Sale!

Child Development 14th Edition Santrock Test Bank

$80.00 $12.99

Child Development 14th Edition Santrock Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078035333

ISBN-10: 0078035333

 

Description

Child Development 14th Edition Santrock Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078035333

ISBN-10: 0078035333

 

 

 

Be the best nurse you can be:

Nursing test banks are legit and very helpful. This test bank on this page can be downloaded immediately after you checkout today.

Here is the definition of nursing

Its true that you will receive the entire legit test bank for this book and it can happen today regardless if its day or night. We have made the process automatic for you so that you don’t have to wait.

We encourage you to purchase from only a trustworthy provider:

Our site is one of the most confidential websites on the internet. We maintain no logs and guarantee it. Our website is also encrypted with an SSL on the entire website which will show on your browser with a lock symbol. This means not a single person can view any information.

Have any comments or suggestions?

When you get your file today you will be able to open it on your device and start studying for your class right now.

Remember, this is a digital download that is automatically given to you after you checkout today.

Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

CHAPTER 15: PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following BEST explains why middle adulthood comes later and lasts longer now than in the early 1900s?
  2. People today have fewer children than people in the early 1900s.
  3. People today have a higher income than people in the early 1900s.
  4. People today have less anxiety in their lives than people in the early 1900s.
  5. People today have healthier lifestyles than people in the early 1900s.

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 484

 

  1. Questions such as, “To which age group do you belong?” and “How old do you feel?” reflect the concept of _____.
  2. mental age
  3. age identity
  4. chronological age
  5. age stereotype

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 484

 

  1. One study found that _____ of the individuals 65 to 69 years of age considered themselves middle-aged.
  2. almost all
  3. almost half
  4. one-third
  5. one-fourth

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 484

 

  1. Which of the following is a consistent finding regarding age identity?
  2. As adults become older their age identity is younger than their chronological age.
  3. Most adults feel that their age identity is five years more than their chronological age.
  4. The age identity of adults is directly proportional to their chronological age.
  5. Most adults feel that their age identity is much older than their chronological age.

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 484

 

  1. What is the consistent finding regarding age identity of 60- to 75-year-olds?
  2. Half of them viewed themselves as being older than their chronological age.
  3. Almost all of them felt that they were younger than their chronological age.
  4. More than half of them considered that their mental age was higher than their chronological age.
  5. Half of them viewed themselves as being middle-aged.

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 484

 

  1. What was the average life expectancy in 1900?
  2. 37 years
  3. 42 years
  4. 47 years
  5. 52 years

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 484

 

  1. What percentage of the U.S. population is older than 65 years?
  2. 2 percent
  3. 12 percent
  4. 22 percent
  5. 23 percent

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 484

 

  1. Today the average life expectancy in the United States is:
  2. 72 years.
  3. 74 years.
  4. 78 years.
  5. 80 years.

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 476

 

  1. In Patricia Cohen’s analysis, which of the following has fueled the emergence of thinking about middle age?
  2. More people entering adolescence earlier than in the past
  3. Increased pressure to remain in the workforce and delay retirement
  4. Advances in health and more people living to older ages
  5. The decrease of life expectancy

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 484

 

  1. The rectangularization of the population pyramid has been created by all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. health advances that promote longevity.
  3. the aging of the baby boom cohort.
  4. rising male-to-female sex ratio.
  5. low fertility rates.

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 485

 

  1. _____ is the developmental period that begins at approximately 40 to 45 years of age and extends to about 60 to 65 years of age.
  2. Late adulthood
  3. Middle adulthood
  4. Early adulthood
  5. Emerging adulthood

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 485

 

  1. Compared with earlier and later periods, middle age is influenced most by _____ factors.
  2. sociocultural
  3. biological
  4. psychodynamic
  5. neurological

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 485

 

  1. As discussed in Chapter 1, apart from chronological age, individuals may have all of the following age categorizations EXCEPT:
  2. biological age.
  3. anthropological age.
  4. psychological age.
  5. social age.

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 485

 

  1. Many experts on middle adulthood describe the age period of 55 to 65 as:
  2. late adulthood.
  3. early midlife.
  4. late midlife.
  5. early adulthood.

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 485

 

  1. Which of the following statements about late midlife is NOT true?
  2. People in late midlife are either preparing for retirement or actually retiring.
  3. People in late midlife are more likely to experience the death of a parent than people in early midlife.
  4. People in late midlife are less likely to experience their last child leaving home than people in early midlife.
  5. People in late midlife are more likely to experience becoming a grandparent than those in early midlife.

