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Chemistry 10th Edition Chang Test Bank

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Chemistry 10th Edition Chang Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0077274313

ISBN-10: 0077274318

 

 

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Chemistry 10th Edition Chang Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0077274313

ISBN-10: 0077274318

 

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Chapter 20: Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals

1. All metals are solids at room temperature (25°C) except

A) Cs. B) Cd. C) Ga. D) Hg. E) Rb.

Ans: D Category: Easy Section: 20.4

2. A naturally occurring substance with a range of chemical composition is

A) an element. B) a mineral. C) gangue. D) an ore. E) an amalgam.

Ans: B Category: Easy Section: 20.1

3. Which one of these metals would normally be obtained by electrolytic reduction?

A) aluminum B) chromium C) copper D) iron E) zinc

Ans: A Category: Medium Section: 20.2

4. Which one of these metals would normally be obtained by chemical reduction?

A) aluminum B) calcium C) lithium D) sodium E) vanadium

Ans: E Category: Medium Section: 20.2

5. The naturally occurring form of a metal that is concentrated enough to allow economical
recovery of the metal is know as

A) an element. B) a mineral. C) gangue. D) an ore. E) an amalgam.

Ans: D Category: Easy Section: 20.1

6. The flotation process used in metallurgy involves

A) the roasting of sulfides.
D) chemical reduction of a metal.

B) separation of gangue from ore.
E) zone refining.

C) electrolytic reduction

Ans: B Category: Easy Section: 20.2

7. Metallic sodium is obtained commercially from molten sodium chloride by

A) chemical reduction with magnesium. D) zone refining.

B) flotation.
E) roasting.

C) electrolysis.

Ans: C Category: Easy Section: 20.2

8. Alloys of iron that contain 1.0–1.5% carbon and some manganese, phosphorus, silicon,
and sulfur are called

A) steel. B) cast iron. C) coke. D) pig iron. E) hematite.

Ans: A Category: Medium Section: 20.2

Page 365
Chapter 20: Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals

9. Which of these reactions represents the removal of silica from iron ore in a blast furnace?

A) SiO 2(s) fi SiO 2(g)

B) SiO 2(s) + CaO(s) fi CaSiO 3(l)

C) SiO 2(s) + 4HF(g) fi SiF 4(g) + 2H2O(g)

D) SiO 2(s) + C(s) fi Si(l) + CO2(g)

E) SiO 2(s) + CO(g) fi SiCO3(l)

Ans: B Category: Medium Section: 20.2

10. The principal reducing agent in a blast furnace is

A) CaO(s) B) CaSiO 3(l) C) CO(g) D) O2(g) E) CO2(g)

Ans: C Category: Medium Section: 20.2

11. In the Hall process, ____________ is reduced ____________.

A) nickel; electrolytically

B) aluminum; electrolytically

C) nickel; by reaction with metallic sodium

D) aluminum; by reaction with metallic sodium

E) copper; electrolytically

Ans: B Category: Medium Section: 20.2

12. Volatile impurities are removed from ores by means of

A) roasting.
D) flotation.

B) amalgamation.
E) zone refining.

C) electrolysis.

Ans: A Category: Medium Section: 20.2

13. In the Mond process, nickel is purified by

A) dissolving the crude ore in sulfuric acid, and precipitating the nickel(II) ion as the
sulfate salt.

B) dissolving the crude ore in a lye (NaOH) solution, and precipitating the nickel(II)
ion as the hydroxide salt.

C) heating the crude ore to its melting point and electrolytically reducing the nickel(II)
ions to form the metal.

D) passing sodium gas over the crude ore at high temperatures, chemically reducing
the nickel(II) to nickel metal.

E) passing carbon monoxide over the impure metal at high temperature, forming the
volatile Ni(CO)4 which is removed as a gas.

Ans: E Category: Medium Sectio n: 20.2

14. According to the band theory, a band is

A) an elastic force that holds electrons close to atoms in an insulator.

B) the energy gap associated with semiconductors.

C) a large number of molecular orbitals that are close together in energy.

D) a large number of atoms in a crystal.

Ans: C Category: Medium Section: 20.3

Page 366
Chapter 20: Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals
15. According to the band theory, which of these statements provide(s) an explanation for the
high electrical conductivity of metals?

I. a partly filled conduction band

II. a valence band overlapping an empty conduction band

III. a filled valence band

IV. a large gap between the valence band and the conduction band

A) I and II B) I and III C) III D) III and IV E) IV

Ans: A Category: Medium Section: 20.3

16. What effect does increasing temperature have on the conductivities of semiconductors?

A) increases B) decreases C) no change D) cannot be predicted

Ans: A Category: Medium Section: 20.3

17. Which one of these elements would give a p-type semiconductor when added to a silicon
crystal?

A) C B) P C) As D) Ga E) Sb

Ans: D Category: Medium Section: 20.3

18. Which of these elements when doped into silicon wo uld give an n-type semiconductor?

A) C B) Ga C) P D) Ge E) B

Ans: C Category: Medium Section: 20.3

19. In p-type semiconductors,

A) the semiconductors are “ultra purified” to increase conductivity.

