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Chemistry A Molecular Approach 3rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Test Bank

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Chemistry A Molecular Approach 3rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321809247

ISBN-10: 0321809246

 

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Chemistry A Molecular Approach 3rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321809247

ISBN-10: 0321809246

 

 

 

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3e (Tro)

Chapter 14   Chemical Equilibrium

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. A) When K >> 1, the forward reaction is favored and essentially goes to completion.
  2. B) When K << 1, the reverse reaction is favored and the forward reaction does not proceed to a great extent.
  3. C) When K ≈ 1, neither the forward or reverse reaction is strongly favored, and about the same amount of reactants and products exist at equilibrium.
  4. D) K >> 1 implies that the reaction is very fast at producing products.
  5. E) None of the above.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.3

 

2) Give the direction of the reaction, if K >> 1.

  1. A) The forward reaction is favored.
  2. B) The reverse reaction is favored.
  3. C) Neither direction is favored.
  4. D) If the temperature is raised, then the forward reaction is favored.
  5. E) If the temperature is raised, then the reverse reaction is favored.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.3

 

3) Give the direction of the reaction, if K << 1.

  1. A) The forward reaction is favored.
  2. B) The reverse reaction is favored.
  3. C) Neither direction is favored.
  4. D) If the temperature is raised, then the forward reaction is favored.
  5. E) If the temperature is raised, then the reverse reaction is favored.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.3

 

4) Give the direction of the reaction, if K ≈ 1.

  1. A) The forward reaction is favored.
  2. B) The reverse reaction is favored.
  3. C) Neither direction is favored.
  4. D) If the temperature is raised, then the forward reaction is favored.
  5. E) If the temperature is raised, then the reverse reaction is favored.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.3

 

 

5) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

16 CH3Cl(g) + 8 Cl2(g) ⇔  16 CH2Cl2(g) + 8 H2(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K =
  5. E) K =

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

6) The equilibrium constant is given for one of the reactions below.  Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.

 

H2(g) + Br2(g)  ⇌  2 HBr(g)        Kc = 3.8 × 104

2 HBr(g)  ⇌  H2(g) + Br2(g)        Kc =   ?

 

  1. A) 1.9 × 104
  2. B) 5.3 × 10-5
  3. C) 2.6 × 10-5
  4. D) 6.4 × 10-4
  5. E) 1.6 × 103

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

 

7) The equilibrium constant is given for one of the reactions below.  Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.

 

H2(g) + Br2(g)  ⇌  2 HBr(g)              Kc = 3.8 × 104

4 HBr(g)  ⇌  2 H2(g) + 2 Br2(g)        Kc =   ?

 

  1. A) 1.9 × 104
  2. B) 5.1 × 10-3
  3. C) 2.6 × 10-5
  4. D) 6.9 × 10-10
  5. E) 1.6 × 103

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

8) The equilibrium constant is given for one of the reactions below.  Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.

 

2 SO2(g) + O2(g)  ⇌  2 SO3(g)         Kc = 1.7 × 106

SO3(g)  ⇌  1/2 O2(g) + SO2(g)         Kc =  ?

 

  1. A) 3.4 × 102
  2. B) 8.5
  3. C) 1.3 × 103
  4. D) 1.2 × 10-6
  5. E) 7.7 × 10-4

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

9) The equilibrium constant is given for two of the reactions below.  Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.

 

A(g) + B(g) ⇌  AB(g)            Kc = 0.24

AB(g) + A(g) ⇌  A2B(g)        Kc = 3.8

2 A(g) + B(g)  ⇌  A2B(g)      Kc = ?

 

  1. A) 4.0
  2. B) 0.91
  3. C) 3.6
  4. D) 16
  5. E) 0.063

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

 

10) The equilibrium constant is given for two of the reactions below.  Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.

 

A(g) + 2B(g) ⇌  AB2(g)        Kc = 59

AB2(g) + B(g) ⇌  AB3(g)      Kc = ?

A(g) + 3B(g)  ⇌  AB3(g)       Kc = 478

 

  1. A) 3.5 × 10-5
  2. B) 2.8 × 104
  3. C) 8.1
  4. D) 0.12
  5. E) 89

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

11) The equilibrium constant is given for two of the reactions below.  Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.

 

2A(g) + B(g) ⇌  A2B(g)        Kc = ?

A2B(g) + B(g) ⇌  A2B2(g)    Kc = 16.4

2A(g) + 2B(g)  ⇌  A2B2(g)   Kc = 28.2

 

  1. A) 11.8
  2. B) 0.00216
  3. C) 0.582
  4. D) 462
  5. E) 1.72

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

12) What is Δn for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

2 SO2(g) + O2(g)  ⇌  2 SO3(g)

 

  1. A) 3
  2. B) -1
  3. C) -2
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 1

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

 

13) What is Δn for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

N2O4(g)  ⇌ 2NO2(g)

 

  1. A) 3
  2. B) -1
  3. C) -2
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 1

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

14) What is Δn for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g)  ⇌ 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l)

 

  1. A) 3
  2. B) -1
  3. C) -3
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 1

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

15) What is Δn for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

4 NH3(g) + 3 O2(g) ⇌ 2 N2(g) + 6 H2O(g)

 

  1. A) 3
  2. B) -1
  3. C) -2
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 1

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

16) What is Δn for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

SO3(g) + NO(g) ⇌ SO2(g) + NO2(g)

 

  1. A) 0
  2. B) -1
  3. C) -2
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 1

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

 

17) In which of the following reactions will Kc = Kp?

  1. A) 4 NH3(g) + 3 O2(g) ⇌ 2 N2(g) + 6 H2O(g)
  2. B) SO3(g) + NO(g) ⇌ SO2(g) + NO2(g)
  3. C) 2 N2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 N2O(g)
  4. D) 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 SO3(g)
  5. E) None of the above reactions have Kc= Kp.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

18) The reaction below has a Kp value of 3.3 x 10-5.  What is the value of Kc for this reaction at 700 K?

 

2 SO3(g) ⇌  2 SO2(g) + O2(g)

 

  1. A) 5.7 × 10-7
  2. B) 1.7 × 106
  3. C) 3.3 × 10-5
  4. D) 3.0 × 104
  5. E) 1.9 × 10-3

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.4

 

19) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

P4(s) + 5 O2(g)  ⇌  P4O10(s)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K = [O2]-5
  4. D) K = [O2]5
  5. E) K =

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.5

 

 

20) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

P4O10(s)  ⇌  P4(s) + 5 O2(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K = [O2]-5
  4. D) K = [O2]5
  5. E) K =

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.5

 

21) Determine the value of Kc for the following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations are as follows:  [P4O10]eq = 2.000 moles, [P4]eq = 3.000 moles, [O2]eq = 4.000 M

 

P4O10(s)  ⇌  P4(s) + 5 O2(g)

 

  1. A) 20.00
  2. B) 4.000
  3. C) 1.320
  4. D) 1536
  5. E) 1024

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.5

 

22) Determine the value of Kc for the following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations are as follows: [N2]eq = 3.6 M, [O2]eq = 4.1 M, [N2O]eq = 3.3 × 10-18 M.

 

2 N2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 N2O(g)

 

  1. A) 2.2 × 10-19
  2. B) 4.5 × 1018
  3. C) 2.0 × 10-37
  4. D) 5.0 × 1036
  5. E) 4.9 × 10-17

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.6

 

 

23) Determine the value of Kc for the following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations are as follows: [N2]eq = 1.5 M, [H2]eq = 1.1 M, [NH3]eq = 0.47 M.

 

N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ⇌ 2 NH3(g)

 

  1. A) 3.5
  2. B) 0.28
  3. C) 9.1
  4. D) 0.11
  5. E) 0.78

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.6

 

24) Determine the value of Kc for the following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations are as follows: [HCl]eq = 0.13 M, [HI]eq = 5.6 × 10-16 M, [Cl2]eq = 0.0019 M.

 

2 HCl(g) + I2(s) ⇌ 2 HI(g) + Cl2(g)

 

  1. A) 8.2 × 10-18
  2. B) 2.8 × 1031
  3. C) 1.2 × 1017
  4. D) 1.4 × 10-19
  5. E) 3.5 × 10-32

Answer:  E

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.6

 

25) Determine the value of Kc for the following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations are as follows: [HCl]eq = 0.13 M, [HI]eq = 5.6 × 10-16 M, [Cl2]eq = 0.0019 M.

 

2 HI(g) + Cl2(g)  ⇌  2 HCl(g) + I2(s)

 

  1. A) 8.2 × 10-18
  2. B) 2.8 × 1031
  3. C) 1.2 × 1017
  4. D) 1.4 × 10-19
  5. E) 3.5 × 10-32

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.6

 

 

26) Determine the value of Kp for the following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations are as follows: P(CO)eq = 6.8 × 10-11 atm, P(O2)eq = 1.3 × 10-3 atm, P(CO2)eq = 0.041 atm.

 

2 CO(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 CO2(g)

 

  1. A) 3.6 × 10-21
  2. B) 2.8 × 1020
  3. C) 4.6 × 1011
  4. D) 2.2 × 10-12
  5. E) 3.6 × 10-15

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.6

 

27) Calculate the value of [N2]eq if [H2]eq = 2.0 M, [NH3]eq = 0.5 M, and Kc = 2.

 

N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ⇌ 2 NH3(g)

 

  1. A) 0.016 M
  2. B) 0.031 M
  3. C) 0.062 M
  4. D) 0.40 M
  5. E) 62.5 M

Answer:  A

Diff: 4      Page Ref: 14.6

 

28) Calculate P [NO]eq, if P [NOCl]eq = 0.33 atm, P [Cl2]eq = 0.50 atm, and Kp = 1.9 x 10-2.

 

2 NOCl(g)  ⇌  2 NO(g) + Cl2(g)

 

  1. A) 1.7 atm
  2. B) 0.0042 atm
  3. C) 0.30 atm
  4. D) 0.064 atm
  5. E) 0.087 atm

Answer:  D

Diff: 4      Page Ref: 14.6

 

29) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) Dynamic equilibrium occurs when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
  2. B) The equilibrium constant for the forward reaction is equal to the equilibrium constant for the reverse reaction.
  3. C) A reaction quotient (Q) larger than the equilibrium constant (K) means that the reaction will favor the production of more products.
  4. D) Dynamic equilibrium indicates that the amount of reactants and products are equal.
  5. E) All of the above are true.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

30) In a reaction mixture containing only reactants, what is the value of Q?

  1. A) -1
  2. B) 1
  3. C) ∞
  4. D) 0
  5. E) It cannot be determined without concentrations.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

31) In a reaction mixture containing only products, what is the value of Q?

  1. A) -1
  2. B) 1
  3. C) ∞
  4. D) 0
  5. E) It cannot be determined without concentrations.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

32) In a reaction mixture containing reactants and products, each at a concentration of 1M, what is the value of Q?

  1. A) -1
  2. B) 1
  3. C) ∞
  4. D) 0
  5. E) It cannot be determined without concentrations.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

33) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) If Q < K, it means the reverse reaction will proceed to form more reactants.
  2. B) If Q > K, it means the forward reaction will proceed to form more products.
  3. C) If Q = K, it means the reaction is at equilibrium.
  4. D) All of the above are true.
  5. E) None of the above are true.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

34) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) If Q < K, it means the reverse reaction will proceed to form more reactants.
  2. B) If Q > K, it means the reverse reaction will proceed to form more reactants.
  3. C) If Q = K, it means the reaction is not at equilibrium.
  4. D) All of the above are true.
  5. E) None of the above are true.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

 

35) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) If Q < K, it means the forward reaction will proceed to form more products.
  2. B) If Q > K, it means the forward reaction will proceed to form more products.
  3. C) If Q = K, it means the reaction is not at equilibrium.
  4. D) All of the above are true.
  5. E) None of the above are true.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

36) Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature.  Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2O(g).

 

C2H4(g) + H2O(g) ⇌  C2H5OH(g) Kc = 9.0 × 103

 

[C2H4]eq = 0.015 M                        [C2H5OH]eq = 1.69 M

 

  1. A) 9.9 × 10-7M
  2. B) 80. M
  3. C) 1.0 M
  4. D) 1.68 M
  5. E) 0.013 M

Answer:  E

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.8

 

37) Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature.  Determine the equilibrium concentration of SO3(g).

 

2 SO2(g) + O2(g)  ⇌  2 SO3(g)          Kc = 1.7 × 108

 

[SO2]eq = 0.0034 M                           [O2]eq = 0.0018 M

 

  1. A) 1.9 M
  2. B) 1.0 × 103M
  3. C) 0.53 M
  4. D) 9.6 x 10-4M
  5. E) 0.73 M

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.8

 

 

38) Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature.  Determine the equilibrium concentration of SO3(g).

 

2 SO2(g) + O2(g)  ⇌  2 SO3(g)          Kc = 1.7 × 108

 

[SO3]eq = 0.0034 M                           [O2]eq = 0.0018 M

 

  1. A) 8 x 1013M
  2. B) 88 M
  3. C) 6.1 x 10-6M
  4. D) 1.0 x 103M
  5. E) 1.4 M

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.8

 

39) Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature.  Determine the equilibrium pressure of H2.

 

D2(g) + H2(g)  ⇌ 2 HD(g)              Kp = 1.80

 

P(D2)eq = 1.1 × 10-3 atm                P(HD)eq = 2.7 × 10-3 atm

 

  1. A) 2.7 atm
  2. B) 1.4 atm
  3. C) 0.73 atm
  4. D) 3.7 × 10-3atm
  5. E) 8.1 × 10-4atm

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.8

 

40) Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature.  Determine the equilibrium pressure of CO.

 

CO(g) + 2 H2(g) ⇌  CH3OH(l)          Kp = 2.25 × 104

 

P(H2)eq = 0.52 atm

 

  1. A) 8.3 x 104atm
  2. B) 1.2 x 10-5atm
  3. C) 6.25 x 10-3atm
  4. D) 8.5 x 10-5atm
  5. E) 1.6 x 10-4atm

Answer:  E

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.8

 

 

41) Consider the following reaction:

 

Xe(g) + 2 F2(g) →  XeF4(g)

 

A reaction mixture initially contains 2.24 atm Xe and 4.27 atm F2.  If the equilibrium pressure of Xe is 0.34 atm, find the equilibrium constant (Kp) for the reaction.

  1. A) 25
  2. B) 0.12
  3. C) 0.99
  4. D) 8.3
  5. E) 0.040

Answer:  A

Diff: 4      Page Ref: 14.8

 

42) Consider the following reaction:

 

CH4(g) + 2 H2S(g) ⇌  CS2(g) + 4 H2(g)

 

A reaction mixture initially contains 0.50 M CH4 and 0.75 M H2S.  If the equilibrium concentration of H2 is 0.44 M, find the equilibrium constant (Kc) for the reaction.

  1. A) 0.23
  2. B) 0.038
  3. C) 2.9
  4. D) 10.
  5. E) 0.34

Answer:  B

Diff: 4      Page Ref: 14.8

 

43) Consider the following reaction:

 

COCl2(g)  ⇌  CO(g) + Cl2(g)

 

A reaction mixture initially contains 1.6 M COCl2.  Determine the equilibrium concentration of CO if Kc for the reaction at this temperature is 8.33 × 10-4.  Calculate this based on the assumption that the answer is negligible compared to 1.6.

  1. A) 4.2 × 10-4M
  2. B) 1.5 × 10-3M
  3. C) 3.7 × 10-2M
  4. D) 2.1 × 10-2M
  5. E) 1.3 × 10-3M

Answer:  C

Diff: 4      Page Ref: 14.8

 

 

44) Consider the following reaction:

 

CuS(s) + O2(g)  ⇌  Cu(s) + SO2(g)

 

A reaction mixture initially contains 2.9 M O2.  Determine the equilibrium concentration of O2 if Kc for the reaction at this temperature is 1.5.

  1. A) 1.9 M
  2. B) 1.7 M
  3. C) 2.2 M
  4. D) 1.2 M
  5. E) 0.59 M

Answer:  D

Diff: 4      Page Ref: 14.8

 

45) Consider the following reaction:

 

2 H2O(g) + 2 SO2(g) ⇌  2 H2S(g) + 3 O2(g)

 

A reaction mixture initially contains 2.8 M H2O and 2.6 M SO2.  Determine the equilibrium concentration of H2S if Kc for the reaction at this temperature is 1.3 × 10-6.

  1. A) 0.045 M
  2. B) 0.058 M
  3. C) 0.028 M
  4. D) 3.1 × 10-3M
  5. E) 0.12 M

Answer:  E

Diff: 4      Page Ref: 14.8

 

46) Consider the following reaction:

 

CO2(g) + C(graphite) ⇌ 2 CO(g)

 

A reaction mixture initially contains 0.56 atm CO2 and 0.32 atm CO.  Determine the equilibrium pressure of CO if Kp for the reaction at this temperature is 2.25.

  1. A) 0.83 atm
  2. B) 0.31 atm
  3. C) 0.26 atm
  4. D) 0.58 atm
  5. E) 0.42 atm

Answer:  A

Diff: 5      Page Ref: 14.8

 

 

47) Consider the following reaction:

 

NO(g) + SO3(g)  ⇌  NO2(g) + SO2(g)

 

A reaction mixture initially contains 0.86 atm NO and 0.86 atm SO3.  Determine the equilibrium pressure of NO2 if Kp for the reaction at this temperature is 0.0118.

  1. A) 0.78 atm
  2. B) 0.084 atm
  3. C) 0.012 atm
  4. D) 0.85 atm
  5. E) 0.048 atm

Answer:  B

Diff: 5      Page Ref: 14.8

 

48) The following reaction is exothermic.  Which change will shift the equilibrium to the left?

 

2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 SO3(g)

 

  1. A) raising the temperature
  2. B) adding SO3
  3. C) removing O2
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.9

 

49) The following reaction is exothermic.  Which change will shift the equilibrium to the left?

 

2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 SO3(g)

 

  1. A) raising the temperature
  2. B) decrease pressure
  3. C) increase volume
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.9

 

 

50) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will adding more SO3 have on the system?

 

SO2(g) + NO2(g) ⇌ SO3(g) + NO(g)

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift in the direction of products.
  2. B) The reaction will shift to decrease the pressure.
  3. C) No change will occur since SO3is not included in the equilibrium expression.
  4. D) The reaction will shift in the direction of reactants.
  5. E) The equilibrium constant will decrease.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

51) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will removing NO2 have on the system?

 

SO2(g) + NO2(g) ⇌ SO3(g) + NO(g)

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift in the direction of products.
  2. B) The reaction will shift to decrease the pressure.
  3. C) No change will occur since SO3is not included in the equilibrium expression.
  4. D) The reaction will shift in the direction of reactants.
  5. E) The equilibrium constant will decrease.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

52) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will adding more H2S have on the system?

 

2 H2S(g) + 3 O2(g)  ⇌  2 H2O(g) + 2 SO2(g)

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the left.
  2. B) No change will be observed.
  3. C) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  5. E) The reaction will shift in the direction of products.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

 

53) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will removing H2O have on the system?

 

2 H2S(g) + 3 O2(g)  ⇌  2 H2O(g) + 2 SO2(g)

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the left.
  2. B) No change will be observed.
  3. C) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  5. E) The reaction will shift in the direction of products.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

54) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will increasing the volume of the reaction mixture have on the system?

 

2 H2S(g) + 3 O2(g)  ⇌  2 H2O(g) + 2 SO2(g)

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  2. B) No effect will be observed.
  3. C) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  5. E) The equilibrium constant will increase.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

55) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will increasing the pressure of the reaction mixture have on the system?

 

2 H2S(g) + 3 O2(g)  ⇌  2 H2O(g) + 2 SO2(g)

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  2. B) No effect will be observed.
  3. C) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  5. E) The equilibrium constant will increase.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

 

56) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will adding 1 mole of Ar to the reaction mixture have on the system?

 

2 H2S(g) + 3 O2(g)  ⇌  2 H2O(g) + 2 SO2(g)

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  2. B) No effect will be observed.
  3. C) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  5. E) The equilibrium constant will increase.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

57) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will adding some C have on the system?

 

CO2(g) + C(graphite) ⇌ 2 CO(g)

 

  1. A) No effect will be observed since C is not included in the equilibrium expression.
  2. B) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  3. C) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  5. E) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

58) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will adding CO2 have on the system?

 

CO2(g) + C(graphite) ⇌ 2 CO(g)

 

  1. A) No effect will be observed since CO2is not included in the equilibrium expression.
  2. B) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  3. C) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  5. E) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

59) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will reducing the volume of the reaction mixture have on the system?

 

CuS(s) + O2(g)  ⇌  Cu(s) + SO2(g)

 

  1. A) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  2. B) No effect will be observed.
  3. C) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  5. E) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

60) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will increasing the pressure of the reaction mixture have on the system?

 

CuS(s) + O2(g)  ⇌  Cu(s) + SO2(g)

 

  1. A) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  2. B) No effect will be observed.
  3. C) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  5. E) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

61) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will reducing the volume of the reaction mixture have on the system?

 

Xe(g) + 2 F2(g) →  XeF4(g)

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  2. B) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  3. C) No effect will be observed.
  4. D) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  5. E) The equilibrium constant will decrease.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

62) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will reducing the pressure of the reaction mixture have on the system?

 

Xe(g) + 2 F2(g) →  XeF4(g)

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  2. B) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  3. C) No effect will be observed.
  4. D) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  5. E) The equilibrium constant will decrease.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

 

63) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will increasing the temperature have on the system?

 

Fe3O4(s) + CO(g) ⇌  3 FeO(s) + CO2(g)      ΔH°=  +35.9 kJ

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  2. B) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  3. C) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  4. D) No effect will be observed.
  5. E) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

64) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will decreasing the temperature have on the system?

 

CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) ⇌ CH4(g) + 2 O2(g)       ΔH° = +890 kJ

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  2. B) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  3. C) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  4. D) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  5. E) No effect will be observed.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

65) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will increasing the temperature have on the system?

 

C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g)  ⇌ 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l)          ΔH° = -2220 kJ

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  2. B) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  3. C) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  5. E) No effect will be observed.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

 

66) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will reducing the volume have on the system?

 

C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g)  ⇌ 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l)       ΔH° = -2220 kJ

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  2. B) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  3. C) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  5. E) No effect will be observed.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

67) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium.  What effect will reducing the pressure have on the system?

 

C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g)  ⇌ 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l) ΔH° = -2220 kJ

 

  1. A) The reaction will shift to the right in the direction of products.
  2. B) The reaction will shift to the left in the direction of reactants.
  3. C) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  5. E) No effect will be observed.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

Algorithmic Questions

 

1) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

4 CH3Cl(g) + 2 Cl2(g) ⇔ 4 CH2Cl2(g) + 2 H2(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K =
  5. E) K =

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

2) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

6 N2(g) + 18 H2(g) ⇔  12 NH3(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K =
  5. E) K =

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

3) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

12 NH3(g)  ⇔ 6 N2(g) + 18 H2(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K =
  5. E) K =

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

 

4) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

4PCl5(g) ⇌ 4PCl3(g) + 4Cl2(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K =
  5. E) K =

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

5) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

5H2(g) + 5Br2(g)  ⇌  10 HBr(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K =
  5. E) K =

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

 

6) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

8 P(g) + 12 Cl2(g)  ⇌  8 PCl3(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K =
  5. E) K =

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

7) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

P(g) + 3/2 Cl2(g)  ⇌  PCl3(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K =
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K =
  5. E) K =

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

 

8) The equilibrium constant is given for one of the reactions below.  Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.

 

2 HD(g)  ⇌  H2(g) + D2(g)    Kc =  0.28

6 H2(g) + 6 D2(g)  ⇌  12 HD(g)        Kc = ?

 

  1. A) 0.00048
  2. B) 1.2
  3. C) 1.62
  4. D) 2075
  5. E) 0.81

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

9) The equilibrium constant is given for one of the reactions below.  Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.

 

N2O4(g)  ⇌  2 NO2(g)           Kc = 1.46

5 N2O4(g)  ⇌  10 NO2(g)      Kc = ?

 

  1. A) 1.46
  2. B) 0.292
  3. C) 6.63
  4. D) 1.08
  5. E) 7.30

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.3

 

10) For the reaction: N2(g) + 2 O2(g) ⇌ 2 NO2(g), Kc = 8.3 × 10-10 at 25°C. What is the concentration of N2 gas at equilibrium when the concentration of NO2 is five times the concentration of O2 gas?

  1. A) 3.3 × 10-11M
  2. B) 1.7 × 10-10M
  3. C) 6.0 × 109M
  4. D) 3.0 × 1010M

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.4

 

 

11) The Kp for the reaction below is 1.49 × 108 at 100.0°C:

 

CO(g) + Cl2(g)  →  COCl2(g)

 

In an equilibrium mixture of the three gases, PCO = PCl2 = 2.22 × 10-4 atm. The partial pressure of the product, phosgene (COCl2), is ________ atm.

  1. A) 7.34
  2. B) 3.02 × 1015
  3. C) 3.31 × 10-16
  4. D) 3.31 × 104
  5. E) 6.67 × 1011

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.4

 

12) At 900.0 K, the equilibrium constant (Kp) for the following reaction is 0.345.

 

2SO2 + O2(g)  →  2SO3(g)

 

At equilibrium, the partial pressure of SO2 is 35.0 atm and that of O2 is 15.9 atm. The partial pressure of SO3 is ________ atm.

  1. A) 82.0
  2. B) 4.21 ×
  3. C) 192
  4. D) 6.20 × 10-4
  5. E) 40.2

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.4

 

13) The decomposition of ammonia is: 2 NH3(g) → N2(g) + 3 H2(g). If Kp is 1.5 × 103 at 400°C, what is the partial pressure of ammonia at equilibrium when N2 is 0.10 atm and H2 is 0.15 atm?

  1. A) 2.2 × 10-7atm
  2. B) 4.7 × 10-4atm
  3. C) 2.1 × 103atm
  4. D) 4.4 × 106atm

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.4

 

 

14) Phosphorous trichloride and phosphorous pentachloride equilibrate in the presence of molecular chlorine according to the reaction:

 

PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)  →  PCl5(g)

 

An equilibrium mixture at 450 K contains

PPCl3 = 0.124 atm,

PCl2 = 0.157 atm, and

PPCl5 = 1.30 atm. What is the value of Kp at this temperature?

  1. A) 66.7
  2. B) 1.50 ×
  3. C) 2.53 × 10-2
  4. D) 1.02
  5. E) 4.63

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.4

 

15) What is Δn for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

N2(g) + 3 Cl2(g)  ⇌  2 NCl3(g)

 

  1. A) 4
  2. B) -4
  3. C) -2
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 1

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

16) What is Δn for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

CH4(g) + H2O(g)  ⇌  CO(g) + 3 H2(g)

 

  1. A) -3
  2. B) -1
  3. C) -2
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 0

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

 

17) In which of the following reactions will Kc = Kp?

  1. A) H2(g) + I2(g) ⇌ 2 HI(g)
  2. B) CH4(g) + H2O(g) ⇌ CO(g) + 3 H2(g)
  3. C) N2O4(g) ⇌ 2NO2(g)
  4. D) CO(g) + 2 H2(g) ⇌ CH3OH(g)
  5. E) N2(g) + 3 Cl2(g) ⇌ 2 NCl3(g)

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

18) The reaction below has a Kc value of 61.  What is the value of Kp for this reaction at 400 K?

 

N2(g) + 3 H2(g)  ⇌  2 NH3(g)

 

  1. A) 15
  2. B) 61
  3. C) 1.8
  4. D) 5.7 × 10-2
  5. E) 1.9 × 10-2

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.4

 

19) The reaction below has a Kp value of 41.  What is the value of Kc for this reaction at 400 K?

 

N2(g) + 3 H2(g)  ⇌  2 NH3(g)

 

  1. A) 3.8 × 10-2
  2. B) 4.4 × 104
  3. C) 26
  4. D) 2.3 × 10-5
  5. E) 41

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.4

 

20) The reaction below has a Kc value of 1.0 × 1012.  What is the value of Kp for this reaction at 200 K?

 

2 SO2(g) + O2(g)  ⇌  2 SO3(g)

 

  1. A) 6.1 × 10-14
  2. B) 1.0 × 1012
  3. C) 1.6 × 10-11
  4. D) 1.6 × 1013
  5. E) 6.1 × 1010

Answer:  E

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.4

 

21) What is △n for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

P4(s) + 5 O2(g)  ⇌  P4O10(s)

 

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 4
  3. C) -2
  4. D) -6
  5. E) -5

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

22) What is △n for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

2 Rb(s) + 2 H2O(l)  ⇌  2 RbOH(aq) + H2(g)

 

  1. A) 3
  2. B) -1
  3. C) -2
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 1

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

23) What is △n for the following equation in relating Kc to Kp?

 

KBrO3(s)  ⇌  KBrO(s) + O2(g)

 

  1. A) 3
  2. B) -1
  3. C) -2
  4. D) 2
  5. E) 1

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

24) For which reaction will Kp = Kc?

  1. A) C(s) + O2(g)  ⇌  CO2(g)
  2. B) 2 HgO(s) ⇌ Hg(l) + O2(g)
  3. C) CaCO3(s) ⇌ CaO(s)  +  CO2(g)
  4. D) H2CO3(s) ⇌ H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  5. E) 2 H2O(l) ⇌ 2 H2(g)  +  O2(g)

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

 

25) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

2 K(s) + 2 H2O(l)  ⇌  2 KOH(aq) + H2(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K = [H2][KOH]-2
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K = [H2][KOH]2
  5. E) K =

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.5

 

26) Express the equilibrium constant for the following reaction.

 

NaClO3(s)  ⇌  NaClO(s) + O2(g)

 

  1. A) K =
  2. B) K = [O2]-1
  3. C) K =
  4. D) K =
  5. E) K = [O2]

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.5

 

 

27) An equilibrium mixture of CO, O2 and CO2 at a certain temperature contains 0.0010 M CO2 and 0.0100 M O2. At this temperature, Kc equals 1.4 × 102 for the reaction:

 

2 CO(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 CO2(g).

 

What is the equilibrium concentration of CO?

  1. A) 7.1 × 10-7M
  2. B) 8.4 × 10-4M
  3. C) 1.4 × 10-2M
  4. D) 1.2 × 10-1M

Answer:  B

Diff: 4      Page Ref: 14.6

 

28) At a certain temperature, Kc equals 1.4 × 102 for the reaction:

 

2 CO(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 CO2(g).

 

If a 3.00-L flask contains 0.400 mol of CO2 and 0.100 mol of O2 at equilibrium, how many moles of CO are also present in the flask?

  1. A) 0.555 mol
  2. B) 0.185 mol
  3. C) 0.107 mol
  4. D) 0.0114 mol

Answer:  B

Diff: 4      Page Ref: 14.6

 

29) Determine the value of Kc for the following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations are as follows: [PBr5]eq = 0.56 M, [PBr3]eq = 0.23 M, [Br2]eq = 3.3 M.

 

PBr5(g) ⇌  PCl3(g) + Br2(g)

 

  1. A) 1.4
  2. B) 0.93
  3. C) 0.74
  4. D) 1.1
  5. E) 0.76

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.6

 

 

30) Determine the value of Kc for the following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations are as follows: [H2]eq = 0.14 M, [Br2]eq = 0.39 M, [HBr]eq = 1.6 M.

 

H2(g) + Br2(g)  ⇌  2 HBr(g)

 

  1. A) 2.1 × 10-2
  2. B) 29
  3. C) 47
  4. D) 3.4 × 10-2
  5. E) 8.7 × 10-2

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.6

 

31) Determine the value of Kp for the following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations are as follows: P(NOCl)eq = 0.22 atm, P(NO)eq = 0.10 atm, P(Cl2)eq = 0.11 atm.

 

2 NOCl(g)  ⇌  2 NO(g) + Cl2(g)

 

  1. A) 1.8
  2. B) 44
  3. C) 2.3 x 102
  4. D) 2.3 × 10-2
  5. E) 0.53

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.6

 

32) At a certain temperature, nitrogen and hydrogen react to form ammonia:

 

N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ⇌ 2 NH3(g).

 

When initial amounts of N2, H2, and NH3 are mixed, the concentration of NH3 increases. Which statement below is TRUE?

  1. A) Kc< Q
  2. B) Kc> Q
  3. C) Kc= Q
  4. D) More information is needed to make a statement about Kc.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.7

 

 

33) Consider the following reaction and its equilibrium constant:

 

SO2(g) + NO2(g) ⇌ SO3(g) + NO(g)            Kc = 0.33

 

A reaction mixture contains 0.41 M SO2, 0.14 M NO2, 0.12 M SO3 and 0.14 M NO.  Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning this system?

  1. A) The reaction will shift in the direction of reactants.
  2. B) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  3. C) The reaction will shift in the direction of products.
  4. D) The reaction quotient will decrease.
  5. E) The system is at equilibrium.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.7

 

34) Consider the following reaction and its equilibrium constant:

 

4 CuO(s) + CH4(g)  ⇌  CO2(g) + 4 Cu(s) + 2 H2O(g)          Kc = 1.10

 

A reaction mixture contains 0.22 M CH4, 0.67 M CO2 and 1.3 M H2O.  Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning this system?

  1. A) The reaction will shift in the direction of products.
  2. B) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  3. C) The reaction quotient will increase.
  4. D) The reaction will shift in the direction of reactants.
  5. E) The system is at equilibrium.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.7

 

35) Consider the following reaction and its equilibrium constant:

 

I2(g) + Br2(g) ⇌  2 IBr(g)                  Kc = 1.1 × 102

 

A reaction mixture contains 0.35 M I2, 0.31 M Br2 and 3.5 M IBr.  Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning this system?

  1. A) The reaction will shift in the direction of products.
  2. B) The reaction will shift in the direction of reactants.
  3. C) The reaction quotient will decrease.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will increase.
  5. E) The system is at equilibrium.

Answer:  E

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.7

 

 

36) Consider the following reaction and its equilibrium constant:

 

I2(g) ⇌ 2I(g)               Kp = 0.209

 

A reaction mixture contains 0.89atm I2 and1.601.60 atm I.  Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning this system?

  1. A) The reaction will shift in the direction of reactants.
  2. B) The reaction quotient will increase.
  3. C) The reaction will shift in the direction of products.
  4. D) The equilibrium constant will decrease.
  5. E) The system is at equilibrium.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.7

 

37) Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature.  Determine the equilibrium concentration of NO2(g).

 

N2O4(g) ⇌ 2 NO2(g)       Kc = 0.21

 

[N2O4]eq = 0.033 M

 

  1. A) 1.44 M
  2. B) 8.3 × 10-2 M
  3. C) 12 × 10-2M
  4. D) 6.9 × 10-3 M
  5. E) 144 M

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.8

 

38) Consider the following reaction, equilibrium concentrations, and equilibrium constant at a particular temperature.  Determine the equilibrium concentration of CO2(g).

 

NH2COONH4(s) ⇌ 2 NH3(g) + CO2(g)       Kc = 1.58 × 10-8

 

[NH3]eq = 2.3 × 10-3 M

 

  1. A) 0.053 M
  2. B) 3.6 × 10-11M
  3. C) 3.0 × 10-3M
  4. D) 6.9 × 10-6M
  5. E) 0.022 M

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.8

 

 

39) For the isomerization reaction:

 

butane ⇌ isobutane

 

Kp equals 25 at 500°C. If the initial pressures of butane and isobutane are 20. atm and 0.0 atm, respectively, what are the pressures of the two gases at equilibrium?

  1. A) P(butane) = 0.77 atm and P(isobutane) = 19.2 atm
  2. B) P(butane) = 0.80 atm and P(isobutane) = 20. atm
  3. C) P(butane) = 19.2 atm and P(isobutane) = 0.77 atm
  4. D) P(butane) = 20 atm and P(isobutane) = 0.80 atm

Answer:  A

Diff: 5      Page Ref: 14.8

 

40) Cyclohexane, C6H12, undergoes a molecular rearrangement in the presence of AlCl3 to form methylcyclopentane, CH3C5H9, according to the equation:

 

C6H12 ⇌ CH3C5H9

 

If Kc = 0.143 at 25°C for this reaction, find the equilibrium concentrations of C6H12 and CH3C5H9 if the initial concentrations are 0.200 M and 0.075 M, respectively.

  1. A) [C6H12] = 0.041 M, [CH3C5H9] = 0.041 M
  2. B) [C6H12] = 0.159 M, [CH3C5H9] = 0.116 M
  3. C) [C6H12] = 0.241 M, [CH3C5H9] = 0.034 M
  4. D) [C6H12] = 0.253 M, [CH3C5H9] = 0.022 M

Answer:  C

Diff: 5      Page Ref: 14.8

 

41) At a certain temperature the equilibrium constant, Kc, equals 0.11 for the reaction:

 

2 ICl(g) ⇌ I2(g) + Cl2(g).

 

What is the equilibrium concentration of ICl if 0.45 mol of I2 and 0.45 mol of Cl2 are initially mixed in a 2.0-L flask?

  1. A) 0.14 M
  2. B) 0.17 M
  3. C) 0.27 M
  4. D) 0.34 M

Answer:  A

Diff: 5      Page Ref: 14.8

 

 

42) The equilibrium constant, Kp, equals 3.40 for the isomerization reaction:

 

            cis-2-butene ⇌ trans-2-butene.

 

If a flask initially contains 0.250 atm of cis-2-butene and 0.145 atm of trans-2-butene, what is the equilibrium pressure of each gas?

  1. A) P(cis-2-butene) = 0.0426 atm and P(trans-2-butene) = 0.145 atm
  2. B) P(cis-2-butene) = 0.0471 atm and P(trans-2-butene) = 0.160 atm
  3. C) P(cis-2-butene) = 0.0735 atm and P(trans-2-butene) = 0.250 atm
  4. D) P(cis-2-butene) = 0.0898 atm and P(trans-2-butene) = 0.305 atm

Answer:  D

Diff: 5      Page Ref: 14.8

 

43) Phosphorus pentachloride decomposes to phosphorus trichloride at high temperatures according to the equation:

 

PCl5(g) ⇌ PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)

 

At 250° 0.125 M PCl5 is added to the flask. If Kc = 1.80, what are the equilibrium concentrations of each gas?

  1. A) [PCl5] = 0.00765 M, [PCl3] = 0.117 M, and [Cl2] = 0.117 M
  2. B) [PCl5] = 0.0625 M, [PCl3] = 0.335 M, and [Cl2] = 0.335 M
  3. C) [PCl5] = 1.80 M, [PCl3] = 1.80 M, and [Cl2] = 1.80 M
  4. D) [PCl5] = 3.96 M, [PCl3] = 3.83 M, and [Cl2] = 3.83 M

Answer:  A

Diff: 5      Page Ref: 14.8

 

44) Kc is 1.67 × 1020 at 25°C for the formation of iron(III) oxalate complex ion:

 

Fe3+(aq) + 3 C2O42-(aq) ⇌ [Fe(C2O4)3]3-(aq).

 

If 0.0200 M Fe3+ is initially mixed with 1.00 M oxalate ion, what is the concentration of Fe3+ ion at equilibrium?

  1. A) 1.44 × 10-22M
  2. B) 0.0100 M
  3. C) 8.35 × 1019M
  4. D) 6.94 × 1021M

Answer:  A

Diff: 5      Page Ref: 14.8

 

 

45) Dinitrogen tetroxide partially decomposes according to the following equilibrium:

 

N2O4(g)  →  2NO2(g)

 

A 1.000-L flask is charged with 3.00 × 10-2  mol of N2O4. At equilibrium, 2.36 × 10-2  mol of N2O4 remains. Keq for this reaction is ________.

  1. A) 0.723
  2. B) 0.391
  3. C) 0.212
  4. D) 6.94 ×
  5. E) 1.92 × 10-4

Answer:  D

Diff: 5      Page Ref: 14.8

 

46) Identify the change that will always shift the equilibrium to the right.

  1. A) remove reactant
  2. B) increase product
  3. C) decrease volume
  4. D) increase pressure
  5. E) increase volume

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

47) The following reaction is exothermic.  Which change will shift the equilibrium to the left?

 

2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 SO3(g)

 

  1. A) raising the temperature
  2. B) adding argon
  3. C) decrease volume
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.9

 

48) Cyclohexane (C6H12) undergoes a molecular rearrangement in the presence of AlCl3 to form methylcyclopentane (MCP) according to the equation:

 

C6H12 ⇌ MCP

 

If Kc = 0.143 at 25°C for this reaction, predict the direction in which the system will shift if the initial concentrations of C6H12 and MCP are 0.0400 M and 0.0200 M, respectively. The system

  1. A) will shift left.
  2. B) will shift right.
  3. C) is already at equilibrium.
  4. D) is not at equilibrium and will remain in an unequilibrated state.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

49) The equilibrium constant is equal to 5.00 at 1300 K for the reaction:

 

2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 SO3(g).

 

If initial concentrations are [SO2] = 6.00 M, [O2] = 0.45 M, and [SO3] = 9.00 M, the system is

  1. A) at equilibrium.
  2. B) not at equilibrium and will remain in an unequilibrated state.
  3. C) not at equilibrium and will shift to the left to achieve an equilibrium state.
  4. D) not at equilibrium and will shift to the right to achieve an equilibrium state.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

50) The equilibrium constant, Kp, equals 3.40 at 25°C for the isomerization reaction:

 

            cis-2-butene ⇌ trans-2-butene.

 

If a flask initially contains 5.00 atm of each gas, in what direction will the system shift to reach equilibrium?

  1. A) It will shift left.
  2. B) It will shift right.
  3. C) The system is already at equilibrium.
  4. D) The system is not at equilibrium and will remain in an unequilibrated state.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 14.9

 

 

Matching Questions

 

Match the following.

 

  1. A) reaction favors formation of more products
  2. B) reaction is at equilibrium
  3. C) reverse reaction is favored
  4. D) reaction does not strongly favor reactants or products
  5. E) reaction will favor formation of reactants
  6. F) reaction has a larger amount of products than reactants

 

1) K << 1

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.3

 

2) K ≈ 1

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.3

 

3) Q < K

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

4) Q > K

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

5) Q = K

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

6) Q  >>  1

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

Answers: 1) C 2) D 3) A 4) E 5) B 6) F

 

Short Answer Questions

 

1) Explain dynamic equilibrium.  Use the generic reaction A(g) ⇌  B(g) to explain.

Answer:  In this reaction, dynamic equilibrium means that the ratio of [B]/[A] is constant.  Even though the ratio of their concentrations is constant, the forward and reverse reactions continue to occur.  The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal in order to keep the ratio of [B]/[A] constant.

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.2

 

2) Why is an equilibrium constant unitless?

Answer:  Each concentration or pressure for a reactant or product, when used to calculate the equilibrium expression is actually a ratio to a reference concentration or pressure.  Each ratio is therefore unitless before it is used to calculate into the equilibrium expression.

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.4

 

 

3) Can the Kp and Kc for a reaction ever have the same value?  Why or why not?

Answer:  Yes, they can have the same value.  Since Kp depends on pressure and Kc depends on concentration, the two are related through a factor of RT (gas constant times temperature).  The two constants can only have the same value in reactions where the number of moles of gaseous reactants is equal to the number of moles of gaseous products.  When this is true, then factors of RT will all cancel making Kp = Kc.

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.4

 

4) Why aren’t solids or liquids included in an equilibrium expression?

Answer:  The equilibrium constant relates different concentrations of reactants and products to one another.  Since the concentrations of liquids and solids are constant, their concentration(s) becomes part of the constant value of the equilibrium constant.

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.5

 

5) How is the reaction quotient different from an equilibrium constant for a given reaction?

Answer:  The expression for both are identical.  However, the equilibrium constant only holds true for systems AT equilibrium.  The reaction quotient can be calculated at concentrations/pressures away from equilibrium and is used to determine which direction a reaction must go to achieve equilibrium.

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.7

 

6) Define Le Chatelier’s Principle.

Answer:  Le Chatelier’s Principle states that when a chemical system at equilibrium is disturbed, the system shifts in a direction that minimizes the disturbance.

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 14.9

 

7) How will equilibrium be affected, with the same number of moles of gas on both sides, if the pressure is increased?

Answer:  There will be no effect on equilibrium.

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 14.9

 

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