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 485

 

  1. Compared to middle age, which of the following best describes late middle age for many?
  2. Health problems start to decline
  3. Losses may begin to outnumber gains
  4. Life-changes decrease: the path is relatively fixed
  5. Losses and gains even out

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 485

 

  1. Which of the following is a sign of aging for the average adult in middle adulthood?
  2. Increase in height
  3. Decrease in weight
  4. Brittle fingernails
  5. Loss of memory

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 486

 

  1. The average adult in middle adulthood _____ height and _____ weight.
  2. loses; loses
  3. loses; gains
  4. gains; gains
  5. gains; loses

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 486

 

  1. Which of the following is the reason for the decrease in height with the advancement age?
  2. Brittleness of bones of the limbs
  3. Increase in weight
  4. A stooping posture
  5. Bone loss in the vertebrae

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 486-487

 

  1. On average, body fat accounts for about _____ of body weight in middle age.
  2. 5 percent
  3. 10 percent
  4. 20 percent
  5. 15 percent

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 487

 

  1. The term _____ is given to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.
  2. sarcoma
  3. osteopenia
  4. osteoporosis
  5. sarcopenia

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Age-related loss of muscle strength is especially marked in:
  2. the upper arms.
  3. the back and legs.
  4. the jaw and face.
  5. the chest and abdomen.

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 487

 

  1. A man in his mid-forties is MOST likely to notice:
  2. increased strength in his upper arms.
  3. sensitivity to high-pitched sounds.
  4. joint stiffness.
  5. decreased bladder control.

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Which of the following statements about bone density is true?
  2. Maximum bone density occurs in late adolescence.
  3. Maximum bone density occurs by the mid- to late thirties.
  4. Peak functioning of the body’s joints occurs in the fifties.
  5. The rate of bone density loss begins fast and then decelerates.

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the changes in bone mass and density is true?
  2. The loss of bone is faster for men than it is for women.
  3. By the end of early adulthood, bones break more easily and heal more slowly.
  4. Peak functioning of the body’s joints occurs in the sixties.
  5. Women lose bone mass twice as fast as men do.

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Which of the following statements about bone and joint functioning is TRUE?
  2. Peak functioning of the body’s joints usually occurs in the thirties.
  3. By the end of midlife, bones break more easily and heal more slowly.
  4. Maximum bone density occurs by the mid- to late twenties.
  5. The rate of bone density loss decelerates in the fifties.

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 487

 

  1. The ability to focus and maintain an image on the retina is referred to as _____ of the eye.
  2. muscle integrity
  3. focal power
  4. visual acuity
  5. accommodation

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Accommodation of the eye experiences its sharpest decline between:
  2. 20 to 29 years of age.
  3. 60 to 79 years of age.
  4. 40 and 59 years of age.
  5. 30 to 35 years of age.

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Which of the following is MOST likely to cause difficulty for a middle-aged adult without glasses?
  2. Reading a newspaper
  3. Watching TV
  4. Reading an eye chart 20 feet away
  5. Reading a road sign during the day

Answer: a

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Which of the following is most typical of the vision-related issues faced by middle-aged persons?
  2. Difficulty viewing moving objects
  3. Difficulty viewing objects on the background
  4. Difficulty viewing close objects
  5. Difficulty viewing complicated patterns

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Which of the following is an outcome of the reduced blood supply to the eye during late middle-age?
  2. Decrease in the visual field’s size
  3. Decrease in the eye’s blind spot
  4. Formation of wrinkles under the eyes
  5. Increase in the size of the pupil

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Which of the following is the result of reduced blood supply to the eye in the fifties and sixties?
  2. An increase in accommodation of the eye
  3. An increase in the eye’s blind spot
  4. An increase in the visual field’s size
  5. An increase in the amount of light entering the eye

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 487

 

  1. At 60 years of age, the retina receives only _____ as much light as it did at 20 years of age.
  2. two-third
  3. one-fourth
  4. half
  5. one-third

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Which of the following is a reason for the reduction in light received by the retina during middle adulthood?
  2. An increase in size of the iris
  3. An increase in blood supply to the eye
  4. A decrease in the size of the pupil
  5. A decrease in the opacity of the lens

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 487

 

  1. During middle age, the ability to hear _____ sounds declines first.
  2. low-pitched
  3. high-volume
  4. high-pitched
  5. high-amplitude

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Sensitivity to _____ sounds usually declines first among _____.
  2. high-pitched; women
  3. high-pitched; men
  4. low-pitched; women
  5. low-pitched; men

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 487

 

  1. Cholesterol comes in two forms _____ and HDL.
  2. LDL
  3. BDL
  4. GAL
  5. QUL

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. LDL is often referred to as _____ cholesterol.
  2. “simple”
  3. “good”
  4. “bad”
  5. “white”

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. Why is LDL referred to as “bad” cholesterol?
  2. It increases the risk of breast cancer.
  3. High levels of LDL cause atherosclerosis.
  4. It accelerates the process of aging.
  5. Low levels of LDL cause atherosclerosis.

