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Brock Biology of Microorganisms 13th Edition Madigan Martinko Stahl Clark Test Bank

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Brock Biology of Microorganisms 13th Edition Madigan Martinko Stahl Clark Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321649638

ISBN-10: 032164963X

 

Description

Brock Biology of Microorganisms 13th Edition Madigan Martinko Stahl Clark Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321649638

ISBN-10: 032164963X

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

 

 

Chapter 27.        Microbial Interactions with Humans

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

1)

 

Pathogenicity is

 

  1. A)

 

the ability of the host to inflict damage on the pathogen.

 

  1. B)

 

the ability of the host to resist damage by the pathogen.

 

  1. C)

 

the ability of the pathogen to inflict damage on the host.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

 

 

2)

 

Mucous membranes are frequently coated with a protective liquid called

 

  1. A)

 

epithelial fluid.

 

  1. B)

 

membrane fluid.

 

  1. C)

 

mucus.

 

  1. D)

 

none of the above.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

 

 

3)

 

Gingivitis is cause by all of the following organisms EXCEPT

 

  1. A)

 

Capnocytophaga.

 

  1. B)

 

Escherichia coli.

 

  1. C)

 

Methanobrevibacter.

 

  1. D)

 

Rothia.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

 

 

4)

 

To control tooth decay in developed countries, ________ salts are commonly added to municipal drinking water and toothpastes.

 

  1. A)

 

fluoride

 

  1. B)

 

iron

 

  1. C)

 

lead

 

  1. D)

 

sodium

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

5)

 

Decalcification of the tooth enamel due to the production of high concentrations of organic acids in the mouth is known as

 

  1. A)

 

degenerative plaque.

 

  1. B)

 

dental caries.

 

  1. C)

 

dental plaque.

 

  1. D)

 

microbial enamel decalcification.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

 

 

6)

 

The following bacteria are all implicated in dental caries EXCEPT

 

  1. A)

 

Escherichia coli.

 

  1. B)

 

Streptococcus sobrinus.

 

  1. C)

 

Streptococcus mutans.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

 

 

7)

 

Which of these microorganisms is most likely to be found in the gut?

 

  1. A)

 

Helicobacter pylori

 

  1. B)

 

Streptococcus sobrinus

 

  1. C)

 

Streptococcus mutans

 

  1. D)

 

Roseobacter denitrificans

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

8)

 

Normal flora in the duodenum are

 

  1. A)

 

similar to the microflora in the stomach.

 

  1. B)

 

tolerant to acidic environments.

 

  1. C)

 

tolerant to alkaline environments.

 

  1. D)

 

both A and B.

 

Answer:

 

D

 

 

 

9)

 

Which of the following are NOT found in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans?

 

  1. A)

 

Bacteroides

 

  1. B)

 

Clostridium

 

  1. C)

 

Escherichia coli

 

  1. D)

 

Protists

 

Answer:

 

D

 

 

 

10)

 

The following compounds are all produced by intestinal microflora EXCEPT

 

  1. A)

 

flatus.

 

  1. B)

 

vitamin C.

 

  1. C)

 

vitamin B12.

 

  1. D)

 

vitamin K.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

 

 

11)

 

In the absence of the full complement of normal flora, due to orally taken antibiotics, opportunistic microorganisms such as ________ can become established.

 

  1. A)

 

Clostridium difficile

 

  1. B)

 

Proteus

 

  1. C)

 

Staphylococcus

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:

 

D

 

 

 

12)

 

Only particles smaller than ________ µm in diameter reach the lungs.

 

  1. A)

 

10

 

  1. B)

 

20

 

  1. C)

 

30

 

  1. D)

 

40

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

13)

 

The vagina of adult female is

 

  1. A)

 

highly acidic.

 

  1. B)

 

highly alkaline.

 

  1. C)

 

weakly acidic.

 

  1. D)

 

weakly alkaline.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

 

 

14)

 

Neisseria gonorrhoeae adheres to mucosal epithelial cells in the

 

  1. A)

 

eye.

