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Campbell Biology 11th Edition Urry Cain Reece Minorsky Test Bank

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Campbell Biology 11th Edition Urry Cain Reece Minorsky Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0134093413

ISBN-10: 0134093410

 

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Campbell Biology 11th Edition Urry Cain Reece Minorsky Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0134093413

ISBN-10: 0134093410

 

 

 

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Campbell Biology, 11e (Urry)

Chapter 51   Animal Behavior

 

51.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) What type of signal is long-lasting and works at night?

  1. A) olfactory
  2. B) visual
  3. C) auditory
  4. D) electrical

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

 

2) What type of signal is brief and can work among obstructions at night?

  1. A) olfactory
  2. B) visual
  3. C) auditory
  4. D) magnetic

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

 

3) What type of signal is fast and requires daylight with no obstructions?

  1. A) olfactory
  2. B) visual
  3. C) auditory
  4. D) tactile

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

 

4) Circannual rhythms in birds are influenced by ________.

  1. A) periods of food availability
  2. B) periods of daylight and darkness
  3. C) magnetic fields
  4. D) lunar cycles

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.1

 

 

5) Upon returning to its hive, a European honeybee communicates to other worker bees the presence of a nearby food source it has discovered by ________.

  1. A) vibrating its wings at varying frequencies
  2. B) performing a round dance
  3. C) performing a waggle dance
  4. D) visual cues

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.1

6) Displays of nocturnal mammals are usually ________.

  1. A) visual and auditory
  2. B) tactile and visual
  3. C) olfactory and auditory
  4. D) visual and olfactory

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.1

 

7) A cage containing male mosquitoes has a small earphone placed on top, through which the sound of a female mosquito is played. All the males immediately fly to the earphone and go through all of the steps of copulation. What is the best explanation for this behavior?

  1. A) Copulation is a fixed action pattern, and the female flight sound is a sign stimulus that initiates it.
  2. B) The sound from the earphone irritates the male mosquitoes, causing them to attempt to sting it.
  3. C) The reproductive drive is so strong that when males are deprived of females, they will attempt to mate with anything that has even the slightest female characteristic.
  4. D) Through classical conditioning, the male mosquitoes have associated the inappropriate stimulus from the earphone with the normal response of copulation.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

 

8) A stickleback fish will attack a fish model as long as the model has red coloring. What animal behavior idea is manifested by this observation?

  1. A) sign stimulus
  2. B) cognition
  3. C) imprinting
  4. D) classical conditioning

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.1

 

 

9) Which of the following experiments best addresses the hypothesis that moths stop flying in response to high-intensity bat sounds?

  1. A) Isolate and characterize the neurons that control flight muscle.
  2. B) Play prerecorded high-intensity bat sounds to flying moths.
  3. C) Observe responses of moths to bats in nature.
  4. D) Put bats and moths in an enclosure and make detailed observations of predator-prey interactions.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis/Evaluation

Section:  51.1

10) A lizard’s bobbing dewlap (a colorful flap of skin hanging from an Anolis lizard’s throat) is an example of a(n) ________.

  1. A) stimulus
  2. B) reflex
  3. C) signal
  4. D) innate releasing mechanism

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

 

 

11) Use the following figures to answer the question.

 

 

From the figure, what can we determine about the location of the food source?

  1. A) The waggle dance in the top figure indicates that the food is directly under the hive.
  2. B) The waggle dance in the bottom figure indicates that the food is to the west of the hive.
  3. C) The waggle dance in the top figure indicates that the food is close to the hive.
  4. D) The waggle dance in the bottom figure indicates that the food is 90° to the right of the sun.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis/Evaluation

Section:  51.1

12) Use the following figures to answer the question.

 

 

What could you conclude if the honeybee in the figure switched from the “waggle dance” to the “round dance”?

  1. A) The food source is no longer available; all the nectar has been harvested.
  2. B) The preferred food source was farther away.
  3. C) The bee is trying to conserve energy by switching to the round dance.
  4. D) The food source is close to the hive.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

 

13) Use the following figures to answer the question.

 

 

If the figure shows the dances of bees in a hive at noon on June 21 in the northern hemisphere (the sun is directly north of the hive), which dance is communicating that the food is to the south of the hive?