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. HDL is often referred to as _____ cholesterol.
  2. “good”
  3. “simple”
  4. “bad”
  5. “compound”

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. Which of the following statements about cardiovascular disease is TRUE?
  2. When HDL is high and LDL is low, the risk of cardiovascular disease is lessened.
  3. When HDL is high and LDL is low, the risk of cardiovascular disease is increased.
  4. When HDL is low and LDL is high, the risk of cardiovascular disease is lessened.
  5. When both HDL and LDL are low, the risk of cardiovascular disease is lessened.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 488

 

  1. Hardening of the arteries is known as _____.
  2. arteriosclerosis
  3. osteoporosis
  4. cardiosclerosis
  5. atherosclerosis

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. A condition in middle and late adulthood characterized by hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance is referred to as:
  2. diabetic neuropathy
  3. metabolic syndrome.
  4. internal atrophy.
  5. neurodegeneration.

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. The metabolic syndrome precedes the development of:
  2. arteriosclerosis and cirrhosis of the liver.
  3. pancreatic cancer and fatty liver.
  4. irritable bowel syndrome and gastric ulcers.
  5. diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. Individuals with metabolic syndrome who _____ reduced their risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
  2. maintained a high blood glucose level
  3. were physically active
  4. maintained a high LDL level
  5. were physically inactive

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. In one life course pathway, a _____ in adolescence was related to metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men and women.
  2. high level of BMI
  3. high level of NK cells
  4. high level of HDL
  5. low level of LDL

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. Cholesterol can be lowered in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
  2. regular exercise.
  3. changes in diet to include foods low in saturated fat.
  4. changes in diet to include foods that are low in cholesterol.
  5. liposuction.

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. Which of the following statements about lung capacity in middle-age is true?
  2. There is significant change in lung capacity through most of middle adulthood.
  3. In late middle-age, the proteins in lung tissue become more elastic.
  4. Stiffening of the chest wall decreases the lungs’ capacity to shuttle oxygen.
  5. The lung capacity of smokers increases drastically in middle age.

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 488

 

  1. What is the MOST common change in sleep patterns of adults during middle age?
  2. Sleep-disordered breathing becomes less prevalent.
  3. Wakeful periods become less frequent during the night.
  4. The total number of hours slept dramatically increases.
  5. There is a decrease in the deepest type of sleep.

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 489

 

  1. Sleep problems in middle-aged adults have been associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. usage of prescription drugs.
  3. obesity.
  4. single parenting.
  5. cardiovascular disease.

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 489

 

  1. Which of the following is typical of the health condition during early and late middle-age?
  2. Frequency of accidents increases
  3. Susceptibility to colds and allergies decreases
  4. Wakeful periods during sleep decreases
  5. Incidence of chronic disorders decreases

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 489

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding chronic conditions is true?
  2. Women have a higher incidence of fatal chronic conditions in middle age.
  3. Men have a higher incidence of nonfatal chronic conditions in middle age.
  4. Hypertension is the leading chronic disorder in early adulthood.
  5. Chronic disorders are rare in early adulthood.

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 490

 

  1. Which of the following are the MOST common chronic disorders for men during middle age?
  2. Cancer, heart disease, and stroke
  3. Arthritis, bursitis, and varicose veins
  4. Hearing impairments, and vision impairments
  5. Sinus problems and respiratory problems

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 490

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a fatal chronic disorder?
  2. Varicose veins
  3. Bursitis
  4. Arthritis
  5. Cardiovascular disease

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 490

 

  1. Compared to men, women have a higher incidence of _____ disorders during middle adulthood.
  2. genetic
  3. fatal chronic
  4. nonfatal chronic
  5. congenital

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 490

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a nonfatal chronic disorder?
  2. Stroke
  3. Bursitis
  4. Cancer
  5. Cardiovascular disease

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 490

 

  1. Compared to men, women have a higher incidence of _____ during middle age.
  2. arthritis
  3. hypertension
  4. stroke
  5. cardiovascular disease

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 490

 

  1. The type of white blood cell that is more likely to be present in low-stress circumstances are referred to as _____.
  2. plasma cells
  3. NK cells
  4. lymphocytes
  5. monocytes

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 490

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the immune system is TRUE?
  2. Its machinery consists of billions of red blood cells.
  3. When a person is under stress, the levels of bacteria and viruses drop dramatically.
  4. Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of white blood cell.
  5. Stress increases the number of natural killer (NK) cells in the body.

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 490

 

  1. Which of the following are prematurely aging cells that result from persistent immune activation?
  2. NK cells
  3. red blood cells
  4. B lymphocytes
  5. Senescent T cells

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 490

 

  1. Which of the following is true about the immune system and stress?
  2. NK cells are a type of white blood cell that is more likely to be present in high stress

circumstances.