 

  1. B)

 

genitourinary tract.

 

  1. C)

 

rectum.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above.

 

Answer:

 

D

 

 

 

15)

 

Streptocoocus pyogens utilizes M protein and ________ to form microfibrils that facilitate attachment to host cells.

 

  1. A)

 

lipoteichoic acid

 

  1. B)

 

mucus

 

  1. C)

 

plaque

 

  1. D)

 

none of the above

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

16)

 

Influenza virus targets

 

  1. A)

 

lung mucosal cells.

 

  1. B)

 

gastrointestinal cells.

 

  1. C)

 

oral cavity cells.

 

  1. D)

 

none of the above.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

17)

 

A polymer coat consisting of a dense, well-defined polymer layer surrounding a cell is called a

 

  1. A)

 

capsule.

 

  1. B)

 

gycocalyx.

 

  1. C)

 

lipopolysaccharide.

 

  1. D)

 

slime mold.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

18)

 

Capsules are particularly important for

 

  1. A)

 

making bacteria more vulnerable to host defense mechanisms.

 

  1. B)

 

making bacteria less pathogenic.

 

  1. C)

 

protecting bacteria from host defense mechanisms.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

 

 

19)

 

The decrease or loss of virulence of a pathogen is referred to as

 

  1. A)

 

aging.

 

  1. B)

 

attenuation.

 

  1. C)

 

disinfectivity.

 

  1. D)

 

lethal dose.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

 

 

20)

 

Attenuation occurs in a laboratory, because

 

  1. A)

 

non virulent or weakly virulent mutants grow faster in vitro in laboratory media.

 

  1. B)

 

pathogens lose virulence with age.

 

  1. C)

 

patients are generally treated with drugs that induce attenuation.

 

  1. D)

 

none of the above are true.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

21)

 

Which disease CANNOT be prevented via the use of a vaccine generated from an attenuated pathogen?

 

  1. A)

 

malaria

 

  1. B)

 

measles

 

  1. C)

 

mumps

 

  1. D)

 

tuberculosis

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

22)

 

Which of the following is NOT important for the adherence of bacteria to other bacteria as well as to host tissue?

 

  1. A)

 

adherence polymers

 

  1. B)

 

capsule

 

  1. C)

 

gycocalyx

 

  1. D)

 

slime layer

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

23)

 

Which of the following bacterial cell surface protein structures function in the attachment process?

 

  1. A)

 

fimbriae

 

  1. B)

 

pili

 

  1. C)

 

both fimbriae and pili

 

  1. D)

 

none of the above

 

Answer:

 

C

 

 

 

24)

 

The spread of pathogens through the blood and lymph systems that results in a bloodborne systemic infection is called

 

  1. A)

 

bacteremia.

 

  1. B)

 

cancer.

 

  1. C)

 

pathogenesis.

 

  1. D)

 

septicemia.

 

Answer:

 

D

 

 

 

25)

 

Which genus does NOT produce hyaluronidase?

 

  1. A)

 

Clostridia

 

  1. B)

 

Streptococcus

 

  1. C)

 

Staphylococcus

 

  1. D)

 

Procholorococcus

 

Answer:

 

D

 

 

 

26)

 

Which of the following is more likely to cause urinary tract infections?

 

  1. A)

 

fimbriated strains of Escherichia coli

 

  1. B)

 

non-fimbriated strains of Escherichia coli

 

  1. C)

 

both fimbriated and non-fimbriated strains of Escherichia coli

 

  1. D)

 

none of the above

 

Answer:

 

A

 

 

 

27)

 

Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli usually express

 

  1. A)

 

capsules.

 

  1. B)

 

colonization factor antigens (CFA).

 

  1. C)

 

plaques.

 

  1. D)

 

slime layers.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

 

 

28)

 

Which of the following affect(s) pathogen growth?

 

  1. A)

 

availability of microbial nutrients

 

  1. B)

 

pH

 

  1. C)

 

temperature

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:

 

D

 

 

 

29)

 

Siderophores from some pathogens remove iron from the host protein(s)

 

  1. A)

 

lactoferrin

 

  1. B)

 

transferrin

 

  1. C)

 

both lactoferrin and transferrin

 

  1. D)

 

none of the above

 

Answer:

 

C

 

 

 

30)

 

Cytolytic toxins

 

  1. A)

 

are extracellular proteins.

 

  1. B)

 

cause cell lysis and death.

 

  1. C)

 

damage host cytoplasmic membrane.

 

  1. D)

 

are all of the above.

 

Answer:

 

D

 

 

 

TRUE/FALSE.  Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

 

31)

 

All microorganisms that live in the human body are harmful.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

32)

 

The environment in which an individual is born determines the kinds of microorganisms that would colonize his or her body.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

33)

 

An opportunistic pathogen causes disease only in the presence of normal host resistance.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

34)

 

Normal microflora are usually found in the blood, lymph, and nervous systems of the body.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

35)

 

In AIDS patients, the body’s normal microflora causes diseases because the host’s resistance is compromised.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

36)

 

Streptococcus mutans can produce dextran when sucrose is present in the absence of the enzyme dextransucrase.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

37)

 

Diets high in sucrose promote dental caries.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

38)

 

There is a high occurrence of dental caries and high amounts of S. mutans present in the plaque of Tanzanian children.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

39)

 

The acidic pH (about pH 2) of the mouth makes it a virtually sterile environment.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

40)

 

Bacteria make up about one-third the weight of fecal matter.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

41)

 

Malassezia spp. are the most common fungi present on the skin of humans.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

42)

 

The upper respiratory tract usually has a considerable amount of resident microflora in a healthy adult.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

43)

 

Vaginal acidity in the adult female is due to acid production by Lactobacillus acidophilus.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

44)

 

Brucella abortus grows very rapidly in the placenta of cattle, because the placenta is the only tissue with the right nutrient needed for its growth.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

45)

 

Invasion is the ability of a pathogen to enter into host cells or tissues, spread, and cause disease.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

46)

 

The toxic lipopolysaccharides produced by most gram-negative bacteria are called exotoxins.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

47)

 

Endotoxins are released in large amounts only when cells lyse.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

48)

 

The Limulus amebocyte lysate assay is used to detect endotoxin in clinical samples such as serum or cerebrospinal fluid.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

49)

 

Gram-positive bacteria produce endotoxins.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

50)

 

Hormones that are produced under stress boost normal immune responses and play a role in stress-mediated disease resistance.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

51)

 

The number of Vibrio cholera cells necessary to produce cholera in an exposed individual is drastically reduced if the individual is malnourished.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

52)

 

Diseases of warm-blooded animals are rarely transferred to cold-blooded animals.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

53)

 

Animals that lack CXCR4 and CCR5 proteins are immune to HIV infection.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

54)

 

Diphtheria toxin inactivates elongation factor 2 by catalyzing the attachment of adenosine diphosphate

 

ribose from NAD+.

 

Answer:

 

 

 

True

 

False

 

 

 

55)

 

Clostridium botulinum cannot produce toxins in improperly preserved foods.

 

Answer:

 

True

 

 

 

False

 

 

 

SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

 

56)

 

________ microorganisms colonize, invade, and damage the human body through indirect means.

 

Answer:

 

Pathogenic

 

 

 

57)

 

The collective term for the organisms living on or in the human body is ________.

 

Answer:

 

normal microbial flora

 

 

 

58)

 

________ in saliva cleaves glycosidic linkages in peptidoglycan present in bacterial cell walls, weakening the wall, and causing cell lysis.

 

Answer:

 

Lysozyme

 

 

 

59)

 

Before teething, bacteria in the mouth are ________ anaerobes and ________.

 

Answer:

 

aerotolerant / aerobes (either order)

 

 

 

60)

 

A ________ is a damage or injury to a host organism that impairs its function.

