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Community Public Health Nursing Practice 4th Edition Maurer Smith Test Bank

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Community Public Health Nursing Practice 4th Edition Maurer Smith Test Bank

ISBN:

1416050043

ISBN-13:

9781416050049

 

 

 

Description

Community Public Health Nursing Practice 4th Edition Maurer Smith Test Bank

ISBN:

1416050043

ISBN-13:

9781416050049

 

 

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

Maurer: Community/Public Health Nursing Practice, 4th Edition

Chapter 07: Epidemiology: Unraveling the Mysteries of Disease and Health

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Name the first nurse epidemiologist who pioneered the use of statistics to improve public health.

 

A. Dorothea Dix
B. Florence Nightingale
C. Lillian Wald
D. Sue Barton

 

 

ANS: B

Florence Nightingale used statistics to show changes in outcomes as hospital conditions during the war improved because of nurses.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 165

 

  1. The nurse noted that 15 people became very ill while eating at the school banquet for the basketball team. To calculate the rate of illness, what other fact does the nurse need?

 

A. How many athletes were honored for being on the team
B. How many parents and family members attended the banquet
C. How many people ate at the banquet
D. What foods were served at the banquet
E. Who prepared and served the food at the banquet

 

 

ANS: C

To be able to calculate the rate, the nurse needs to know how many became ill (15) out of the total population (the missing number) at the event. Therefore the nurse needs to know how many people ate at the banquet.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 165

 

 

  1. A rate might be accurately defined as:

 

A. Another term for ratio.
B. A way of determining the incidence of disease in a group.
C. A way to make comparisons among equal-size populations.
D. The number of events divided by the number of persons at risk.

 

 

ANS: D

A rate is a numerator of the actual number of events and a denominator of the total population at risk converted to a standard base to permit comparisons between various population groups of whatever size.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 165

 

  1. The nurse was asked whether the agency should focus on young single moms in Two Oaks or Centerville. Two Oaks had 50 single moms in a village of 4000 persons, whereas Centerville had 150 single moms in an urban area of 15,000 people. What would be the best reply?

 

A. As the nurse can be helpful to either neighborhood, the nurse can choose.
B. The nurse needs more data.
C. The nurse should choose to focus on single moms in Centerville
D. The nurse should choose to focus on single moms in Two Oaks.

 

 

ANS: D

It is apparent that Two Oaks has a higher rate of single moms than Centerville does. Nurses must focus on high-risk groups—and the single moms in Two Oaks are at higher risk.

Cognitive Level: Synthesis

 

REF: Text page 165; Box 1

 

  1. Assuming that City A has a murder rate of 12 per 100,000 population and City B has a murder rate of 24 per 100,000 population, which city has the more worrisome problem?

 

A. Cannot determine from these data
B. City A
C. City B
D. Public health personnel are not involved in issues such as murder rates.

 

 

ANS: C

Because City B has a murder rate of 24:100,000, whereas City A has a rate of 12:100,000, City B has a murder rate twice as high as City A and hence is the more challenging problem.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 166

 

  1. The nurse had to decide whether to work with the schools in two communities with an emphasis upon asthma in children. The nurse was given the following figures:

 

School Asthmatic

Children

Number of

Children in

School

Number of

Persons in

Community

Centerville Elementary  25 1,000 15,000
Centertown Suburban Elementary  25 1,000 15,000
Centerville Junior High  35 1,500 15,000
Two Oaks Elementary  5  200  5,000
Two Oaks Junior High  10  300  5,000
Totals: 100 4,000 55,000

 

If these figures are true, what is the rate of asthma in the school-age population?

A. 5:1000
B. 25:1000
C. 100:20,000
D. 400:2000

 

 

ANS: B

With 100 asthmatic children among 4000 total children, the rate is 100:4000, simplified to 25:1000.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 166

 

  1. Incidence figures are especially helpful for what purposes? Select all that apply.

 

A. Can help evaluate treatments that prolong life.
B. Directly measure new illnesses in a population.
C. Help assess risks associated with particular illnesses.
D. Help determine health care personnel needs.
E. Data may help illustrate whether interventions are effective.
F. Useful for planning health care services and facilities.

 

 

ANS: B, C, E

Incident rates are important because they are a direct measure of the magnitude of NEW illnesses in a population and provide assessments about the risk associated with particular illnesses. Being a relatively rapidly changing number, incidence will also illustrate whether precautionary interventions are effective.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 166

 

 

  1. Prevalence figures are especially helpful for what purposes? Select all that apply.

 

A. Can help evaluate treatments that prolong life.
B. Directly measure new illnesses in a population.
C. Help assess risks associated with particular illnesses.
D. Help determine health care personnel needs.
E. Represent new cases of an illness in a population.
F. Useful for planning health care services and facilities.