  1. Higher levels of NK cells in stressful situations indicate a weakened immune system.
  2. Immune system functioning increases with normal aging.
  3. Aerobic fitness is related to the presence of a lower level of senescent T cells.

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 490

 

  1. Which of the following health issues is observed to occur at an above average rate to older African-Americans?
  2. Diabetes mellitus
  3. High blood pressure
  4. Lymphatic sarcoma
  5. Arthritis

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 490

 

  1. _____ occurs at an above-average rate among Latinos.
  2. Stroke
  3. Lung cancer
  4. Heart disease
  5. Diabetes

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 491

 

  1. Margie Lachman and her colleagues argue that having a _____ is one of the most important modifiable factors in delaying the onset of diseases in middle adulthood and reducing the frequency of diseases in late adulthood.
  2. high body mass index
  3. sense of control in middle age
  4. low calorie diet in middle adulthood
  5. low number of NK cells

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 491

 

  1. _____ was the main cause of death in the United States until the middle of the twentieth century.
  2. Infectious disease
  3. Accident
  4. Chronic disease
  5. Homicide

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 491

 

  1. Nowadays, the main causes of death in middle adulthood in the United States are:
  2. infectious diseases.
  3. accidents.
  4. chronic diseases.
  5. homicide.

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 491

 

  1. _____ is a term that is used to describe the midlife transition in which fertility declines.
  2. Puberty
  3. Menarche
  4. Spermarche
  5. Climacteric

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 491

 

  1. A girl’s first menstruation is called _____.
  2. adrenarche
  3. menarche
  4. spermarche
  5. gonadarche

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 491

 

  1. Which of the following statements about menopause is NOT true?
  2. The age at which menopause occurs has increased dramatically in recent years.
  3. There is no correlation between the onset of menarche and the onset of menopause.
  4. Perimenopause can take up to 10 years.
  5. Later menopause is linked with increased risk of breast cancer.

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 491

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the onset of menarche and menopause is true?
  2. The timing of menarche has significantly decreased in the twentieth century.
  3. The average age at which U.S. women have their last period is 61.
  4. Women who reported early menarche were prone to have earlier menopause.
  5. In menarche, production of estrogen by the ovaries declines dramatically.

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 491

 

  1. _____ is the transitional period from normal menstrual periods to no menstrual periods at all.
  2. Postmenopause
  3. Postmenarche
  4. Perimenopause
  5. Periadrenarche

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 492

 

  1. Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with menopause?
  2. Nausea
  3. Fatigue
  4. Hot flashes
  5. High blood sugar

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 492

 

  1. In menopause, production of _____ by the ovaries declines dramatically.
  2. testosterone
  3. estrogen
  4. adrenaline
  5. insulin

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 492

 

  1. Lillian is 50 years old. Her doctor has noticed a sharp decrease in her estrogen levels, and Lillian is complaining about nausea and fatigue. According to the symptoms given in the text, what could be her initial diagnosis?
  2. Her thyroid is malfunctioning.
  3. She is going through menopause.
  4. She may have a problem with her bone marrow.
  5. She needs to control her diet and blood sugar levels.

Answer: b

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 492

 

  1. Why is menopause an important marker for women?
  2. It signals the loss of active sexual life for most women.
  3. They have to make final decisions about having children.
  4. They are at greater risk of contracting infectious diseases.
  5. They are at an increased risk of developing dementia.

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 492

 

  1. A study of HRT’s effects was halted as evidence emerged that participants who were receiving HRT faced an increased risk of _____.
  2. lung disease
  3. cancer
  4. stroke
  5. arthritis

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 492

 

  1. Which of the following types of hormones is most commonly administered during hormone replacement therapy?
  2. Estrogen
  3. Testosterone
  4. Follicle stimulating hormone
  5. Luteinizing hormone

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 492

 

  1. The gradual decline in men’s testosterone levels in middle age can reduce their _____.
  2. lung capacity
  3. sexual drive
  4. infertility
  5. thyroid levels

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 493

 

  1. Which of the following is at fault in many erectile problems in middle-aged men?
  2. Diabetes
  3. Low blood pressure
  4. Low level of NK cells
  5. Too much physical activity

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 493

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that could be related to erectile problems in middle-aged men?
  2. Smoking
  3. Diabetes
  4. Excessive sexual activity
  5. Elevated cholesterol levels

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 493

 

  1. Treatment for men with erectile dysfunction has focused on Viagra and similar drugs, such as:
  2. Rogaine and Prozac.
  3. Levitra and Cialis.
  4. Oxycodone and Prozac.
  5. Naproxen and OxyContin.

