
To emphasize the functional meanings of these terms, the list is organized by topic rather
than by first mention in the chapter. It includes terms that may have been introduced in earlier
chapters but are important to the current chapter as well. It also includes terms other than
those highlighted in bold type in the chapter text.
population

per-capita rate of

increase (r)
quadrats
evolutionary
ecology

intrinsic rate of

increase (rmax)
mark-recapture
study
immigration
exponential growth
population
cycles
demography
population density
age pyramid
generation
density-dependent
replacement rate
life table
carrying capacity (K)
zero population
growth (ZPG)
cohort
logistic growth equation
survivorship curve
logistic population growth
fecundity
finite rate of
increase (λ)
population viability
analysis (PVA)
age-specific fecundity
density-independent factors
age class
density-dependent factors
fitness trade-offs
life history
population dynamics
net reproductive rate
metapopulation
emigration
density-independent
age
structure
Lecture Activities
Population Exercises
Activity Ideas for Any Class Size
Estimated duration of activity: 5 to 10 minutes
• The human population has grown at a nearly exponential rate during the past several centuries
and, although it has shown recent signs of slowing,
continues to increase at an
impressive
rate. Is the
human
population close
to reaching
Earth’s
carrying
capacity,
or
have we
already
reached it? What would
happen
if
the human
population surpassed
Earth’s
carrying

capacity?
Is it
possible for any
population
to do
this?
How
and when would you
go
about

calculating
the carrying
capacity
of
the environment
for any
given species
in its particular

habitat?
What
is the carrying
capacity
of Earth
most
dependent on,
and how
might
it be
calculated?

• At high numbers, population growth becomes density dependent and is limited by factors
that operate better under high-density situations, such as disease, competition, and predation.
But ecologists
know that
population
growth
at all
levels is also limited
by
densityindependent
factors.
What is meant
by
the
term
density-independent?
How would
densityindependent
factors
affect a
population
and
work
to inhibit
or
even
stop population
562 INSTRUCTOR GUIDE FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 5e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
growth? What are some examples of density-independent factors that operate in this
capacity?
• It is the year 2525, and the human race can travel quickly and easily between the stars and
planets. While out exploring the universe one day, you discover a new planet that is essentially
identical to Earth, except it has no humans,
cities, or constructs of any
kind.
Otherwise,
the planet has all the same
wildlife,
plants,
geographical features,
and climate.
A few
years
later your
superiors tell
you that
they
have
found
thousands
of
volunteers
who are
eager
to inhabit this new planet. It is your job
to
organize
the initial colonization of this
new
planet. Where on this
“earth” would
you
start your
colony?
Why
have you
chosen
your
particular
location? Would
you
colonize
in
several different locations or just one?

What
factors enter into your
decision? What
kind of
age
structure and sex ratio would you

want
to start with? Why?
What
is likely to happen
to
the human
population
once
it becomes
established
in your
location?
What kind of
growth
and growth
rate will the new
population
exhibit?
After several years,
how will
its growth rate, survivorship, and age
structure
change?

• Try an exercise related to the survivorship/fecundity graph. First, choose some animals
with high fecundity, such as an octopus. Lead the students to discover that this animal lays
an incredibly large number of eggs per reproductive event. Then ask the students to guess
the life span of this species. After a few of these examples, see whether students can see
the relationship between massive reproductive output and short life expectancy. Now, if
time permits, switch to high-survivorship, low-fecundity species—like an elephant. Continue
the same
exercise
with
these types of species, ending
with humans.
At this point, students
should realize
that humans
have low fecundity
but
high
survivorship.
Does
this
change
with different regions of the world,
or
is it all
the same?
How would this
change if
most
women
on
Earth had 20
children over
the course
of their lifetime
and this continued

for
500 years?
Can you
find a correlation within
humans in the literature that supports the
survivorship/fecundity
relationship,
or doesn’t
this
occur within species?
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 54 Population Ecology 563

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