 

Answer:

 

disease

 

 

 

61)

 

Virulence is the relative ability of a ________ to cause disease.

 

Answer:

 

pathogen

 

 

 

62)

 

The first microorganisms to colonize the gut of a baby born in the developed world are ________ and in the developing world are ________.

 

Answer:

 

Staphylococcus aureus / Escherichia coli

 

 

 

63)

 

Environmental and host factors that influence the composition of resident microflora on the skin include the ________, ________ and ________.

 

Answer:

 

age / personal hygiene / weather (any order)

 

 

 

64)

 

Extensive growth of the streptococci in a thick bacterial layer on acidic glycoproteins on the teeth is called ________.

 

Answer:

 

dental plaque

 

 

 

65)

 

To speed the establishment of competitive flora, recolonization of the gut by desired species can be accomplished by the administration of ________.

 

Answer:

 

probiotics

 

 

 

66)

 

The relative ability of a bacterium to harm its host is known as ________.

 

Answer:

 

virulence

 

 

 

67)

 

The dose of an antigen that kills 50% of animals in a test group and is used to estimate the virulence of a pathogen is known as ________.

 

Answer:

 

lethal dose50 (LD50)

 

 

 

68)

 

The process by which microorganisms cause diseases is known as ________.

 

Answer:

 

microbial pathogenesis

 

 

 

69)

 

The macromolecules responsible for bacterial adherence that are not covalently attached to bacteria are collectively called ________.

 

Answer:

 

gycocalyx

 

 

 

70)

 

A loose network of polymers extending outward from a cell is called a(n) ________.

 

Answer:

 

slime layer

 

 

 

71)

 

The process by which white blood cells ingest and kill bacteria is called ________.

 

Answer:

 

phagocytosis

 

 

 

72)

 

The condition that results when some organisms are shed in the bloodstream and distributed to distant parts of the body during bacterial growth in tissues is called ________.

 

Answer:

 

bacteremia

 

 

 

73)

 

The ability of an organism to cause disease by means of a preformed toxin that inhibits host cell function or kills host cells is called ________.

 

Answer:

 

toxicity

 

 

 

74)

 

Toxic proteins released from pathogen cells as they grow are called ________.

 

Answer:

 

exotoxins

 

 

 

75)

 

________ are microbial infections acquired by hospital patients with noninfectious diseases because they are compromised hosts.

 

Answer:

 

Healthcare-associated infections

 

 

 

ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

 

76)

 

How do pathogens gain access to host tissue?

 

Answer:

 

Pathogens gain access to host tissue through the production of specialized attachment structures, unique growth factors, invasive enzymes, and potent biological toxins.

 

 

 

77)

 

Why are some microorganisms specialized to only certain parts of the body?

 

Answer:

 

Each organ differs chemically and physically from others and thus provides a selective environment for the growth of certain microorganisms.

 

 

 

78)

 

When does an infection become a disease?

 

Answer:

 

An infection becomes a disease when a microorganism that is established and growing in a host causes damage and injury that impairs host function.

 

 

 

79)

 

How do anaerobic microflora survive in the mouth although humans have a high intake of oxygen through the mouth.

 

Answer:

 

Anoxia develops in the mouth due to the metabolic activities of facultative bacteria growing on organic materials at the tooth surface. The plaque buildup provides a dense matrix that decreases oxygen diffusion to the tooth surface, forming an anoxic microenvironment.

 

 

 

80)

 

How do dental lactic acid bacteria cause dental caries?

 

Answer:

 

Lactic acid bacteria ferment sugars in the diet to lactic acid that dissolves some of the calcium phosphate in localized areas, and the proteoloysis of the supporting matrix occurs through the action of bacterial proteoloytic enzymes. Bacterial cells slowly penetrate into the decomposing matrix.

 

 

 

81)

 

Describe how orally taken antibiotics can result in the harmful alteration in digestive functions and disease.