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 493

 

  1. Which of the following observations regarding sexual attitudes and behaviors of middle-aged women is FALSE?
  2. Masturbation increased in early perimenopause
  3. Masturbation declined postmenopause
  4. Menopausal transition was linked to changes in sexual arousal
  5. Women’s sexual desire decreased by late perimenopause

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 494

 

  1. In a Canadian study of 40- to 64-year-olds, only _____ percent reported that their sexual life was less satisfying than when they were in their twenties.
  2. 70
  3. 50
  4. 40
  5. 30

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 494

 

  1. According to studies, which of the following is one of the most common sexual problems of older men?
  2. Early ejaculation
  3. Partner non-cooperation
  4. Lack of foreplay
  5. Lubrication difficulties

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 494

 

  1. According to studies, which of the following is one of the most common sexual problems of older women?
  2. Lack of foreplay
  3. Lack of sexual interest
  4. Partner non-cooperation
  5. Reduced muscular movements

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 494

 

  1. Fluid intelligence is the ability to:
  2. reason abstractly.
  3. recall information.
  4. accumulate information.
  5. accumulate verbal skills.

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. Crystallized intelligence is:
  2. an individual’s ability to reason abstractly.
  3. an individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills.
  4. an individual’s ability to think hypothetically.
  5. an individual’s ability to use deductive reasoning.

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. John Horn maintains that in middle adulthood, _____ intelligence continues to increase.
  2. fluid
  3. semantic
  4. crystallized
  5. multiple

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. According to John Horn, _____ steadily declines from middle adulthood onward.
  2. fluid intelligence
  3. crystallized intelligence
  4. verbal memory
  5. kinesthetic intelligence

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. Identify a possible reason for the changes in fluid and crystallized intelligence of different age groups in John Horn’s cross-sectional study.
  2. Secular trends
  3. Cohort effects
  4. Declining IQ with age
  5. Biases in IQ testing

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 495

 

  1. Which of the following is true about the Seattle Longitudinal Study?
  2. It involves extensive evaluation of sexual abilities during adulthood.
  3. It was initiated by John Horn,
  4. Participants have been assessed in two-year intervals since 1985.
  5. New waves of participants are added periodically.

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. The Seattle Longitudinal Study concluded that middle age is a time of:
  2. peak performance for verbal ability.
  3. great decline for inductive reasoning.
  4. moderate decline for spatial abilities.
  5. increased mathematical abilities.

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

93._____ refers to ability to understand ideas expressed in words.

  1. Verbal comprehension
  2. Verbal memory
  3. Implicit memory
  4. Spatial orientation

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. A participant in a study was asked to memorize a list of words and then try to recall as many as possible. This exercise was designed to test her _____.
  2. muscle memory
  3. implicit memory
  4. verbal memory
  5. verbal comprehension

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 495

 

  1. _____ refers to the ability to encode and recall meaningful language units, such as a list of words.
  2. Spatial orientation
  3. Inductive reasoning
  4. Implicit memory
  5. Verbal memory

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. Toby has the ability to visualize three-dimensional objects and rotate them. Toby’s ability is known as _____.
  2. spatial orientation
  3. inductive reasoning
  4. verbal ability
  5. perceptual speed

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 495

 

  1. _____ refers to the ability to recognize and understand patterns and relationships in a problem and use this understanding to solve other instances of the problem.
  2. Spatial orientation
  3. Inductive reasoning
  4. Verbal comprehension
  5. Perceptual speed

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. _____ refers to the ability to quickly and accurately make simple discriminations in visual stimuli.
  2. Spatial orientation
  3. Inductive reasoning
  4. Perceptual speed
  5. Verbal comprehension

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. According to the Seattle Longitudinal Study, which of the following abilities showed signs of early decline?
  2. Spatial orientation
  3. Perceptual speed
  4. Inductive reasoning
  5. Verbal memory

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 495-496

 

  1. According to the Seattle Longitudinal Study of individuals aged 25 to 95, which of the following abilities showed the LEAST decline?
  2. Verbal comprehension
  3. Spatial orientation
  4. Inductive reasoning
  5. Numerical abilities

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 496

 

  1. Which of the following is the finding of the longitudinal and cross-sectional assessment of intellectual abilities conducted by Schaie?
  2. Decline in intellectual abilities was more likely in the cross-sectional assessments than in the longitudinal assessments.
  3. When assessed longitudinally, inductive reasoning showed a consistent decline in the middle adulthood years.
  4. When assessed cross-sectionally, inductive reasoning increased until toward the end of middle adulthood.
  5. People reach a peak in their cognitive functioning for many intellectual skills in early adulthood.