B) the valence and conduction bands are formed exclusively from “p orbitals.”

C) the semiconductors are “patented” for use in commercial applications.

D) acceptor impurities are added to provide “positive holes” that increase the electrical
conductivity of the semiconductor.

Ans: D Category: Medium Section: 20.3

20. In n-type semiconductors

A) the energy gap between the valence band and the conduction band is very large.

B) impurities that donate electrons are added to provide conduction electrons.

C) a valence band overlaps the empty conduction band.

D) impurities that provide “positive holes” are added to a pure semiconductor.

Ans: B Category: Medium Section: 20.3

21. Which element group includes the most reactive of all the metallic elements?

A) alkali metals
D) transition metals

B) alkaline earth metals
E) Group 2B metals

C) coinage metals (Group 1B)

Ans: A Category: Easy Section: 20.5

Page 367
Chapter 20: Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals
22. In the production of potassium metal, the source of electrons in the reduction of K
ions
is
+

A) H2(g) B) Na(g) C) CO(g) D) CaO(s) E) electrolysis

Ans: B Category: Medium Section: 20.5

23. Which two compounds are produced by the Solvay process?

A) CaCO3 and CaO
D) NH3 and NH4Cl

B) CaCO3 and Na2CO3
E) NaHCO3 and Na2CO3

C) NaHCO3 and NaCl

Ans: E Category: Medium Section: 20.5

24. Which choice gives two raw materials used in the Solvay process?

A) NaHCO3 and NaCl
D) NH3 and NaCl

B) CaCO3 and Na2CO3
E) Na2CO3 and NH4Cl

C) NaCl and NaCO3

Ans: D Category: Medium Section: 20.5

25. Basic properties are characteristic of all alkaline earth metal oxides except one. The
formula of this exception is

A) BeO B) MgO C) SO2 D) B2O3 E) CaO

Ans: A Category: Medium Section: 20.6

26. Which one of these species is an example of a basic oxide?

A) SO3(g) B) BaO(s) C) Al2O3(s) D) Fe2O3(s) E) SiO 2(s)

Ans: B Category: Medium Section: 20.6

27. Which of these ions is most likely to substitute for Ca
2+
in the human body?

2+
A) Cl
+
B) Sr
2–
C) K
2+
D) S
E) Pb

Ans: B Category: Easy Section: 20.6

28. Calcium metal is produced by electrolysis of

A) CaSO4 B) CaF2 C) CaCO3 D) Ca(OH)2 E) CaCl2

Ans: E Category: Medium Section: 20.2

29. Which one of these elements has seawater as its commercial source?

A) Mg B) Al C) Ca D) Sn E) Cd

Ans: A Category: Easy Section: 20.2

30. The mineral cryolite, Na3AlF 6, is used in the Hall process for aluminum production as

A) the source of aluminum (the ore).

B) a chemical reducing agent.

C) a material that forms a slag and thus removes impurities.

D) a solvent for alumina, Al2O3.

Ans: D Category: Medium Section: 20.7

Page 368
Chapter 20: Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals
31. The Hall process involves the reduction of Al2O3 to aluminum by

A) carbon (coke).
D) sodium.

B) carbon monoxide.
E) electrolysis.

C) molecular hydrogen.

Ans: E Category: Medium Section: 20.7

32. Aluminum is an active metal, but does not corrode as iron does because

A) Al does not react with O2.

B) a protective layer of Al2O3 forms on the metal surface.

C) Al is harder to oxidize than is Fe.

D) the enthalpy of formation of aluminum oxide is negative.

E) aluminum has a high tensile strength.

Ans: B Category: Medium Section: 20.7

33. Which of these statements does not describe a property of aluminum?

A) Al is an efficient electrical conductor.

B) Al has a low density compared to other metals.

C) Al forms an amphoteric hydroxide.

D) Al is generally considered toxic to humans.

E) Al has a great affinity for oxygen.

Ans: D Category: Medium Section: 20.7

34. Which of the following it not true comparing aluminum to copper?

A) Aluminum is cheaper than copper.

B) Aluminum is lighter than copper.

C) Aluminum is a better conductor of electricity than copper.

D) Aluminum is easier to oxidize than copper.

Ans: C Category: Medium Section: 20.7

35. Aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is

A) an acid.
D) an explosive hydroxide.

B) an amphoteric hydroxide.
E) used to make amalgams.

C) a base.