 

Answer:

 

Antibiotics inhibit the growth of the normal flora as well as pathogens leading to the loss of antibiotic-susceptible bacteria in the intestinal tract. In the absence of the full complement of normal flora, opportunistic microorganisms such as Candida ablibacans can become established.

 

 

 

82)

 

What is the similarity between the flora found in a female at the menopause stage and a female at the pre-puberty stage? How different is it from a female between the stages of puberty and menopause?

 

Answer:

 

The flora in both cases lack Lactobacillus acidophilus because the female genitals do not produce glycogen at these stages, therefore there is no need to convert glycogen to lactic acid to keep the pH of the genitals slightly acidic. The pH is thus higher than that of females between the stages of puberty and menopause.

 

 

 

83)

 

Why does Neisseria gonorrhea adhere only to mucosal epithelial cells in the genitourinary tract, eye, rectum, and throat?

 

Answer:

 

  1. gonorrhea has a surface protein called Opa (opacity associated protein) that binds specifically to a host protein called CD66 that is found only on the surfaces of these cells.

 

 

 

84)

 

Why does the influenza virus that occurs in nature as an avian pathogen infect humans?

 

Answer:

 

The glycoproteins responsible for adherence to cells, hemaglutinin, mutates, allowing the virus to adhere to respiratory mucosal cells in other species such as humans or pigs.

 

 

 

85)

 

Explain how Clostridium tetani cells that rarely leave their initial site of infection can cause death in their hosts.

 

Answer:

 

  1. tetani produces tetanus toxins that move to distant parts of the body, initiating irreversible muscle contraction, and often death of the host. Although the cells do not actively travel around the host, the toxins it produces cause the death of the host.

 

 

 

86)

 

Describe the difference between the use of streptokinase and coagulase as a defense mechanism among pathogens.

 

Answer:

 

Pathogens like Streptococcus pyogens use streptokinase as a fibrinolytic enzyme that dissolves fibrin clots, which makes invasion of pathogens impossible by localizing their infection. On the other hand, coagulase is used by pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus to form and insoluble fibrin layer around them, thus protecting themselves from attack from host cells.

 

 

 

87)

 

What are the different categories of exotoxins, and how do they function?

 

Answer:

 

The three categories are AB toxins, cytolytic toxins, and superantigen toxins. The cytolytic toxins work by degrading cytoplasmic membrane integrity causing lysis. The superantigens work by stimulating large numbers of immune cells resulting in extensive inflammation and tissue damage. The AB toxins bind to host cell surface receptors and damage the cell when the A subunit is transferred across the targeted cytoplasmic membrane by the B subunit.

 

 

 

88)

 

Why is fever the universal result of endotoxin exposure?

 

Answer:

 

Endotoxins stimulate host cells to release cytokines that act as proteins that affect the temperature-controlling center of the brain, causing fever.

 

 

 

1)

 

C

 

2)

 

C

 

3)

 

B

 

4)

 

A

 

5)

 

C

 

6)

 

C

 

7)

 

A

 

8)

 

D

 

9)

 

D

 

10)

 

B

 

11)

 

D

 

12)

 

A

 

13)

 

B

 

14)

 

D

 

15)

 

A

 

16)

 

A

 

17)

 

A

 

18)

 

C

 

19)

 

B

 

20)

 

A

 

21)

 

A

 

22)

 

A

 

23)

 

C

 

24)

 

D

 

25)

 

D

 

26)

 

A

 

27)

 

B

 

28)

 

D

 

29)

 

C

 

30)

 

D

 

31)

 

FALSE

 

32)

 

TRUE

 

33)

 

FALSE

 

34)

 

FALSE

 

35)

 

TRUE

 

36)

 

FALSE

 

37)

 

TRUE

 

38)

 

FALSE

 

39)

 

FALSE

 

40)

 

TRUE

 

41)

 

TRUE

 

42)

 

FALSE

 

43)

 

TRUE

 

44)

 

TRUE

 

45)

 

TRUE

 

46)

 

FALSE

 

47)

 

TRUE

 

48)

 

TRUE

 

49)

 

FALSE

 

50)

 

FALSE

 

51)

 

TRUE

 

52)

 

TRUE

 

53)

 

TRUE

 

54)

 

TRUE

 

55)

 

FALSE

 

56)

 

Pathogenic

 

57)

 

normal microbial flora

 

58)

 

Lysozyme

 

59)

 

aerotolerant / aerobes (either order)

 

60)

 

disease

 

61)

 

pathogen

 

62)

 

Staphylococcus aureus / Escherichia coli

 

63)

 

age / personal hygiene / weather (any order)

 

64)

 

dental plaque

 

65)

 

probiotics

 

66)

 

virulence

 

67)

 

lethal dose50 (LD50)

 

68)

 

microbial pathogenesis

 

69)

 

gycocalyx

 

70)

 

slime layer

 

71)

 

phagocytosis

 

72)

 

bacteremia

 

73)

 

toxicity

 

74)

 

exotoxins

 

75)

 

Healthcare-associated infections

 

76)

 

Pathogens gain access to host tissue through the production of specialized attachment structures, unique growth factors, invasive enzymes, and potent biological toxins.

 

77)

 

Each organ differs chemically and physically from others and thus provides a selective environment for the growth of certain microorganisms.

 

78)

 

An infection becomes a disease when a microorganism that is established and growing in a host causes damage and injury that impairs host function.

 

79)

 

Anoxia develops in the mouth due to the metabolic activities of facultative bacteria growing on organic materials at the tooth surface. The plaque buildup provides a dense matrix that decreases oxygen diffusion to the tooth surface, forming an anoxic microenvironment.

 

80)

 

Lactic acid bacteria ferment sugars in the diet to lactic acid that dissolves some of the calcium phosphate in localized areas, and the proteoloysis of the supporting matrix occurs through the action of bacterial proteoloytic enzymes. Bacterial cells slowly penetrate into the decomposing matrix.

 

81)

 

Antibiotics inhibit the growth of the normal flora as well as pathogens leading to the loss of antibiotic-susceptible bacteria in the intestinal tract. In the absence of the full complement of normal flora, opportunistic microorganisms such as Candida ablibacans can become established.

 

82)

 

The flora in both cases lack Lactobacillus acidophilus because the female genitals do not produce glycogen at these stages, therefore there is no need to convert glycogen to lactic acid to keep the pH of the genitals slightly acidic. The pH is thus higher than that of females between the stages of puberty and menopause.

 

83)

 

  1. gonorrhea has a surface protein called Opa (opacity associated protein) that binds specifically to a host protein called CD66 that is found only on the surfaces of these cells.

 

84)

 

The glycoproteins responsible for adherence to cells, hemaglutinin, mutates, allowing the virus to adhere to respiratory mucosal cells in other species such as humans or pigs.

 

85)

 

  1. tetani produces tetanus toxins that move to distant parts of the body, initiating irreversible muscle contraction, and often death of the host. Although the cells do not actively travel around the host, the toxins it produces cause the death of the host.

 

86)

 

Pathogens like Streptococcus pyogens use streptokinase as a fibrinolytic enzyme that dissolves fibrin clots, which makes invasion of pathogens impossible by localizing their infection. On the other hand, coagulase is used by pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus to form and insoluble fibrin layer around them, thus protecting themselves from attack from host cells.

 

87)

 

The three categories are AB toxins, cytolytic toxins, and superantigen toxins. The cytolytic toxins work by degrading cytoplasmic membrane integrity causing lysis. The superantigens work by stimulating large numbers of immune cells resulting in extensive inflammation and tissue damage. The AB toxins bind to host cell surface receptors and damage the cell when the A subunit is transferred across the targeted cytoplasmic membrane by the B subunit.

 

88)

 

Endotoxins stimulate host cells to release cytokines that act as proteins that affect the temperature-controlling center of the brain, causing fever.

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