  1. A) dance A
  2. B) dance B
  3. C) dance C
  4. D) It is not possible to tell if any of the dances indicate the food is to the south of the hive.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis/Evaluation

Section:  51.1

 

14) Scientists believe that the direction birds go when migrating is guided in part by ________.

 

  1. I) the stars in the night sky
  2. II) the sun during the day

III) the magnetic field of the Earth

 

  1. A) only I
  2. B) only II
  3. C) only III
  4. D) I, II, and III

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.1

 

15) Which of the following examples describes a behavioral pattern that results from a proximate cause?

  1. A) A cat kills a mouse to obtain nutrition.
  2. B) A male sheep fights with another male because it helps to improve its social position.
  3. C) A female bird lays its eggs because the amount of daylight is decreasing slightly each day.
  4. D) A goose squats and freezes motionless to escape a predator.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.1

 

16) The proximate causes of behavior are interactions with the environment, but behavior is ultimately shaped by ________.

  1. A) hormones
  2. B) evolution
  3. C) pheromones
  4. D) the nervous system

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.1

 

17) During a field trip, an instructor touched a moth resting on a tree trunk. The moth raised its forewings to reveal large eyespots on its hind wings. The instructor asked why the moth lifted its wings. One student answered that sensory receptors had fired and triggered a neuronal reflex culminating in the contraction of certain muscles. A second student responded that the behavior might frighten predators. Which statement best describes these explanations?

  1. A) The first explanation is correct, but the second is incorrect.
  2. B) The first explanation refers to proximate causation, whereas the second refers to ultimate causation.
  3. C) The first explanation is testable as a scientific hypothesis, whereas the second is not.
  4. D) Both explanations are reasonable and simply represent a difference of opinion.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

18) Which of the following is required for a behavioral trait to evolve by natural selection?

  1. A) The behavior is determined entirely by genes.
  2. B) The behavior is the same in all individuals in the population.
  3. C) An individual’s reproductive success depends in part on how the behavior is performed.
  4. D) The behavior is not genetically inherited.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

 

19) In testing a hypothesis that “territorial defense in European robins is a fixed action pattern that is released by the sight of orange feathers,” researchers found that robins defended their territory by attacking anything that was of similar size and had an orange patch. What experiment would you perform next to determine that the color initiated the defense response?

  1. A) Repeat the experiment using a blue patch instead of an orange patch.
  2. B) Repeat the experiment by removing the patch completely.
  3. C) Repeat the experiment by using a model of a robin that was twice the size of a normal robin but with a small orange patch.
  4. D) Repeat the experiment by using a model of a robin that had an orange patch that was twice the size of a normal patch.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

 

20) Squirrels will make alarm sounds when a model of an owl is placed in their territory. When a red block the same size of the owl is placed in the territory, the squirrel does not alarm. What can you conclude from these observations?

  1. A) The squirrel cannot see red objects, and so does not make alarm sounds.
  2. B) The owl model, but not the red block, is a sign that triggers the fixed action pattern of alarm vocalizations.
  3. C) The owl model is the ultimate cause of alarm vocalization behavior.
  4. D) The squirrel is trying to attract the owl into its territory.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.1

 

 

Listed are several examples of types of animal behavior. Choose the letter of the correct term  (A-E) that matches each example in the following questions.

 

  1. operant conditioning
  2. classical conditioning
  3. innate behavior
  4. imprinting
  5. altruistic behavior

 

21) Through trial and error, a rat learns to run a maze without mistakes to receive a food reward.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.2

22) A human baby performs a sucking behavior perfectly when it is put in the presence of the nipple of its mother’s breast.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.2

 

23) A mother goat can recognize its own kid by smell.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.2

 

24) A cat runs to its food dish when it hears the sound of a can opener.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) E

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.2

 

 

25) Every morning at the same time, John went into the den to feed his new tropical fish. After a few weeks, he noticed that the fish swam to the top of the tank when he entered the room. This is an example of ________.

  1. A) cognition
  2. B) imprinting
  3. C) classical conditioning
  4. D) operant conditioning

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.2

 

26) Some dogs love attention, and Frodo the beagle learns that if he barks, he gets attention. Which of the following might you use to describe this behavior?

  1. A) The dog is displaying an instinctive fixed action pattern.
  2. B) The dog is trying to protect its territory.
  3. C) The dog has been classically conditioned.
  4. D) The dog’s behavior is a result of operant conditioning.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.2

27) Scientists have tried raising endangered whooping cranes in captivity by using sandhill cranes as foster parents. This strategy is no longer used because ________.

