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Development Across the Life Span 7th Edition Feldman Test Bank

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Development Across the Life Span 7th Edition Feldman Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205940073

ISBN-10: 0205940072

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Development Across the Life Span 7th Edition Feldman Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205940073

ISBN-10: 0205940072

 

 

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Chapter 10

 

Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood

 

10-1. According to Erikson, from roughly ages 6 to 12, children go through the period characterized by a focus on efforts to meet the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world. This stage is called

 

  1. a) inferiority-versus-superiority.
  2. b) industry-versus-inferiority.
  3. c) social comparison.
  4. d)

 

Answer: b Page: 317 Level: Medium LO: 10-1 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-2. Which psychologist promoted the theory that addresses middle childhood children’s focus on meeting the challenges presented by the world?

 

  1. a) Erikson
  2. b) Freud
  3. c) Skinner
  4. d) Watson

 

Answer: a Page: 317 Level: Medium LO: 10-1 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-3. According to research by Vaillant & Vaillant, which of the following characteristics is most highly associated with adult success?

 

  1. a) high level of intelligence
  2. b) family background
  3. c) childhood industriousness
  4. d) genetic predisposition

 

Answer: c Page: 317 Level: Medium LO: 10-1 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-4. Eleven-year-old Tina characterizes herself as a smart, friendly person who is helpful to others. Tina’s views of herself are based on

 

  1. a) her physical skills.
  2. b) psychological characteristics, inner traits that are more abstract.
  3. c) desire to be popular with her friends.
  4. d) external activities relying on motor skills.

 

Answer: b Page: 317 Level: Difficult LO: 10-1 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-5. Twelve-year-old Sam believes he is a pretty good soccer player but not as good in chorus. This is an indication of Sam’s

 

  1. a) self-esteem.
  2. b) self-concept.
  3. c) social reality.
  4. d) social comparison.

 

Answer: b Page: 317 Level: Medium LO: 10-1 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-6. ______________ is an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation (which is more emotionally oriented), whereas ______________ reflects beliefs and cognitions about the self.

 

  1. a) Self-concept; self-esteem
  2. b) Self-esteem; self-concept
  3. c) Self-esteem; social comparison
  4. d) Social comparison; self-concept

 

Answer: b Pages: 319 Level: Difficult LO: 10-2 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-7. Which of the following terms relates to an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation?

 

  1. a) social comparison
  2. b) self-concept
  3. c) self-esteem
  4. d) downward social comparison

 

Answer: c Page: 319 Level: Difficult LO: 10-2 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-8. Harry is facing an important test and expects to do poorly. He is so anxious that he cannot concentrate or study effectively, but he figures that since he’s going to do badly anyway, he should not bother. This is an indication of Harry’s

 

  1. a) self-esteem.
  2. b) self-concept.
  3. c) social reality.
  4. d) social comparison.

 

Answer: a Page: 320 Level: Medium LO: 10-2 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-9. Generally, overall self-esteem is high during middle childhood but begins to decline around the age of ___ due to

 

  1. a) 15; puberty.
  2. b) 16; sexual activity.
  3. c) 12; school transition.
  4. d) 11; self-concept.

 

Answer: c Page: 320 Level: Difficult LO: 10-2 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-10. Parents can help break the cycle of low self-esteem in a child by using a(n) _________ child-rearing style.

 

  1. a) authoritarian
  2. b) permissive
  3. c) authoritative
  4. d) passive

 

Answer: c Page: 321 Level: Medium LO: 10-2 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-11. During middle childhood years, it appears that children in immigrant families

 

  1. a) often have significant learning problems.
  2. b) often do quite well in the United States.
  3. c) are less fluent in communication skills.
  4. d) suffer from depression.

 

Answer: b Page: 321 Level: Easy LO: 10-2 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 2.3

 

10-12. Sima is a child of recent immigrants to the U.S. Sima is likely to demonstrate all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) equal or better grades in school than nonimmigrant children.
  2. b) similar level of self-esteem as nonimmigrant children.
  3. c) relatively higher socioeconomic status.
  4. d) a high level of popularity among peers.

 

Answer: d Page: 321 Level: Medium LO: 10-2 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-13. Recent research indicates that around age 11, African American children begin to show higher self-esteem than Caucasian American children. Which of the following is NOT a reason for this?

 

  1. a) African American children begin to notice more visibility on television of African Americans.
  2. b) African American children begin to identify with their racial group.
  3. c) African American children begin to develop more complex views of racial identity.
  4. d) African American children begin to view positive aspects of their group membership.

 

Answer: a Page: 322 Level: Difficult LO: 10-2 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 2.3

 

10-14. According to ____________, members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views held by a majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power and status differences between the groups.

 

  1. a) social comparison theory
  2. b) low self-esteem theory
  3. c) downward social comparison theory
  4. d) social identity theory

 

Answer: d Page: 322 Level: Medium LO: 10-2 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-15. The term that refers to the complex relationship between self-esteem and minority group status comes from

 

  1. a) social comparison.
  2. b) social identity theory.
  3. c) downward social comparison.
  4. d) low self-esteem.

 

Answer: b Page: 322 Level: Medium LO: 10-2 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-16. Which of the following psychologists contends that people pass through a series of stages in the kind of reasoning they use to make moral judgments as their sense of justice evolves?

 

  1. a) Freud
  2. b) Erikson
  3. c) Kohlberg
  4. d) Bandura

 

Answer: c Page: 322 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.4

 

10-17. According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects concrete interests of the individual considered in terms of rewards and punishments?

 

  1. a) conventional morality
  2. b) postconventional morality
  3. c) moral reasoning
  4. d) preconventional morality

 

Answer: d Pages: 322-323 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-18. A seventh grade student is tempted to cheat on an exam, but talks himself out of it because he is afraid he will get caught and will fail the course. This student is demonstrating

 

  1. a) conventional morality.
  2. b) preconventional morality.
  3. c) postconventional morality.
  4. d) a lack of morality.

 

Answer: b Pages: 323 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-19. According to Kohlberg’s theory, the 4th stage of development is

 

  1. a) authority and social-order-maintaining morality.
  2. b) universal moral principles that are considered broader than the rules of a particular society.
  3. c) obedience and punishment orientation.
  4. d) morality of contract, individual rights, and democratically accepted law.

 

Answer: a Page: 323 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-20. Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg found that ____________ is relatively rare.

 

  1. a) preconventional reasoning
  2. b) a lack of morality
  3. c) postconventional morality
  4. d) conventional morality

 

Answer: c Page: 324 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-21. Kohlberg proposes that moral development occurs in a fixed order, and that people are unable to reach the highest stage of moral reasoning until __________ due to __________.

 

  1. a) middle childhood; lack of cognitive development.
  2. b) adolescence; lack of experience and peer pressure.
  3. c) young adulthood; lack of experience.
  4. d) adolescence; lack of cognitive development.

 

Answer: d Page: 324 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-22. According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects a person’s approach to moral problems as a member of society, where the person is interested in pleasing others by acting as a good member of society?

 

  1. a) conventional morality
  2. b) postconventional morality
  3. c) moral reasoning
  4. d) preconventional morality

 

Answer: a Page: 324 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-23. According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, what stage reflects a person’s use of moral principles, which are seen as broader than those of any particular society?

 

  1. a) conventional morality
  2. b) postconventional morality
  3. c) moral reasoning
  4. d) preconventional morality

 

Answer: b Page: 324 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

 

10-24. Which of the following psychologists developed the three stages of moral development for women?

 

  1. a) Lawrence Kohlberg
  2. b) F. Skinner
  3. c) Carol Gilligan
  4. d) Sigmund Freud

 

Answer: c Page: 325 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.4

 

10-25. According to one psychologist, girls view morality in all the terms below EXCEPT

 

  1. a) broad principles of fairness/justice.
  2. b) responsibility toward individuals.
  3. c) compassion for individuals is a more prominent factor in moral behavior for women than for men.
  4. d) gradual transition from selfishness to responsibility, which includes thinking about what would be best for others.

 

Answer: a Page: 325 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-26. Which of the following best describes the first of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?

 

  1. a) goodness as self-sacrifice
  2. b) orientation toward individual survival
  3. c) morality of nonviolence
  4. d) moral equivalence established between self and others.

 

Answer: b Page: 325 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-27. Which of the following best describes the second of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?

 

  1. a) goodness as self-sacrifice
  2. b) orientation toward individual survival
  3. c) morality of nonviolence
  4. d) moral equivalence established between self and others.

 

Answer: a Page: 325 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-28. Which of the following best describes the third of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?

 

  1. a) goodness as self-sacrifice
  2. b) orientation toward individual survival
  3. c) morality of nonviolence
  4. d) moral equivalence established between self and others.

 

Answer: c Page: 325 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-29. Friends influence children’s development during the middle childhood years in all of the following ways EXCEPT

 

  1. a) friendship provides a child with information about the world, other people, and him/herself.
  2. b) friendship provides emotional support the helps the child respond more effectively to stress.
  3. c) friendship provides a training ground for communicating and interacting with others.
  4. d) friendships provide more security than relationships with parents and other family members.

 

Answer: d Page: 326 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-30. According to psychologist William Damon, a child’s view of friendship passes through all of the stages below EXCEPT

 

  1. a) basing friendship on intelligence.
  2. b) basing friendship on others’ behavior.
  3. c) basing friendship on trust.
  4. d) basing friendship on psychological closeness.

 

Answer: a Pages: 327 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-31. According to Damon, the first stage of building friendship for middle-school-age children is

 

  1. a) basing friendship on intelligence.
  2. b) basing friendship on others’ behavior.
  3. c) basing friendship on trust.
  4. d) basing friendship on psychological closeness.

 

Answer: b Page: 327 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-32. According to Damon, when Sammy (who is a kindergarten student) is asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that he will respond

 

  1. a) “Because a friend is someone you can count on to help you when you need it.”
  2. b) “Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what.”
  3. c) “Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot.”
  4. d) “Because a friend is somebody who is kind and puts my feelings first.”

 

Answer: c Page: 327 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-33. According to Damon, when Martha (who is 8 years old) is asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that she will respond

 

  1. a) “Because a friend is someone you can count on to help you when you need it.”
  2. b) “Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and

they will stick with you no matter what.”

  1. c) “Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot.”
  2. d) “Because a friend is somebody who is kind and puts my feelings first.”

 

Answer: a Page: 327 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-34. Which of the following is considered to be the centerpiece of friendship during middle childhood?

 

  1. a) similar racial or ethnic background
  2. b) mutual trust
  3. c) similar size and weight
  4. d) living geographically near one another

 

Answer: b Page: 327 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

 

10-35. According to Damon, the second stage of building friendship for middle-school-age children is

 

  1. a) basing friendship on intelligence.
  2. b) basing friendship on others’ behavior.
  3. c) basing friendship on trust.
  4. d) basing friendship on psychological closeness.

 

Answer: c Pages: 327 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-36. According to Damon, the third stage of building friendship for middle-school age children is

 

  1. a) basing friendship on intelligence.
  2. b) basing friendship on others’ behavior.
  3. c) basing friendship on trust.
  4. d) basing friendship on psychological closeness.

 

Answer: d Page: 327 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-37. According to Damon, when Steven (who is 15 years old) is asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that he responded

 

  1. a) “Because a friend is someone who shares his/her possessions with you.”
  2. b) “Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what.”
  3. c) “Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot.”
  4. d) “Because a friend is somebody who is kind and puts my feelings first.”

 

Answer: b Page: 327 Level: Difficult LO: 10-4 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-38. Status is

 

  1. a) the amount of money a person or his/her family has.
  2. b) the collection of social skills that permits individuals to perform successfully in social settings.
  3. c) the geographical location of a person’s home.
  4. d) the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group.

 

Answer: d Page: 328 Level: Easy LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-39. High-status children tend to do all of the following except

 

  1. a) form friendships with other high-status children.
  2. b) have a greater number of friends.
  3. c) form cliques of groups that are seen as desirable and exclusive.
  4. d) form friendships with lower class or unpopular children.

 

Answer: d Page: 328-329 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-40. What is the term for the collection of social skills that permits individuals to perform successfully in social settings?

 

  1. a) status
  2. b) morals
  3. c) social competence
  4. d) social problem solving

 

Answer: c Page: 329 Level: Difficult LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-41. Research indicates that popular children share the following personality characteristics EXCEPT

 

  1. a) having a sense of humor.
  2. b) being domineering.
  3. c) understanding others’ nonverbal behavior.
  4. d) being cooperative.

 

Answer: b Page: 329 Level: Easy LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-42. Compared to less popular children, popular children are more likely to do all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) demonstrate a good sense of humor and appreciate others’ attempts at humor.
  2. b) read others’ nonverbal behavior and understand others’ emotional experiences.
  3. c) control their own nonverbal behavior more effectively.
  4. d) disregard others’ emotional experiences.

 

Answer: d Page: 329 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-43. What is the term that means the use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others?

 

  1. a) social problem solving
  2. b) status
  3. c) social competence
  4. d) conflict resolution

 

Answer: a Page: 329 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-44. According to psychologist Kenneth Dodge, successful ___________ proceeds through a series of steps that correspond to the child’s information processing strategies.

 

  1. a) status management
  2. b) conflict resolution
  3. c) social competence
  4. d) social problem solving

 

Answer: d Page: 329 Level: Difficult LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-45. According to your , _________ schoolchildren stay home from school each day because they are afraid of being bullied.

 

  1. a) 160,000
  2. b) 100,000
  3. c) 1,000,000
  4. d) 500,000

 

Answer: a Page: 331 Level: Difficult LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-46. What is one of the newest forms of bullying?

 

  1. a) physical torture
  2. b) lying or blaming others for their misdeeds
  3. c) internet bullying
  4. d) theft of the person’s personal items or schoolwork

 

Answer: c Page: 331 Level: Easy LO: 10-4 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-47. What does the term “border work” mean?

 

  1. a) same-sex groupings that dominate in middle childhood
  2. b) adolescent schoolboys and girls who occasionally enter each other’s “territories” with romantic overtones
  3. c) making friendships within one’s own race
  4. d) making friendships within one’s own school or chronological age

 

Answer: b Page: 331 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-48. The segregation of friendships according to gender occurs

 

  1. a) in the S. only.
  2. b) only among separate racial groups.
  3. c) in almost all societies and in nonindustrialized societies.
  4. d) when boys are assigned one type of chore, and girls are assigned another type of chore.

 

Answer: c Page: 331 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-49. The lack of cross-gender interaction in the middle childhood years means that

 

  1. a) girls and boys may not learn to like each other and have difficulty making cross-gender friendships.
  2. b) boys’ and girls’ friendships are restricted to members of their own sex.
  3. c) girls and boys do not have enough time or opportunity to learn about each other’s differences and/or similarities.
  4. d) it is more difficult for boys and girls to build social competence.

 

Answer: b Page: 332 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-50. Middle-school-age boys typically have all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) larger networks of friends than girls.
  2. b) the tendency to play in groups rather than pairing off.
  3. c) members of groups falling into particular levels of status.
  4. d) one or two “best friends” who are of relatively equal status.

 

Answer: d Page: 332 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-51. Which of the following terms means rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group?

 

  1. a) social competence
  2. b) status
  3. c) dominance hierarchy
  4. d) social problem solving

 

Answer: c Page: 332 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-52. Boys’ play tends to come in bursts rather than in more extended, tranquil episodes, due in part to

 

  1. a) lack of social competence skills.
  2. b) boys’ concern over dominance hierarchy known as restrictive play.
  3. c) lack of dominance hierarchy, leading to equal status of different members.
  4. d) lack of social problem-solving skills.

 

Answer: b Page: 332 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-53. Middle-school-age girls tend to __________; while middle-school-age boys tend to _________.

 

  1. a) play in pairs; develop a dominance hierarchy.
  2. b) have a smaller network of friends; ignore differences in status.
  3. c) avoid differences in status; have a smaller network of friends.
  4. d) focus on one or two “best friends”; smooth over

 

Answer: a Pages: 332 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-54. According to psychologist Carol Beal, the motivation of middle-school-age girls to solve conflict among friends is due to

 

  1. a) lack of self-confidence.
  2. b) lack of social competence.
  3. c) apprehension over the use of more direct approaches.
  4. d) the desire to make social interaction nonconfrontational.

 

Answer: d Page: 332 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-55. Sally, who is a middle-school-age girl, wants her friend, Beth, to go to the movies with her. Which of the following statements is Sally likely to use to get her friend to go?

 

  1. a) “I want you to go the movies with me.”
  2. b) “You have to go to the movies with me.”
  3. c) “I want to go to the movies.”
  4. d) “Let’s go to the movies.”

 

Answer: d Page: 332 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-56. Which of the following is true when it comes to middle school children’s friendships?

 

  1. a) Children tend to make an equal number of same-race and different-race friends.
  2. b) Children can show a high degree of mutual acceptance.
  3. c) Children tend to make same-gender but different-race group friends.
  4. d) Children cannot make more different-race friendships as they age.

 

Answer: b Page: 333 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-57. ____________ is the period in which parents and children jointly control children’s behavior.

 

  1. a) Self-care
  2. b) Social competence
  3. c) Coregulation
  4. d) Adolescence

 

Answer: c Page: 334 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-58. During the middle school years, all of the following occur EXCEPT

 

  1. a) children spend significantly less time with their parents.
  2. b) parents still remain the major influence in their children’s lives.
  3. c) siblings have an important influence, both good and bad, on children.
  4. d) peer relationships are more influential than family relationships.

 

Answer: d Page: 334 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-59. Which of the following children is likely to be better adjusted, have higher self-esteem, and a stronger motivation to succeed?

 

  1. a) an only child in the People’s Republic of China
  2. b) a child in China who has one sibling
  3. c) a child in China who has two siblings
  4. d) a child in China who has more than four siblings

 

Answer: b Page: 335 Level: Difficult LO: 10-6 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-60. Which of the following children tends to academically outperform other children?

 

  1. a) an only child of Chinese descent
  2. b) a child of Chinese descent with siblings
  3. c) a child born in the S. with siblings
  4. d) a child born in the S. with one sibling

 

Answer: a Page: 335 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-61. What is the term for children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their caretaker(s) return from work?

 

  1. a) latchkey children
  2. b) social competent children
  3. c) self-care children
  4. d) autonomous children

 

Answer: c Page: 336 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-62. What percentage of children in the U.S. between the ages of 5 and 12 spend some time alone after school without adult supervision?

 

  1. a) 12%-14%
  2. b) 15%-20%
  3. c) 5%-10%
  4. d) 8%-10%

 

Answer: a Page: 336 Level: Difficult LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-63. According to psychologist Sandra Hofferth, which of the following is NOT a part of self-care children’s development?

 

  1. a) Given their hectic schedule, self-care children may benefit from a period of decompression after school.
  2. b) Self-care children may have an opportunity to develop greater autonomy.
  3. c) Self-care children who stay at home rather than “hanging out” unsupervised with friends may avoid activities that lead to difficulties.
  4. d) Self-care children seem more emotionally damaged than children who come home to and are supervised by one parent.

 

Answer: d Pages: 336 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-64. What is the approximate percentage of children in the U.S. who spend their entire childhood living in the same household with both parents?

 

  1. a) 33%
  2. b) 50%
  3. c) 40%
  4. d) 25%

 

Answer: b Page: 336 Level: Difficult LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-65. Immediately after a divorce, both children and parents may show several types of psychological maladjustment for a period that may last from

 

  1. a) 1 to 2 years.
  2. b) 3 months to 3 years.
  3. c) 6 months to 2 years.
  4. d) 1 to 3 years.

 

Answer: c Page: 337 Level: Difficult LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-66. Following a divorce, a child may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) sleep disturbance.
  2. b)
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: c Page: 337 Level: Easy LO: 10-6 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-67. After a divorce, ______-year-old children feel pressured to choose sides between the mother and father, and may experience a degree of divided loyalty.

 

  1. a) 5- to 6
  2. b) 10
  3. c) 2
  4. d) 6- to 8

 

Answer: b Page: 337 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-68. With regard to children of divorced parents, all of the following are true EXCEPT

 

  1. a) twice as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling as children from intact families.
  2. b) 18 months to 2 years after the divorce, most children begin to return to their predivorce state of psychological adjustment.
  3. c) people who have experienced parental divorce are more at risk for experiencing divorce themselves.
  4. d) divorce is not beneficial to children living in households overwhelmed by parental strife.

 

Answer: d Page: 337 Level: Difficult LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-69. Approximately how many children under the age of 18 in the U.S. live in single-parent households?

 

  1. a) 50%
  2. b) 33%
  3. c) 25%
  4. d) 10%

 

Answer: c Page: 337 Level: Difficult LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-70. Almost ________ of African American children under the age of 18 and almost _________ of Hispanic American children under the age of 18 live in a single-parent household.

 

  1. a) 60%; 35%
  2. b) 35%; 60%
  3. c) 45%; 50%
  4. d) 50%; 45%

 

Answer: a Page: 337 Level: Difficult LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-71. The prevalence of three-generation families who live together is greater among

 

  1. a) African American families.
  2. b) Caucasian American families.
  3. c) Asian American families.
  4. d) Hispanic American families.

 

Answer: a Page: 338 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-72. By definition, a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them is called a

 

  1. a) multigenerational family.
  2. b) single-parent family.
  3. c) blended family.
  4. d) mixed family.

 

Answer: c Page: 338 Level: Easy LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-73. What percentage of children in the U.S. live in “blended families”?

 

  1. a) 17%
  2. b) 25%
  3. c) 50%
  4. d) 10%

 

Answer: a Page: 338 Level: Difficult LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-74. When living in a blended family, roles, and expectations can be unclear, and this is called

 

  1. a)
  2. b) self-care.
  3. c) shared benefits.
  4. d) role ambiguity.

 

Answer: d Page: 338 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-75. More than ______________ households in the United States contain at least one spouse who has remarried.

 

  1. a) 1 million
  2. b) 10 million
  3. c) 4 thousand
  4. d) 10 trillion

 

Answer: b Page: 338 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-76. Children who grow up in which of the following families tend to have a stronger sense of extended family?

 

  1. a) families headed by gay and lesbian parents
  2. b) families headed by Caucasian American parents
  3. c) families headed by Asian American parents
  4. d) families headed by African American or Hispanic American parents

 

Answer: d Page: 338-339 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-77. A young man who sees his father to be a powerful figure who maintains discipline, and who is taught that it is his responsibility to care for his parents throughout his lifetime, is likely to be

 

  1. a) Caucasian American.
  2. b) African American.
  3. c) Asian American.
  4. d) Hispanic American.

 

Answer: c Page: 339 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-78. Children living in poverty experience many more disruptions than children in socioeconomically secure environments. Examples of these disruptions include all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) frequent moving by the family to find work.
  2. b) fewer basic everyday resources.
  3. c) attending inferior schools in unsafe neighborhoods.
  4. d) living in single-parent households.

 

Answer: d Page: 339 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-79. What are the major effects of poverty, chronic stress, and susceptibility to disease in children?

 

  1. a) Significant hardships, poor academic performance, and cardiovascular
  2. b) There are no major effects regarding stress and susceptibility to disease.
  3. c) Children are prone to brain delays and adjustment problems.
  4. d) Poor self-esteem, high resilience, improved health.

 

Answer: a Pages: 339 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-80. The word “orphanage” has been replaced by the words

 

  1. a) foster home.
  2. b) group home or residential treatment center.
  3. c) alternative lifestyle.
  4. d) latchkey child.

 

Answer: b Page: 339 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

10-81. Briefly provide information regarding the success and adjustment of the children of immigrant families.

 

Answer: Immigrant children are faring quite well, and in some ways, doing better than their nonimmigrant peers. They tend to have equal or better grades than nonimmigrant students, and demonstrate similar levels of self-esteem. Their socioeconomic status is relatively high, and their parents are educated. Immigrant children are highly motivated and place a higher value on education than nonimmigrant children, and immigrant children feel an obligation and duty to succeed. Due to a strong identity, they do not adopt undesirable “American” behaviors.

 

Pages: 321 Level: Medium LO: 10-2 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-82. Briefly describe criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning.

 

Answer: Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized because it is based solely on observations of Western cultures. Members of industrialized, technically advanced societies move through morality stages faster than members of nonindustrialized countries. One theory is that Kohlberg’s morality involves governmental and societal institutions such as the police and court system, while less industrialized cultures’ morality may be based on the relationship between people in a village. Kohlberg’s morality also does not explain females’ moral judgments because his data was based on males.

 

Pages: 324-325 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.3

 

10-83. Briefly explain the major points regarding psychologist Carol Gilligan’s moral development for girls.

 

Answer: Girls see morality in terms of responsibility toward individuals and willingness to sacrifice themselves to help specific individuals within the context of particular relationships. There are three stages that girls pass through: 1) orientation toward individual survival; 2) goodness as self-sacrifice; and 3) morality of nonviolence.

 

Page: 325 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

10-84. Children are on a quest for self-understanding in middle childhood.

 

Answer: True Page: 317 Level: Medium LO: 10-1 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-85. Recent research indicates that around age 11, African American children begin to show slightly higher self-esteem than Caucasian American children.

 

Answer: True Page: 322 Level: Medium LO: 10-2 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 8.3

 

10-86. Kohlberg’s theory contends that students with higher levels of moral reasoning are less likely to engage in antisocial behavior at school.

 

Answer: True Page: 324 Level: Easy LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 2.3

 

10-87. One experiment found that 15% of students who reasoned at the postconventional level of morality (the highest category) cheated when given the opportunity.

 

Answer: True Page: 324 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-88. Kohlberg’s morality theory is problematic because his data was largely based on males rather than equally on males and females.

 

Answer: True Page: 325 Level: Medium LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-89. Psychologist Carol Gilligan suggested that differences in the ways boys and girls are raised in society leads to basic distinctions in how men and women view moral behavior.

 

Answer: True Page: 325 Level: Easy LO: 10-3 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-90. Although generally popular children are friendly and cooperative, one subset of popular boys display negative behaviors such as aggressiveness and disruptiveness, which is viewed as cool because they are seen as breaking the rules.

 

Answer: True Page: 329 Level: Easy LO: 10-4 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 1.3

 

10-91. Despite frequent attempts, it is impossible to teach social competence to unpopular children.

 

Answer: False Pages: 330 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 2.1

 

10-92. Bullying is a phenomenon that is exclusive to preschool children.

 

Answer: False Page: 331 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-93. Some 90% of middle school children report being bullied at some point in their time at school, beginning as early as the preschool years.

 

Answer: True Page: 331 Level: Medium LO: 10-4 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-94. Middle-school-age girls typically have larger networks of friends than boys.

 

Answer: False Page: 332 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-95. Research indicates that, for the most part, friendships are color-blind.

 

Answer: False Page: 332 Level: Medium LO: 10-5 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 2.3

 

10-96. A good deal of research supports the notion that contact between majority and minority groups can reduce prejudice and discrimination.

 

Answer: True Page: 333 Level: Easy LO: 10-5 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 2.3

 

10-97. Children who have no siblings are not as well adjusted as children who grow up with siblings.

 

Answer: False Page: 335 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Conceptual APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-98. Single-parent African American families tend to rely substantially on grandparents for everyday child care.

 

Answer: True Page: 338 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 1.2

 

10-99. Adolescents are able to adjust better to living in a blended family than school-age children.

 

Answer: False Pages: 338 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Applied APA Outcome: 3.1

 

10-100. Research indicates that African American children growing up in households headed by a grandmother are well adjusted.

 

Answer: True Page: 339 Level: Medium LO: 10-6 Type: Factual APA Outcome: 2.3

 

 

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