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 496

 

  1. What is the notable finding of Schaie’s assessment of intellectual abilities of parents and their children?
  2. The second generation scored higher on numerical abilities.
  3. The second generation showed higher levels of cognitive functioning in inductive reasoning.
  4. The offspring generation showed cognitive decline from 60 to 67 years of age.
  5. The parent generation showed modest increase in cognitive functioning from 60 to 67 years of age.

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 496

 

  1. Which of the following is true about research by Schaie and Salthouse?
  2. Both agree that adulthood is the time when the level of functioning in a number of cognitive domains is maintained or even increases.
  3. Salthouse recently has argued that his longitudinal research on aging and cognitive functioning should not be dismissed.
  4. Salthouse agrees with Schaie that cognitive functioning involving accumulated knowledge, such as vocabulary and general information, does not show early age-related decline but rather continues to increase at least until 60 years of age.
  5. Schaie has argued that reasoning, memory, spatial visualization, and processing speed begin declining in early adulthood and show further decline in the fifties.

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 497

 

  1. Which of the following is a common way to assess speed of information processing?
  2. Reaction-time task
  3. Phonic simulation
  4. Visual perception test
  5. Neuropsychological test

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 497

 

  1. An adult in middle age will do most POORLY on which of the following tasks?
  2. Understanding verbal directions
  3. Completing a crossword puzzle
  4. Hitting the brakes of a car when the light suddenly turns red
  5. Lifting a box that weighs 20 pounds

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 497

 

  1. In Schaie’s Seattle Longitudinal Study, verbal memory peaked in the:
  2. twenties.
  3. thirties.
  4. sixties.
  5. fifties.

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 498

 

  1. According to cognitive aging expert Denise Park, the slowdown in learning new information has been linked to changes in:
  2. dopamine levels.
  3. working memory.
  4. cognitive atrophy.
  5. neurotransmitter dysfunctions.

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 498

 

  1. The slowdown in learning new information has been linked to changes in _____ where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisionsRemember,lving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language.
  2. working memory
  3. brain circuitry
  4. episodic memory
  5. neural network

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 498

 

  1. According to Denise Park, much of the blame for declining memory in late middle age is a result of:
  2. neuroanatomical changes during late middle age.
  3. decreased blood supply to the various parts of the brain.
  4. physiological and cognitive atrophy during late middle age.
  5. information overload that builds up over the adult years.

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 498

 

  1. Which of the following strategies would be MOST helpful in improving memory in middle age?
  2. Avoid using vivid imagery to keep from becoming distracted.
  3. Use a recall rather than recognition strategy whenever possible.
  4. Use an organization strategy to categorize information to be remembered.
  5. Avoid using the information to be remembered so that it does not become confused with other information.

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 498

 

  1. Which of the following statements about novices and experts is true?
  2. Novices are more creative in solving problems in their domain than experts.
  3. Novices are more flexible in solving problems than experts.
  4. Experts avoid the use of strategies and shortcuts when solving problems.
  5. Experts process information more automatically than novices.

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 498

 

  1. According to Salthouse, a recent analysis of research found:
  2. no evidence for significant changes in everyday cognition from 20 to 75 years of age.
  3. that everyday cognition continued to increase from 20 to 75 years of age.
  4. evidence of significant decline in everyday cognition from 20 to 75 years of age.
  5. that everyday cognition peaked in the twenties and then declined.

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 499

 

  1. In middle age, the role of work _____ in people’s lives.
  2. is downplayed
  3. is very central
  4. lessens
  5. is of moderate importance

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 499

 

  1. In the United States, approximately _____ of individuals 40 to 59 years of age are employed.
  2. 30 percent
  3. 50 percent
  4. 65 percent
  5. 80 percent

Answer: d

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 499

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the outcomes of the restructuring, downsizing, and outsourcing resulting from globalization?
  2. Offering incentives to middle-aged employees to retire early
  3. Encouraging middle-aged professionals to take up entrepreneurship
  4. Offering incentives to young professionals to outperform middle-aged employees
  5. Hiring more middle aged professionals to supervisory/managerial positions

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 500

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the reasons why many middle-aged workers are delaying retirement plans?
  2. The increase of retirement age to 75 years
  3. The increasing opportunity for middle-aged professionals
  4. The increased productive health owing to medical advances
  5. The decline in defined-benefit pensions

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 500

 

  1. What percentage of Americans considers themselves to be religious?
  2. Between 35 and 40 percent
  3. Not more than 55 percent
  4. More than 70 percent
  5. Almost 60 percent

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 501

 

  1. In a longitudinal study of individuals from their early thirties through their late sixties/early seventies:
  2. a significant increase in spirituality occurred between late middle and late adulthood.
  3. spirituality peaked in late middle adulthood.
  4. there was no significant change in spirituality from late middle to late adulthood.
  5. a dramatic decrease in spirituality occurred between late middle and late adulthood.