  1. A) the fostered whooping cranes’ critical period was variable such that different chicks imprinted on different “mothers”
  2. B) sandhill crane parents rejected their fostered whooping crane chicks soon after incubation
  3. C) none of the fostered whooping cranes formed a mating pair-bond with another whooping crane
  4. D) sandhill crane parents did not properly incubate whooping crane eggs

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.2

 

28) White-crowned sparrows can only learn the “crystallized” song for their species by ________.

  1. A) listening to adult sparrow songs during a sensitive period as a fledgling, followed by a practice period until the juvenile matches its melody to its memorized fledgling song
  2. B) listening to the song of its own species during a critical period so that it will imprint to its own species song and not the songs of other songbird species
  3. C) performing the crystallized song as adults when they become sexually mature, as the song is programmed into the innate behavior for the species
  4. D) observing and practicing after receiving social confirmation from other adults at a critical period during their first episode of courtship behavior

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.2

 

29) One way to understand how early environment influences behaviors in similar species is through the “cross-fostering” experimental technique. Suppose that the curly-whiskered mud rat differs from the bald mud rat in several ways, including being much more aggressive. How would you set up a cross-fostering experiment to determine if environment plays a role in the curly-whiskered mud rat’s aggression?

  1. A) You would cross curly-whiskered mud rats and bald mud rats and hand-rear the offspring to see if any grew up to be aggressive.
  2. B) You would place newborn curly-whiskered mud rats with bald mud rat parents and place newborn bald mud rats with curly-whiskered mud rat parents. Finally, let some mud rats of both species be raised by their own species. Then you would compare the outcomes.
  3. C) You would remove the offspring of curly-whiskered mud rats and bald mud rats from their parents, raise them in the same environment but without parents, and then compare the outcomes.
  4. D) You would replace normal newborn mud rats with deformed newborn mud rats to see if it triggered an altruistic response.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.2

30) Which of the following is true of innate behaviors? Innate behaviors ________.

  1. A) are only weakly influenced by genes
  2. B) occur in invertebrates and some vertebrates but not mammals
  3. C) are limited to invertebrate animals
  4. D) are expressed in most individuals in a population

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.2

 

31) A region of the canary forebrain shrinks during the nonbreeding season and enlarges when breeding season begins. This change is probably associated with the annual ________.

  1. A) addition of new syllables to a canary’s song repertoire
  2. B) crystallization of subsong into adult songs
  3. C) renewal of mating and nest-building behaviors
  4. D) elimination of the memorized template for songs sung the previous year

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.2

 

32) Although many chimpanzees live in environments containing oil palm nuts, members of only a few populations use stones to crack open the nuts. The likely explanation is that ________.

  1. A) the behavioral difference is caused by genetic differences between populations
  2. B) members of different populations have different nutritional requirements
  3. C) the cultural tradition of using stones to crack nuts has arisen in only some populations
  4. D) members of different populations differ in learning ability

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.2

 

33) You observe a species of bird that, upon hatching, has contact with its parents only while being fed. You also never hear the parents sing during the feeding process. What would you propose about song learning in this species of bird?

  1. A) Song learning in this species is most likely learned.
  2. B) The period of imprinting is likely later in the bird’s life.
  3. C) The males will learn song when they congregate with other males of their species during the winter.
  4. D) Song learning in this species is most likely innate.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.2

 

34) Learning has the most influence on behavior when ________.

  1. A) making mistakes does not result in death
  2. B) animals reproduce asexually
  3. C) animals have enormous cognitive ability
  4. D) making mistakes results in death

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.2

35) You have captured a number of rats from a wild population and quickly surmise with tests that they are very good at avoiding food with poisons. What would best explain this observation?

  1. A) Rats are probably just intelligent enough to avoid poison.
  2. B) Rats may experience a large variety of toxins in their environment and learn to avoid them.
  3. C) Rats are taught by their parents to test small bits of food first and then return later if the food seems safe.
  4. D) Rats may be able to tolerate large amounts of poison.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.2

 

36) You observe scrub jays hiding food and notice that one particular individual only pretends to hide food. What kind of experiment could you perform to test whether this behavior was random or in response to another signal?

  1. A) Observe more of these behaviors in the wild and try to determine if the behavior is random.
  2. B) Hypothesize a set of signals that could produce this behavior and try to match the behaviors with the signals.
  3. C) Attempt to reproduce the behavior in captivity by using bird models and a computer simulation.
  4. D) Isolate the individual birds in a laboratory and repeat the observations.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.2

 

 

37) You observe scrub jays hiding food and notice that one particular individual only pretends to hide food. Your experiments associate the presence of other individuals with the frequency of pretending to cache food. A colleague shows you animals of the same species that do not perform this pretend caching. How does this information affect your conclusions about this behavior?

  1. A) It suggests that this behavior might be learned.
  2. B) It prevents you from making conclusions.
  3. C) It suggests that your experimental design is flawed.
  4. D) It does not change your initial conclusions.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.2

 

38) You discover a rare new bird species, but you are unable to observe its mating behavior. You see that the male is large and ornamental compared with the female. On this basis, you can probably conclude that the species is ________.

  1. A) polygamous
  2. B) monogamous
  3. C) polyandrous
  4. D) agonistic

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.3

39) Fred and Joe, two unrelated, mature male gorillas, encounter one another. Fred is courting a female. Fred grunts as Joe comes near. As Joe continues to advance, Fred begins drumming (pounding his chest) and bares his teeth. Joe then rolls on the ground on his back, gets up, and quickly leaves. This behavioral pattern is repeated several times during the mating season. Choose the most specific behavior described by this example.

  1. A) agonistic behavior
  2. B) territorial behavior
  3. C) learned behavior
  4. D) fixed action pattern

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.3

 

 

40) Female spotted sandpipers aggressively court males and, after mating and egg laying, leave the clutch of young for the male to incubate. This sequence may be repeated several times with different males until no available males remain, forcing the female to incubate her last clutch. Which of the following terms best describes this behavior?

  1. A) monogamy
  2. B) polygyny
  3. C) polyandry
  4. D) promiscuity

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.3

 

41) Feeding behavior with a high-energy intake-to-expenditure ratio is called ________.

  1. A) autotrophy
  2. B) heterotrophy
  3. C) search scavenging
  4. D) optimal foraging

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.3

 

42) Which of the following examples reflects the concept of optimal foraging?

  1. A) During foraging, a mule deer will consume food as soon as it finds it, regardless of the location.
  2. B) A cheetah will continue a chase for prey, regardless of how long the chase lasts or how much energy is consumed.
  3. C) A moose spends more time looking for food when the food is high quality than when the food is low quality.
  4. D) If an animal is hungry it will consume food as soon as it is found, regardless of the food quality or the risk.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.3

43) The occurrence of sexual dimorphism in a species is a likely indicator of ________.

  1. A) a monogamous mating system
  2. B) monogamy
  3. C) certainty of paternity
  4. D) agonistic behavior

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.3

 

 

44) The head-butting behavior of male bighorn sheep to establish a mating hierarchy is an example of ________.

  1. A) mate-choice copying
  2. B) sexual dimorphism
  3. C) agonistic behavior
  4. D) polygamy

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.3

 

45) Which of the following statements is true about certainty of paternity?

  1. A) Certainty of paternity is high in most species with internal fertilization because the acts of mating and birth are separated by time.
  2. B) Certainty of paternity is low when males guard females they have mated.
  3. C) Certainty of paternity is low when egg laying and mating occur together, as in external fertilization.
  4. D) Paternal behavior exists because it has been reinforced over generations by natural selection.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.3

 

46) Which of the following best describes “game theory” as it applies to animal behavior?

  1. A) The fitness of a particular behavior is influenced by other behavioral phenotypes in a population.
  2. B) The total of all of the behavioral displays, both male and female, is related to courtship.
  3. C) The play behavior performed by juveniles allows them to perfect adult behaviors that are needed for survival, such as hunting, courtship, and so on.
  4. D) The evolutionary “game” is played between predator and prey. A behavior evolves in the prey in response to the nature of the predatory behavior.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.3

 

47) The color of throats of males in a population of side-blotched lizards is determined by ________.

  1. A) ambient temperature: blue = cold; orange = normal; yellow = hot
  2. B) stage of development/maturity
  3. C) their receptiveness to mate
  4. D) the success of the mating behavior of each of the throat-color phenotypes

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.3

 

48) Use the following figure to answer the question.

 

 

Based only on the information in the figure, which of the following conclusions is most logical?

  1. A) Females produce more eggs more quickly when exposed to breeding males.
  2. B) Females produce eggs more quickly when exposed to many males than females paired with a male.
  3. C) All non-isolated females do just as well as isolated females.
  4. D) After four weeks together, females with males produce mature follicles to the same extent as females without males.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis/Evaluation

Section:  51.3

 

49) Use the following figure to answer the question.

 

 

Based on the information in the figure, which of the following would you expect to observe in these animals?

 

  1. I) sexual dimorphism
  2. II) polygamy

III) agonistic behavior

 

  1. A) only II
  2. B) I and II
  3. C) I and III
  4. D) I, II, and III

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis/Evaluation

Section:  51.3

 

Listed are several examples of types of animal behavior. Choose the letter of the correct term  (A-E) that matches each example in the following questions.

 

  1. operant conditioning
  2. classical conditioning
  3. innate behavior
  4. imprinting
  5. altruistic behavior

 

50) Upon observing a golden eagle flying overhead, a sentry prairie dog gives a warning call to other foraging members of the prairie dog community.

  1. A) B
  2. B) C
  3. C) D
  4. D) E

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.4

51) The fru gene in fruit flies ________.

 

  1. I) is a master regulatory gene that directs expression of many other genes
  2. II) can be genetically manipulated in females so that they will perform male sex behaviors

III) programs males for appropriate courtship behaviors

 

  1. A) only I and II
  2. B) only I and III
  3. C) only III
  4. D) I, II, III

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.4

 

52) Pair-bonding in a population of prairie voles can be prevented by ________.

  1. A) the ensuing confusion caused by introducing meadow voles
  2. B) administering a drug that inhibits the brain receptor for vasopressin in the central nervous system (CNS) of males
  3. C) dying the coat color from brown to blond in either male or female prairie voles
  4. D) allowing the population size to reach critically low levels

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.4

 

53) Which of the following statements about evolution of behavior is correct?

  1. A) Natural selection will favor behavior that enhances survival and reproduction.
  2. B) An animal may show behavior that minimizes reproductive fitness.
  3. C) If a behavior is less than optimal, it will eventually become optimal through natural selection.
  4. D) Innate behaviors cannot be altered by natural selection.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.4

 

54) How do altruistic behaviors arise through natural selection?

  1. A) By his/her actions, the altruist increases the likelihood that some of its genes will be passed on to the next generation.
  2. B) The altruist is appreciated by other members of the population because its survivability has been enhanced by virtue of its risky behavior.
  3. C) Animals that perform altruistic acts are allowed by their population to breed more, thereby passing on their behavior genes to future generations.
  4. D) Altruistic behaviors lower stress in populations, which increases the survivability of all the members of the population.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.4

 

55) Which of the following has a coefficient of relatedness of 0.25?

  1. A) a father to his daughter
  2. B) an uncle to his nephew
  3. C) a brother to his brother
  4. D) a sister to her brother

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.4

 

56) Animals that help other animals of the same species ________.

  1. A) have excess energy reserves
  2. B) are bigger and stronger than the other animals
  3. C) are usually related to the other animals helped
  4. D) are always male

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.4

 

57) The presence of altruistic behavior is most likely due to kin selection, a theory maintaining that ________.

  1. A) genes enhance survival of copies of themselves by directing organisms to assist others who share those genes
  2. B) companionship is advantageous to animals because in the future they can help each other
  3. C) critical thinking abilities are normal traits for animals and they have arisen, like other traits, through natural selection
  4. D) natural selection has generally favored the evolution of exaggerated aggressive and submissive behaviors to resolve conflict without grave harm to participants

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.4

 

58) If a prairie dog had the opportunity to perform an altruistic act (that is, give an alarm call) to help its relatives, which combination of the following relatives would the prairie dog be most likely to help (base your answer solely on the genetic relationships)?

  1. A) two nieces, two cousins, and one half-brother
  2. B) two half-sisters and two nieces
  3. C) one son, one niece, and one half-sister
  4. D) equal altruism to all combinations described

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.4

 

 

59) How would you classify the genetic basis for most behavioral traits in the animal kingdom?

  1. A) One gene typically codes for one behavior.
  2. B) One gene typically codes for many behaviors.
  3. C) Many genes typically code for one behavior.
  4. D) Behaviors are learned, not coded by genes.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Section:  51.4

60) What probably explains why coastal and inland garter snakes react differently to banana slug prey?

  1. A) Ancestors of coastal snakes that could eat the abundant banana slugs had increased fitness. No such selection occurred inland, where banana slugs were absent.
  2. B) Banana slugs are camouflaged, and inland snakes, which have poorer vision than coastal snakes, are less able to see them.
  3. C) Garter snakes learn about prey from other garter snakes. Inland garter snakes have fewer types of prey because they are less social.
  4. D) Inland banana slugs are distastefulRemember, inland snakes learn to avoid them. Coastal banana slugs are palatable to garter snakes.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.4

 

61) Behaviors are diverse and important for survival and reproduction. Some behaviors are learned, such as the species-specific song of a yellow warbler that is different from the song of a blue-winged warbler. Other behaviors are innate, such as a female cat in heat urinating more often and in many places to attract a mate or the honeybees’ “dance” that indicates the distance and direction of a food source when they return to their hive. Which of the following statements supports the idea that behaviors are important in survival and therefore affect natural selection?

  1. A) Learned behaviors always increase fitness.
  2. B) Innate behaviors are the result of selection for individual survival and reproductive success.
  3. C) All behaviors are survival mechanisms that increase reproductive fitness by increasing mutation rates.
  4. D) Both innate and learned behaviors are entirely based on genes inherited from parents.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis/Evaluation

Section:  51.1

 

 

62) A male stickleback fish will attack other male sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory. It will only attack male fish, which display the red belly characteristic of the species. Why has natural selection favored this behavior?

  1. A) The behavior reduces competition between species, which gives the male stickleback access to more food.
  2. B) The behavior allows the male stickleback to attract females with its aggressive display.
  3. C) The behavior allows the male to establish a defined space for breeding with female sticklebacks.
  4. D) The behavior is a mechanism to reduce predation and resource competition.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis/Evaluation

Section:  51.1

 

63) A vampire bat sharing blood with another bat that is not its kin is an example of ________.

  1. A) optimal foraging behavior
  2. B) reciprocal altruism
  3. C) learned behavior
  4. D) agonistic behavior

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Section:  51.4

51.2   Student Edition End-of-Chapter Questions

 

1) Which of the following is true of innate behaviors?

  1. A) Their expression is only weakly influenced by genes.
  2. B) They occur with or without environmental stimuli.
  3. C) They are expressed in most individuals in a population.
  4. D) They occur in invertebrates and some vertebrates but not mammals.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) According to Hamilton’s rule,

  1. A) natural selection does not favor altruistic behavior that causes the death of the altruist.
  2. B) natural selection favors altruistic acts when the resulting benefit to the recipient, corrected for relatedness, exceeds the cost to the altruist.
  3. C) natural selection is more likely to favor altruistic behavior that benefits an offspring than altruistic behavior that benefits a sibling.
  4. D) the effects of kin selection are larger than the effects of direct natural selection on individuals.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

3) Female spotted sandpipers aggressively court males and, after mating, leave the clutch of young for the male to incubate. This sequence may be repeated several times with different males until no available males remain, forcing the female to incubate her last clutch. Which of the following terms best describes this behavior?

  1. A) polygyny
  2. B) polyandry
  3. C) promiscuity
  4. D) certainty of paternity

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) A region of the canary forebrain shrinks during the nonbreeding season and enlarges when breeding season begins. This change is probably associated with the annual

  1. A) addition of new syllables to a canary’s song repertoire.
  2. B) crystallization of subsong into adult songs.
  3. C) sensitive period in which canary parents imprint on new offspring.
  4. D) elimination of the memorized template for songs sung the previous year.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

5) Although many chimpanzees live in environments with oil palm nuts, members of only a few populations use stones to crack open the nuts. The likely explanation is that

  1. A) the behavioral difference is caused by genetic differences between populations.
  2. B) members of different populations have different nutritional requirements.
  3. C) the cultural tradition of using stones to crack nuts has arisen in only some populations.
  4. D) members of different populations differ in learning ability.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

6) Which of the following is not required for a behavioral trait to evolve by natural selection?

  1. A) In each individual, the form of the behavior is determined entirely by genes.
  2. B) The behavior varies among individuals.
  3. C) An individual’s reproductive success depends in part on how the behavior is performed.
  4. D) Some component of the behavior is genetically inherited.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

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