 

 

ANS: A, D, F

Prevalence rates represent ALL cases of an illness and have relevance for planning health care services, resources, and facilities; for determining health care personnel needs; and for evaluating treatments that prolong life. Incident rates are important because they are a direct measure of the magnitude of new illnesses in a population and provide assessments about the risk associated with particular illnesses.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 166

 

  1. A nurse was assigned to work with technology-dependent schoolchildren. What kind of study might the nurse conduct to help determine the needs of these children?

 

A. A case-control study to compare the children with children who are not technology-dependent
B. A cross-sectional study of school-based variables affecting the children
C. A descriptive study regarding prevalence among total school population
D. An analytic study to determine causes of the children’s problems

 

 

ANS: B

There would be no point to compare the technology-dependent children to those who are not technology-dependent or to try to determine the causes of the children’s problems. A descriptive study of prevalence might be helpful if it focused on the different types of dependency, which might provide hints about community problems. However, a cross-sectional study (done at one period of time) to determine other needs might be very useful as the nurse assessed needs in preparation for planning nursing care of the group.

Cognitive Level: Synthesis

 

REF: Text pages 167, 168

 

 

  1. A school nurse determines to conduct a descriptive study of the health needs of the students in the school. Therefore the nurse would:

 

A. Break the students into two groups, the healthy and the unhealthy, teach courses on healthy lifestyles, and then measure any changes.
B. Break the students into two randomly chosen groups, teach healthy lifestyles to all students, and then determine learning through a posttest.
C. Break the students into two randomly chosen groups, teach healthy lifestyles to one group, and then determine differences in knowledge between the two groups.
D. Screen each student and look for patterns in the findings related to health problems needing attention.

 

 

ANS: D

Descriptive studies describe the amount and distribution of disease within a populationRemember, screening would give the nurse information on the health needs of students as a whole.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 167

 

  1. A school nurse was concerned about the amount of obesity in the elementary school classes. Based on the literature the nurse decided to ask each student if he or she ate breakfast before coming to school in the morning. The nurse is doing a(n):

 

A. Analytic study.
B. Case-control study.
C. Correlational study.
D. Ex post facto study.

 

 

ANS: C

A correlational study looks for associations between two factors, in this case between obesity and possible contributing factors.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 167

 

 

  1. A school nurse decided to begin a “don’t smoke, don’t start” program. To determine if the program has any effect, an experimental trial study was planned. The nurse would:

 

A. Break the students into two groups, smokers and nonsmokers, teach the course to both groups, and then observe for changes in beliefs.
B. Break the students into two randomly chosen groups, teach the program to all students, and then determine learning and smoking behaviors through a posttest.
C. Break the students into two randomly chosen groups, teach the program to one group, and then determine differences in knowledge and smoking behaviors between the two groups.
D. Screen each student and look for evidence of smoking behaviors.

 

 

ANS: C

Only option C is an experiment with randomization and control.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 168

 

  1. The school nurse set up a “don’t smoke, don’t start” program, with the nurse focusing on children who did not smoke. The nurse was dealing with which stage of disease?

 

A. Adaptation
B. Convalescence
C. Pathogenesis
D. Prepathogenesis

 

 

ANS: D

Before smoking, the students would be in the prepathogenesis stage because they would be susceptible to disease if they began smoking but no disease is currently present.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 169

 

  1. In a “don’t smoke, don’t start” program the school nurse decided to focus on all three aspects of the epidemiologic triangle. Therefore the nurse would include:

 

A. The benefits of smoking, the risks of smoking, and the expense of smoking.
B. The pleasures of smoking, the risks of smoking, and the costs of smoking.
C. The risks of nicotine, genetic factors related to nicotine absorption, and media pressures to smoke.
D. The risks of nicotine, the cost of smoking, and the taxes on cigarettes.

 

 

ANS: C

Only option C reflects all three aspects of the epidemiologic triangle, namely, agent factors, host factors, and environmental factors.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 169; Figure 2

 

  1. Which is the best response as to what causes smoking?

 

A. Movies that show heroes and heroines always smoking
B. Multiple factors, including media and peer pressure
C. The addictive effects of nicotine
D. The tobacco companies that advertise heavily

 

 

ANS: B

As the web of causation model and other multiple causation models demonstrate, there are multiple factors interacting to affect health behaviors. Only option B demonstrates that understanding.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 170

 

  1. A school nurse wants to plan an intervention in student smoking. Which facts would be most helpful to the nurse?

 

A. The number of advertisements for tobacco that are currently being published in national magazines and newspapers
B. The number of lead characters in national TV series who smoke on camera
C. The number of local physicians who stress no smoking while examining their patients
D. The prevalence of smoking among students and teachers in the school

 

 

ANS: D

Although all of the answers reflect factors in smoking decisions, the only factor the nurse can influence is the smoking by students and teachers at the school.

Cognitive Level: Synthesis

 

REF: Text page 170

 

  1. When the school nurse discovered three sixth-graders smoking behind a delivery truck in the school parking lot, the nurse could accurately conclude that the three smokers were:

 

A. At risk for lung disease.
B. In the early lesions’ stage of lung disease.
C. In the latency period of lung disease.
D. In the pathogenesis stage of lung disease.

 

 

ANS: A

Based on the limited information given in the question, only option A can be accurately concluded without more data as to length of smoking, number of cigarettes per day, coughing, other symptoms, and so on.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 169

 

  1. The school nurse decided to screen for scoliosis among the school’s students. Such a screening is:

 

A. Not required by law and therefore unnecessary.
B. Primary prevention.
C. Secondary prevention.
D. Tertiary prevention.

 

 

ANS: C

This screening constitutes secondary prevention because the screening would lead to possible diagnosis and treatment of students with scoliosis.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 171

 

  1. The school nurse decides to invite a nutritionist to discuss healthy lifestyles, such as eating vegetables and fruits for snacks. Such an intervention would be:

 

A. Liable to cause trouble among the kitchen staff.
B. Primary prevention.
C. Secondary prevention.
D. Tertiary prevention.

 

 

ANS: B

This intervention would be considered primary prevention, since poor eating habits may lead to obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes later in life.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 170

 

  1. The school health nurse tries to encourage the technology-dependent students to become more involved in school activities. Such efforts represent:

 

A. An intrusion into their privacy.
B. Primary prevention.
C. Secondary prevention.
D. Tertiary prevention.

 

 

ANS: D

The nurse’s efforts are considered tertiary prevention. The students are already technology-dependent, but the nurse is attempting to prevent further physiologic disability and psychologic harm.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 171

 

  1. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) reports on the occurrence of notifiable diseases from all the U.S. states and territories. Nonetheless, the resultant data are not absolutely accurate because:

 

A. A great deal of data are lost “en route” from physician to NNDSS.
B. Computer operators do not always enter data accurately.
C. Not all cases of such diseases receive care or are reported.
D. Not all physicians know or obey the law to report cases to the NNDSS.

 

 

ANS: C

The law requires reporting diseases to the state agencies, but reporting to the CDC (NNDSS) is voluntary. Further, not all cases receive medical care and not all treated cases are reported. Finally, the completeness of reporting varies.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 172

 

  1. The primary causes of death in the United States among adults age 65 and older are:

 

A. Alzheimer’s disease, cardiac disease, and chronic lower respiratory tract diseases.
B. Alzheimer’s disease, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus.
C. Cardiac disease, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular disease.
D. Cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus.

 

 

ANS: C

According to Table 4, the top three causes of death in the United States are diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular diseases.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Table 8; text page 185

 

  1. The leading cause of death by a wide margin in young U.S. adults ages 25 to 44 is:

 

A. Alzheimer’s disease.
B. Cardiac disease.
C. Malignant neoplasms.
D. Unintentional injury.

 

 

ANS: D

According to Table 8, the leading cause of death in young U.S. adults ages 25 to 44 is unintentional injury.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Table 4; text page 177

 

 

  1. The U.S. Department of Commerce collects data, especially concerning:

 

A. The health of businesses in America.
B. The locations of all hospitals and clinics.
C. The value of property in each county and state.
D. Which areas of the country are fastest growing.

 

 

ANS: D

The U.S. Department of Commerce collects data related to health and economics, including which area of the country is growing the fastest, which state has the highest median age, household and family data, fertility data, numbers in the labor force, poverty and unemployment rates, etc.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 175

 

  1. Death certificates report the cause of death. The only problem with death certificates is that they are:

 

A. Focused on the immediate cause or disease, not the underlying causes.
B. Focused on the legal cause of death more than the medical cause.
C. More accurate with older adults than younger adults.
D. Too difficult to read with all the comorbidities.

 

 

ANS: A

Death certificates report on the immediate cause of death, such as lung cancer, but not the underlying causes of death, such as smoking for 20 years. Because comorbidities are not listed, the certificates are more accurate with young adults dying from a particular cause than for an older adult who may have died from a combination of health problems. The text does not clearly state that immediate causes are reported, but it does discuss the problems with reporting the disease, not the cause of the disease.

Cognitive Level: Synthesis

 

REF: Text page 176

 

  1. The leading actual cause of death in the United States is probably:

 

A. Use of alcohol.
B. Automobile and motorcycle accidents.
C. Use of illegal drugs.
D. Complications resulting from obesity.
E. Use of tobacco.

 

 

ANS: E

Heart disease is the major cause of death in older adults. The text explains that more than one third of heart disease can be attributed to five major risk factors, with the first risk factor being tobacco use. Therefore use of tobacco is the leading cause of premature death in the United States.

Cognitive Level: Synthesis

 

REF: Text pages 176, 177

 

  1. The most widely used rate to compare the health of populations across countries is the:

 

A. Birth rate.
B. Crude mortality rate.
C. Death from HIV rate.
D. Infant mortality rate.

 

 

ANS: D

The infant mortality rate is extremely sensitive and, if high, indicates unmet health needs and/or an unfavorable environment. Therefore the infant mortality rate is used for determining changes in level of health over time and for cross-country comparisons.

Cognitive Level: Knowledge

 

REF: Text page 181

 

  1. The school health nurse planned to have a “parenthood” class in the higher class levels. The nurse knows that having a low–birth-weight baby is correlated with several factors, including:

 

A. Being an athlete engaging in exercise.
B. Early prenatal care.
C. Number of sexual partners.
D. Use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco.

 

 

ANS: D

Low–birth-weight babies are correlated with late prenatal care, mother under 18 years of age, dieting or poor nutrition, and use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 181

 

 

  1. The school nurse held discussions with teachers regarding pregnancy prevention. Which of the following is related to early motherhood but not amenable to the school nurse’s intervention?

 

A. Lack of access to quality nursing care during delivery
B. Lack of information about birth control and pregnancy
C. Lack of information about prenatal care and its importance
D. Lack of medical insurance and lower socioeconomic level

 

 

ANS: D

Lower socioeconomic level and lack of insurance are related to low birth weight and early pregnancy. The school nurse can teach about pregnancy and prenatal care and can work with the school and the community to improve access to quality health care.

Cognitive Level: Synthesis

 

REF: Text page 181

 

  1. The school nurse decides to implement a health promotion program for the school-age children. Although all of the following topics might be very useful, the nurse should especially include information on how to:

 

A. Eat a nutritious diet.
B. Exercise and sleep well.
C. Make your own toys and games.
D. Perform a safety check in your home.

 

 

ANS: D

Although all items would be useful, a focus on safety would be most helpful in avoiding preventable injuries, which is the major cause of death in school-age children.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Table 7; text page 182

 

  1. The state legislators were debating the high injury rate among individuals between 15 and 24 years of age. Most such injuries involve:

 

A. Guns.
B. Homicide among gangs and their members.
C. Motor vehicles.
D. Sharp (knives) and blunt (such as baseball bats) objects.

 

 

ANS: C

Most injuries among those between 15 and 24 years of age involve motor vehicles, with over 40% also involving alcohol.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 182

 

  1. A nurse volunteered to help 1 day a week at the senior citizens’ center in the community. One of the most healthful things the nurse could do would be to:

 

A. Contribute all fabric and scrapbooking supplies for the seniors to use.
B. Encourage everyone to be involved in a basic physical exercise class.
C. Lead a life history class with a focus on reminiscing.
D. Teach good nutrition and low-cost diet choices.

 

 

ANS: B

Although all might be useful, the key to physiologic decline is lack of physical activityRemember, any exercise program would be most helpful.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 184

 

  1. Which of the following groups would be considered most high risk?

 

A. The adolescent high school hobby club
B. The adults who met for the “Stop Shopping” therapy group
C. The elementary school’s Girl Scout troop
D. The group of homeless women who were trying to find low-rent apartments
E. The women who met once a week to discuss the challenges of single parenthood

 

 

ANS: D

Poverty is the single factor most highly correlated with poor health.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 184

 

  1. The primary reason for differences in health status in the United States is:

 

A. Ethnic groups, especially minorities.
B. Geographic location.
C. Noncompliant patients.
D. Poverty or socioeconomic status.
E. Sexual behavior.

 

 

ANS: D

Poverty and socioeconomic status have the greatest impact on differences in health status in the United States.

Cognitive Level: Application

 

REF: Text page 186

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