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 502

 

  1. Which of the following statements about spirituality is true?
  2. Only a small minority of U.S. adults consider themselves to be religious.
  3. Most US middle-aged adults do not consider spirituality a major part of their lives.
  4. There is no evidence of changes in spirituality and religiousness in people as they age.
  5. Women have consistently shown a stronger interest in religion and spirituality than men have.

Answer: d

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 502

 

  1. Religiousness has been associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. a lower rate of depression.
  3. a lower rate of hypertension.
  4. a lower risk of cancer.
  5. longevity.

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 502

 

  1. Drawing on beliefs, values, and goals to change the meaning of a stressful situation is known as:
  2. self-efficacy.
  3. problem-focused coping.
  4. meaning-making coping.
  5. proactive coping.

Answer: c

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 502

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Austrian psychiatrist Viktor Frankl?
  2. He argued that examining the finiteness of our existence and the certainty of death adds meaning to life.
  3. He said that the two most distinct human qualities are religiousness and philanthropy.
  4. Spirituality, in his view, has a religious underpinning.
  5. According to him, freedom refers to a human being’s uniqueness of spirit, philosophy, and mind.

Answer: a

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 502

 

  1. According to Viktor Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and _____.
  2. authority
  3. spirituality
  4. fraternity
  5. industry

Answer: b

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 502

 

  1. Roy Baumeister and Kathleen Vohs believe that a meaningful life can be understood in terms of four main needs. Which of the following is NOT one of those needs?
  2. The need for shelter
  3. The need for purpose
  4. The need for values
  5. The need for self-worth

Answer: a

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 502, 504

 

  1. Which of the following statements is supported by Crystal Park’s research on chronic stress and religious experiences?
  2. Individuals who are religious rarely experience a disruption in their values after the death of a loved one.
  3. Religion can serve as a meaning system through which the bereaved can reframe their loss.
  4. Nonreligious individuals show better adjustment to the loss of a loved one than religious individuals do.
  5. Initially, religion is linked with less depressed feelings about a loved one’s death.

Answer: b

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 503

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Roy Baumeister and Kathleen Vohs’s need for efficacy?
  2. This need refers to the fact that present events draw meaning from their connection with future events.
  3. This need can lend a sense of goodness or positive characterization of life and justify certain courses of action.
  4. This need involves the belief that one can make a difference.
  5. This need implies that most individuals want to be good, worthy persons.

Answer: c

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 504

 

Identification Questions

 

  1. This theorist referred to midlife as “the afternoon of life.”

Answer: Carl Jung

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 484

 

  1. The term given to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.

Answer: Sarcopenia

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 487

 

  1. A condition, often occurring in middle and late adulthood, which is characterized by hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance. This disorder may lead to diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Answer: Metabolic syndrome

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. Disorders characterized by a slow onset and a long duration.

Answer: Chronic disorders

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 490

 

  1. The midlife transition, for both men and women, in which fertility declines.

Answer: Climacteric

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 491

 

  1. The transitional period from normal menstrual periods to no menstrual periods at all, which often takes up to 10 years.

Answer: Perimenopause

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 492

 

  1. A kind of (adult) intelligence that consists of one’s accumulated knowledge base and verbal skills.

Answer: Crystallized intelligence

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. A kind of (adult) intelligence that consists of one’s ability to reason abstractly.

Answer: Fluid intelligence

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. The mental ability to quickly and accurately make simple discriminations in visual stimuli.

Answer: Perceptual speed

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. This theorist initiated the Seattle Longitudinal Study that involves extensive evaluations of intellectual abilities in the adult years.

Answer: K. Warner Schaie

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. The mental “workbench” in the mind where individuals manipulate information and solve problems.

Answer: Working memory

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 498

 

  1. A kind of coping that involves drawing on beliefs, values, and goals to change the meaning of a stressful situation especially in times of chronic stress such as the death of a loved one.

Answer: Meaning-making coping

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 502

 

  1. This Austrian psychiatrist, a concentration camp survivor, wrote the book “Man’s Search for Meaning”, where he proposed that the human qualities of spirituality, freedom, and responsibility were the key to finding one’s true meaning in life (and death).

Answer: Viktor Frankl

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 502

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Identify three of the physical changes that take place during middle adulthood.

Answer: Physical changes that take place during middle adulthood are:

(a) Accommodation of the eye declines; (b) viewing close objects becomes difficult; (c) the eyes’ blood supply diminishes; (d) the size of the visual field diminishes; (e) the retina becomes less sensitive to low levels of illumination; (f) hearing declines, with sensitivity to high pitches declining first; (g) individuals become shorter; (h) the skin wrinkles and sags; (i) teeth become yellow; (j) individuals lose strength; (k) there is progressive bone loss; and (l) individuals gain weight.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 486-87

 

  1. Describe the differences between LDL and HDL and some of the changes one can make in lifestyle to affect cholesterol levels.