Ans: B Category: Medium Section: 20.7

36. In Al2Cl6, the geometry of the molecule at each aluminum atom is
A) trigonal planar
D) square planar

B) tetrahedral
E) octahedral

C) trigonal pyramidal

Ans: B Category: Medium Section: 20.7

Page 369
Chapter 20: Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals
37. For the reaction 3Fe(s) + C(s) ƒ Fe3C(s), DH° = 21 kJ/mol and DS° = 20.4 J/mol·K at
25°C. Estimate the minimum temperature above which the formation of cementite
(Fe3C) is favored.

A) 1.0°C B) 970°C C) 700°C D) 1000°C E) 760°C

Ans: E Category: Medium Section: 20.2

38. The equilibrium 3Fe(s) + C(s) ƒ Fe3C(s) is established in a solid solution. For such a
solution, one can write an equilibrium constant in the usual way except that here one has
concentrations that refer to solids in the solid solution. Determine the equilibrium
constant for the formation of cementite from iron and carbon at 680°C. (Given: for this
reaction at 25°C, DH° = 21 kJ/mol and DS° = 20.4 J/mol·K)

A) 0.75 B) 0.33 C) 3.1 D) 0.82 E) 1.2

Ans: D Category: Difficult Section: 20.2 (and Chapter 17)

39. Write the chemical formula of epsomite (sold in pharmacies as Epsom salts).

Ans: MgSO4×7H2O

Category: Medium Section: 20.6

40. Write the chemical formula of calcite.

Ans: CaCO3

Category: Medium Section: 20.6

41. Write the chemical formula of fluorite.

Ans: CaF2

Category: Medium Section: 20.6

42. Write the chemical formula of dolomite that provides a source for both magnesium and
calcium.

Ans: CaCO3 × MgCO3

Category: Medium Section: 20.6

43. Write the chemical formula of halite.

Ans: NaCl

Category: Medium Section: 20.6

44. Write the chemical formula of corundum.

Ans: Al2O3

Category: Medium Section: 20.7

45. Write the chemical formula of pyrite.

Ans: FeS2

Category: Medium Section: 20.2

Page 370
Chapter 20: Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals
46. Write the chemical formula of magnetite.

Ans: Fe3O4 (accept FeO × Fe2O3)

Category: Medium Section: 20.2

47. Write a balanced chemical equation illustrating chemical reduction.

Ans: Cr2O3 + 2Al fi 2Cr + Al2O3 (many other choices are possible)

Category: Medium Section: 20.2

48. Write a balanced chemical equation illustrating roasting.

Ans: 2ZnS + 3O2 fi 2ZnO + 2SO2 (many other choices are possible)

Category: Medium Section: 20.2

49. Why is cryolite, Na3AlF 6, mixed with alumina prior to electrolysis in the production of
Al?

Ans: It acts is a solvent.

Category: Medium Section: 20.7

50. Write two balanced chemical equations for the burning of magnesium in air.
Ans: 2Mg(s) + O2(g) fi 2MgO(s) and 3Mg(s) + N2(g) fi Mg3N2(s)

Category: Medium Section: 20.6

51. The following reaction is used to produce titanium metal at high temperature.

TiCl4(g) + 2Mg(l) fi Ti(s) + 2MgCl2(l)

Which element is oxidized and which is reduced?

Ans: titanium is reduced (Ti
4+
fi Ti) and magnesium is oxidized (Mg fi Mg
2+
)

Category: Medium Section: 20.2

52. The following reaction is used to produce chromium metal at high temperature.

Cr2O3(s) + 2Al(s) fi 2Cr(l) + Al2O3(s)

Which element is oxidized and which is reduced?

Ans: chromium is reduced (Cr
3+
fi Cr) and aluminum is oxidized (Al fi Al
3+
)

Category: Medium Section: 20.2

53. Potassium superoxide, KO2(s), is used in the breathing systems of biohazard suits. Write
separate chemical equations showing how KO2(s) reacts with moisture and carbon
dioxide in exhaled air to generate oxygen gas.

Ans: 2KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) fi 2KOH(aq) + O2(g) + H2O2(aq)

4KO2(s) + 2CO2(g) fi 2K2CO3(s) + 3O2(g)

Category: Medium Section: 20.5

54. Three means used to concentrate ores are flotation, ferromagnetic separation, and
amalgamation.

Ans: True Category: Medium Section: 20.2

Page 371
Chapter 20: Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals
55. Mercury, magnesium, and zinc have low enough boiling points that they can be purified
by distillation.

Ans: True Category: Medium Section: 20.2

56. Cast iron as it is prepared in a blast furnace is a product of high purity.

Ans: False Category: Medium Section: 20.2

57. Beryllium, the first element in Group 2A, is the most metallic element in the group.

Ans: False Category: Medium Section: 20.2

58. Bauxite (Al2O3·2H2O) ore is the principal commercial source of aluminum metal.

Ans: True Category: Easy Section: 20.7

Page 372

 

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