Answer: Cholesterol comes in two forms: LDL (low-density lipoprotein) an HDL (high-density lipoprotein). LDL levels should low; when the level of LDH is high, it sticks to the blood vessels, which can lead to hardening of the arteries and cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol levels are influenced by heredity but LDL can be reduced and HDL increased by eating food that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and by regular exercise.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 488

 

  1. What are the leading causes of death in middle adulthood?

Answer: In middle age, many deaths are caused by a single, readily identifiable condition, whereas in old age, death is more likely to result from the combined effects of several chronic conditions. For many years heart disease was the leading cause of death in middle adulthood, followed by cancer; however, in 2005 more individuals 45 to 64 years of age in the United States died of cancer, followed by cardiovascular disease. The gap between cancer as the leading cause of death widens as individuals age from 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 years of age. Men have higher mortality rates than women for all of the leading causes of death.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 491

 

  1. Briefly discuss the conditions that may occur with menopause.

Answer: In menopause, production of estrogen by the ovaries declines dramatically, and this decline produces uncomfortable symptoms in some menopausal women: hot flashes, nausea, fatigue, and rapid heartbeat. Cross-cultural studies reveal wide variations in the menopause experience. It is difficult to determine the extent to which these cross-cultural variations are due to genetic, dietary, reproductive, or cultural factors. Though menopause overall is not the negative experience most women nowadays, the loss of fertility is an important marker for women as it means that they have to make final decisions about having children.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 491-492

 

  1. What is hormone replacement therapy (HRT)? Identify some of the risks associated with it.

Answer: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) augments the declining levels of reproductive hormone production by the ovaries. HRT can consist of various forms of estrogen, and usually a progestin. HRT has been linked to an increased risk of stroke and dementia. On the positive side, HRT lowered the risk of hip fractures and did not increase the risk of heart attack or breast cancer. Recent research studies in a number of countries have found that coinciding with the decreased use of HRT in recent years has been a related decline in the incidence of breast cancer.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 492

 

  1. What are the hormonal changes and related developments in middle-aged men?

Answer: Men experience hormonal changes in their fifties and sixties. Testosterone production begins to decline about 1 percent a year during middle adulthood, and sperm count usually shows a slow decline, although men do not lose their fertility in middle age. The gradual decline in men’s testosterone levels in middle age can reduce their sexual drive.

Erectile dysfunction is a common development in middle-aged men. The percentage of men with erectile dysfunction increased the older they were and decreased if they engaged in regular exercise. Recent research finds that as many as 75 percent of the erectile dysfunctions in middle-aged men stem from physiological problems. A recent large-scale study of U.S. adults 40 to 80 years of age found that early ejaculation and erectile difficulties.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 492-493

 

  1. What are the significant findings regarding sexual attitudes and behaviors of middle-aged adults?

Answer: Although the ability of men and women to function sexually shows little biological decline in middle adulthood, sexual activity usually occurs on a less frequent basis than in early adulthood. The Sex in America survey finds that the frequency of having sex was greatest for individuals aged 25 to 29 years old and dropped off for individuals in their fifties. Other research indicates that middle-aged men want sex, think about it more, and masturbate more often than middle-aged women. For many other forms of sexual behavior, male and female middle-aged adults report similar frequency of engagement. Although middle-aged adults have sex less frequently than when they were younger adults, only 30 percent reported that they were less satisfied with their sex life.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 493-494

 

  1. Distinguish between crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence, and explain how they change in middle adulthood.

Answer: John Horn argues that some abilities begin to decline in middle age while others increase. Horn maintains that crystallized intelligence, an individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills, continues to increase in middle adulthood, whereas fluid intelligence, one’s ability to reason abstractly, begins to decline in middle adulthood.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 495

 

  1. List four strategies that distinguish an expert from a novice.

Answer: Strategies that distinguish an expert from a novice are the following:

  • Experts are more likely to rely on their accumulated experience to solve problems.
  • Experts often automatically process information and analyze it more efficiently when solving a problem in their domain than a novice does.
  • Experts have better strategies and shortcuts to solving problems in their domain than novices do.
  • Experts are more creative and flexible in solving problems in their domain than novices are.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 498

 

  1. Discuss the career challenges faced by middle-aged workers in the 21st century.

Answer: Middle-aged workers today face globalization, rapid developments in information technologies, downsizing of organizations, outsourcing of jobs, early retirement, and concerns about pensions and health care. All of these concerns have led to a decreasing sense of personal control for middle-aged workers and delayed plans for retirement.

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 500

 

 

 

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Child Development 14th Edition Santrock Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *