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Development Through The Lifespan 6th Edition Berk Test Bank

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Development Through The Lifespan 6th Edition Berk Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205957606

ISBN-10: 0205957609

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Development Through The Lifespan 6th Edition Berk Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205957606

ISBN-10: 0205957609

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Chapter 10
emotional and social development
in middle childhood

Multiple Choice

1)  Jacob, a sixth grader, entered the middle school academic bowl. According to Erikson, by entering the competition, Jacob shows

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D) basic trust.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.1

2)  According to Erikson, a sense of __________ can develop in middle childhood when family life fails to prepare children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy children’s self-confidence with negative responses.

  1. A) shame
  2. B) mistrust
  3. C) inferiority
  4. D) despair

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.1

3)  Erikson’s sense of __________ combines several developments of middle childhood: a positive but realistic self-concept, pride in accomplishment, moral responsibility, and cooperative participation with agemates.

  1. A) trust
  2. B) autonomy
  3. C) identity
  4. D) industry

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.1

4)  Eleven-year-old Leah has developed a sense of competence at a number of useful skills and tasks. She has a positive but realistic self-concept and takes pride in her accomplishments. According to Erikson, Leah has

  1. A) positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhood.
  2. B) developed an ideal self that guides her behavior.
  3. C) yet to encounter the psychological conflict of middle childhood.
  4. D) overcome the conflict of role confusion.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.1

5)            During the school years, children refine their __________, organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions.

  1. A) self-concept
  2. B) self-esteem
  3. C) self-control
  4. D) remembered self

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.2

6)  Beginning in middle childhood, children’s self-descriptions start to emphasize

  1. A) specific behaviors and observable traits.
  2. B) industry over inferiority.
  3. C) both negative and positive traits.
  4. D) internal states and physical attributes.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

7)  School-age children use frequent __________ in their self-descriptions.

  1. A) social comparisons
  2. B) negative comments
  3. C) positive comments
  4. D) gender stereotyping

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

8)  Sociologist George Herbert Mead proposed that a __________ emerges when children adopt a view of the self that resembles others’ attitudes toward the child.

  1. A) sense of doubt
  2. B) well-organized psychological self
  3. C) superiority complex
  4. D) strong sense of guilt

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

9)  Which of the following statements about the development of self-concept is true?

  1. A) Preschool children are better than school-age children at “reading” others’ messages and internalizing their expectations.
  2. B) A large discrepancy between an ideal self and a real self boosts self-esteem.
  3. C) Perspective-taking skills are crucial for developing a self-concept based on personality traits.
  4. D) School-age children often avoid making social comparisons when describing themselves.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

10)  As school-age children move into adolescence, self-concept is increasingly vested in

  1. A) feedback from close friends.
  2. B) parental attitudes.
  3. C) information from siblings.
  4. D) feedback from teachers.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

11)  Sam is an American sixth grader. Compared to his Asian agemates, when asked to describe himself, Sam is more likely to say which of the following?

  1. A) “I’m in sixth grade.”
  2. B) “I’m an older brother.”
  3. C) “I like hockey.”
  4. D) “My friends think I’m cool.”

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

12)  Compared to his Western agemates, Chao, who lives in China, will most likely describe himself by referencing his

  1. A) individual interests.
  2. B) personal attributes.
  3. C) academic and sports-related skills.
  4. D) group memberships and relationships.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

13)  By age 6 to 7, children in diverse Western cultures have formed at least __________ broad self-evaluations.

  1. A) two
  2. B) four
  3. C) six
  4. D) eight

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.2

14)  Self-esteem takes on a __________ structure in the mid-elementary school years.

  1. A) unidirectional
  2. B) hierarchical
  3. C) flat
  4. D) horizontal

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

15)  During childhood and adolescence, perceived __________ correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than any other self-esteem factor.

  1. A) athletic competence
  2. B) academic competence
  3. C) physical appearance
  4. D) social competence

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

16)  Which of the following statements about self-esteem in elementary school is true?

  1. A) It rises dramatically as soon as children enter school and remains high throughout the elementary school years.
  2. B) It increases steadily over the first few years of elementary school and then drops from fourth grade on.
  3. C) Throughout middle childhood, girls’ self-esteem tends to be higher than boys’.
  4. D) It declines during the first few years of elementary school and then, from fourth grade on, rises for the majority of young people.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

17)  Andrew has high academic self-esteem. Andrew is probably

  1. A) well-liked by his classmates.
  2. B) involved in sports.
  3. C) willing to try hard.
  4. D)

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

18)  Raylynne is well-liked by all of her classmates. She probably has high

  1. A) academic competence.
  2. B) social self-esteem.
  3. C) athletic competence.
  4. D) self-awareness.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

19)  Which of the following statements about cultural influences on self-esteem is true?

  1. A) In academic self-judgments, boys have higher language arts self-esteem than girls.
  2. B) Boys exceed girls in self-esteem dimensions of close friendship and social acceptance.
  3. C) Boys’ overall self-worth is much higher than girls’.
  4. D) Asian children score lower in self-esteem than U.S. children.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

20)  Compared to his Caucasian-American agemates, Leonard, an African-American fourth grader, is more likely to have

  1. A) low self-esteem.
  2. B) a weaker sense of ethnic pride.
  3. C) higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of ethnic pride.
  4. D) lower self-esteem, but a stronger sense of ethnic pride.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

21)  Children whose parents use a(n) __________ child-rearing style feel especially good about themselves.

  1. A) authoritative
  2. B) authoritarian
  3. C) permissive
  4. D) uninvolved

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.2

22)  Nadia’s parents are repeatedly disapproving and insulting. As a result, Nadia probably __________ and relies heavily on __________ to affirm her self-worth.

  1. A) needs constant reassurance; peers
  2. B) has unrealistically high self-esteem; her parents
  3. C) has an overblown self-image; reasonable standards
  4. D) seeks attention from other adults; other relatives

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 332–333

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

23)  __________ parenting is correlated with unrealistically high self-esteem.

  1. A) Controlling
  2. B) Uninvolved
  3. C) Authoritative
  4. D) Indulgent

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 333

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

24)  Compared with previous generations, American youths are

  1. A) displaying less antisocial behavior.
  2. B) displaying fewer adjustment problems.
  3. C) achieving less well.
  4. D) showing stronger, more secure self-images.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 333

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

25)  Mr. and Mrs. Rodriguez want to foster a positive, secure self-image in their son. Which of the following would you suggest?

  1. A) Make decisions for him when he appears hesitant, in order to model good decision-making strategies.
  2. B) Continuously compliment his performance, even when it is less than satisfactory.
  3. C) Encourage him to strive for worthwhile goals because his eventual achievement will foster his self-esteem.
  4. D) Start with high expectations, but be flexible and willing to accept lower achievement levels if he cannot achieve the original goals.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 333

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

26)  Children who are high in academic self-esteem and motivation make __________ attributions, crediting their successes to __________.

  1. A) learned-helpless; luck
  2. B) mastery-oriented; ability
  3. C) externally focused; effort
  4. D) achievement-related; luck

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 333

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

27)  Children who develop __________ attribute their failures, not their successes, to ability.

  1. A) learned helplessness
  2. B) mastery-oriented attributions
  3. C) a realistically oriented view of ability
  4. D) an ideal self

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 333

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

28)  Over time, the ability of __________ children no longer predicts how well they do.

  1. A) mastery-oriented
  2. B) low-SES
  3. C) high-SES
  4. D) learned-helpless

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 333

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

29)  When John succeeds, his father says, “You’re so smart!” However, when he fails, his father says, “You can’t do that, can you? It’s OK if you quit.” John’s father’s messages could play a key role in John’s adoption of a

  1. A) fixed view of ability.
  2. B) mastery-oriented style.
  3. C) high academic self-esteem.
  4. D) healthy self-image.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 333

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

30)  Teachers who are __________ and emphasize __________ tend to have mastery-oriented students.

  1. A) strict; getting good grades
  2. B) indulgent; having fun
  3. C) helpful; learning over getting good grades
  4. D) caring; getting good grades

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 333

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

31)  Despite their higher achievement, __________ often blame poor performance on __________.

  1. A) girls; lack of ability
  2. B) boys; lack of ability
  3. C) girls; poor effort
  4. D) boys; good luck

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 334

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

32)  Asian parents and teachers are more likely than their American counterparts to view __________ as key to success.

  1. A) ability
  2. B) luck
  3. C) effort
  4. D) intelligence

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 334

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.2

33)  Attribution research shows that

  1. A) boys are more likely than girls to blame their lack of ability for poor performance.
  2. B) compared to low-SES ethnic minority children, middle-SES white children tend to receive less favorable feedback from teachers.
  3. C) compared to U.S. mothers, Chinese mothers offer more praise after success.
  4. D) well-intended messages from adults sometimes undermine children’s competence.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 334

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

34)  Marlena is enrolled in an intervention program that encourages learned-helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort. This approach is known as

  1. A) achievement motivation.
  2. B) identity achievement.
  3. C) attribution retraining.
  4. D) vicarious learning.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 334

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.2

35)  Which of the following statements about attribution retraining is true?

  1. A) One approach is to encourage low-effort students to focus more on grades and less on mastering a task for individual improvement.
  2. B) It is best begun early, before children’s views of themselves become hard to change.
  3. C) It encourages children to believe that success should be attributed to ability, rather than luck or effort.
  4. D) It is an alternative to instruction in effective strategies and self-regulation.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 334

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

36)  Which of the following fosters a mastery-oriented approach to learning?

  1. A) small class size and cooperative learning
  2. B) ability grouping and public displays of achievement
  3. C) trait statements like “You’re smart”
  4. D) emphasis on grades over effort

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 335

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.2

37)  Which of the following statements about self-conscious emotions in middle childhood is true?

  1. A) Children feel guilty only if an adult or peer is present to witness their transgressions.
  2. B) Children feel guilty for any mishap, including those that are accidental.
  3. C) Pride motivates children to take on further challenges, whereas guilt prompts them to strive for self-improvement.
  4. D) Children rarely feel guilty for cheating or lying unless they are caught or punished for their behavior.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 335

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.3

38)  Excessive guilt is linked to

  1. A) ignoring responsibilities.
  2. B) intentional wrongdoing.
  3. C) depressive symptoms.
  4. D) lying and cheating.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 335

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.3

39)  Compared to preschoolers, school-age children are more likely to explain emotion by referring to __________ rather than to __________.

  1. A) observable characteristics; personality traits
  2. B) personality traits; psychological qualities
  3. C) external events; internal states
  4. D) internal states; external events

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 335

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.3

40)  Between the ages of 6 and 12, children become more aware

  1. A) that others’ facial expressions indicate their true feelings.
  2. B) that feelings of pride and guilt primarily occur when adults are present.
  3. C) of circumstances likely to spark mixed emotions.
  4. D) that basic emotions are related to personal responsibility.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 335

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.3

41)  Appreciating mixed emotions helps children realize that

  1. A) people’s expressions may not reflect their true feelings.
  2. B) negative emotions are more frequent than positive emotions.
  3. C) positive and negative emotions cannot be experienced simultaneously.
  4. D) tone of voice is a more accurate predictor of emotion than facial expressions.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 335

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.3

42)  Danielle saw a man carrying a sign that said “I’m hungry.” She took the man’s perspective, imagined how he felt, and asked her mom if she could give her allowance to the man so that he could buy some food. Danielle has developed

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 335–336

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.3

43)  Which of the following statements about emotional self-regulation in middle childhood is true?

  1. A) Problem-centered coping is internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress.
  2. B) By age 10, most children shift adaptively between problem-centered and emotion-centered coping.
  3. C) When outcomes are beyond their control, school-age children rely on problem-centered coping and seek social support.
  4. D) Young school-age children emphasize concern for others’ feelings more often than older children.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.3

44)  In __________ coping, children appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it.

  1. A) problem-centered
  2. B) emotion-centered
  3. C) effort-centered
  4. D) avoidant

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.3

45)  When Erica’s best friend makes her angry, she takes a deep breath and counts to ten. Erica is using

  1. A) problem-centered coping.
  2. B) emotion-centered coping.
  3. C) emotional self-efficacy.
  4. D) coregulation strategies.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.3

46)  By third grade, most school-age children justify their preference for verbal strategies for coping with negative emotion by

  1. A) mentioning avoidance of punishment.
  2. B) mentioning avoidance of embarrassment.
  3. C) emphasizing concern for others’ feelings.
  4. D) mentioning adult approval.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.3

47)  Amelia has well-developed emotional self-regulation. She feels that she is in control of her emotional experience. Amelia has acquired

  1. A) perspective-taking skills.
  2. B) an ideal self.
  3. C) a sense of emotional self-efficacy.
  4. D) coregulation strategies.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.3

48)  Fernando’s parents respond sensitively and helpfully when he is distressed. Fernando is probably

  1. A)
  2. B) high in self-esteem.
  3. C) overwhelmed by negative emotion.
  4. D) less empathetic than his agemates.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.3

49)  When Sayuri is distressed, her father is dismissive and her mother is hostile. Sayuri is probably

  1. A) emotionally well-regulated.
  2. B) overwhelmed by negative emotion.
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.3

50)  Which of the following statements about moral development is true?

  1. A) In middle childhood, children typically say truth telling is always good and lying is always bad.
  2. B) In middle childhood, children primarily rely on reinforcement to acquire morally relevant behaviors.
  3. C) By middle childhood, children have had time to internalize rules for good conduct, which leads them to become considerably more independent and trustworthy.
  4. D) While school-age children think about right and wrong, they usually copy their morality from others.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.4

51)  By age 7 or 8, children

  1. A) consider prosocial and antisocial intentions for truthfulness.
  2. B) begin to copy their morality from others.
  3. C) say truth telling is always good.
  4. D) say lying is always bad.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.4

52)  Compared to Canadian agemates, Chinese schoolchildren are more likely to rate lying favorably when

  1. A) it is used to cover up antisocial acts.
  2. B) it supports the individual at the expense of the group.
  3. C) the intention is modesty.
  4. D) the intention is self-protection.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.4

53)  Which of the following statements about children’s understanding of individual rights is true?

  1. A) Children tend to regard laws that discriminate against individuals as okay.
  2. B) As early as age 6, children view freedom of speech and religion as individual rights.
  3. C) Older school-age children believe that all matters are best decided democratically.
  4. D) Prejudice usually increases during middle childhood.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 337

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.4

54)  Studies in diverse Western nations confirm that by age 5 or 6, __________ children generally evaluate their own racial group favorably and other racial groups less favorably or negatively.

  1. A) low-SES
  2. B) immigrant
  3. C) white
  4. D) minority

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 337

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.4

55)  After age __________, both majority and minority children express in-group favoritism.

  1. A) 5 to 6
  2. B) 7 to 8
  3. C) 9 to 10
  4. D) 11 to 12

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 338

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.4

56)  Children who believe that people’s personality traits are __________ rather than __________ often judge others as either “good” or “bad.”

  1. A) fixed; changeable
  2. B) malleable; constant
  3. C) genetic; nurtured
  4. D) singular; mixed

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 338

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.4

57)  Children and adults with __________ are more likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudices.

  1. A) very low self-esteem
  2. B) very high self-esteem
  3. C) high interracial contact
  4. D) ethnically diverse families

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 338

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.4

58)  The more adults highlight __________, the more likely white children will express in-group favoritism and out-group prejudice.

  1. A) intergroup contact
  2. B) ethnic diversity
  3. C) the damage caused by prejudice
  4. D) group distinctions

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 338

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.4

59)  Principal Allen wants to reduce prejudice at his middle school. Which of the following interventions should he use?

  1. A) segregate the classrooms to promote ethnic pride
  2. B) assign children to cooperative learning groups with peers of diverse backgrounds
  3. C) highlight group distinctions
  4. D) encourage children to view others’ traits as fixed

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 338

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.4

60)  Which of the following children is most likely to believe in racial and ethnic equality?

  1. A) Yaowu, a child who attends an ethnically diverse school and shares feelings with close, cross-race friends
  2. B) Gonzalo, a child who believes that people’s personality traits are fixed rather than changeable
  3. C) Deonte, a child with overly high self-esteem
  4. D) Judy, a child whose parents highlight group distinctions

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 338–339

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.4

61)  Children who believe in the changeability of human attributes

  1. A) show more in-group favoritism.
  2. B) spend more time volunteering to help the needy.
  3. C) show high levels of prejudice in their behavior.
  4. D) often judge others as either “good” or “bad.”

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 339

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.4

62)  By the end of middle childhood, children display a strong desire for

  1. A) group belonging.
  2. B) online friends.
  3. C) athletic competence.
  4. D) other-sex friends.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 339

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.5

63)  Maddy spends most of her time with a particular set of girlfriends. Within this group, there are specific standards of behavior, a specialized dress code, and identified leaders. Maddy is most likely

  1. A) a controversial child.
  2. B) a popular-prosocial child.
  3. C) part of a peer group.
  4. D) part of a social clique.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 339

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.5

64)  Research on peer groups during middle childhood shows that

  1. A) children who belong to a peer group rarely use relationally aggressive tactics to oust no longer “respected” children.
  2. B) within peer groups, children learn cooperation, leadership, followership, and loyalty to collective goals.
  3. C) most school-age children believe it is okay for a group to exclude a peer.
  4. D) formal peer groups, such as 4-H or religious youth groups, often satisfy children’s desire for group membership.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 340

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.5

65)  In middle childhood, __________ contributes to the development of trust and sensitivity.

  1. A) friendship
  2. B) informal peer group membership
  3. C) peer conformity
  4. D) formal group membership

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 340

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.5

66)  During the school years, friendship becomes

  1. A) less complex.
  2. B) more psychologically based.
  3. C) more proximity based.
  4. D) less trust based.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 340

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.5

67)  Studies of friendship during middle childhood show that

  1. A) by age 8 or 9, most children name only a handful of good friends.
  2. B) friendships are highly unstable over the elementary and middle school years.
  3. C) school-age children’s friendships are less selective than those of preschoolers.
  4. D) friendships are largely based on engaging in similar activities.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 340

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.5

68)  School-age friends

  1. A) disagree with each other less than nonfriends.
  2. B) are usually opposite from each other in personality.
  3. C) behave more prosocially with each other.
  4. D) seldom remain friends for longer than a few months.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 340

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.5

69)  When classmates are asked to rate each other’s likeability, __________ children get many positive votes, whereas __________ children are seldom mentioned.

  1. A) popular; neglected
  2. B) neglected; rejected
  3. C) popular; rejected
  4. D) controversial; neglected

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.6

70)  On a measure of peer acceptance, Michael received a large number of positive and negative votes. Michael would be considered a __________ child.

  1. A) neglected
  2. B) rejected
  3. C) popular
  4. D) controversial

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.6

71)  On a measure of peer acceptance, Dustin was seldom mentioned either positively or negatively. Dustin would be considered a __________ child.

  1. A) neglected
  2. B) rejected
  3. C) withdrawn
  4. D) popular-antisocial child

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.6

72)  __________ children are at the highest risk for poor school performance, substance abuse, and antisocial behavior in adolescence and delinquency with criminality in early adulthood.

  1. A) Neglected
  2. B) Controversial
  3. C) Rejected
  4. D) Popular

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.6

73)  Michaela performs well in school and communicates with her peers in sensitive, friendly, and cooperative ways. She is a __________ child.

  1. A) popular-antisocial
  2. B) controversial
  3. C) rejected-aggressive
  4. D) popular-prosocial

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.6

74)  Harrison is a popular-antisocial child. Which of the following characteristics is he likely to display?

  1. A) He performs well in school and communicates with peers in a friendly way.
  2. B) He is athletically skilled but is a poor student who causes trouble and defies adult authority.
  3. C) He displays a wide range of negative social behaviors and is overwhelmed by social anxiety.
  4. D) He engages in low rates of interaction but does not report feeling lonely or unhappy.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.6

75)  Rejected-aggressive children are

  1. A) deficient in perspective taking.
  2. B) passive and socially awkward.
  3. C) bullied more often than rejected-withdrawn children.
  4. D) more often accepted by boys than by girls.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.6

76)  Skye, a rejected-withdrawn child, is most likely

  1. A) extremely antagonistic.
  2. B) a bully toward younger children.
  3. C) worried about being scorned and attacked.
  4. D) uninterested in peer interaction.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.6

77)  About _____ percent of children are bullies, while _____ percent are repeatedly victimized.

  1. A) 5; 10
  2. B) 10; 15
  3. C) 15; 20
  4. D) 20; 25

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 342 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Bullies and Their Victims

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.6

78)  Research on peer victimization shows that

  1. A) in middle childhood, girls bully peers nearly as often as boys.
  2. B) school codes against bullying are rarely effective at reducing peer victimization.
  3. C) aggression and victimization are not polar opposites.
  4. D) chronic victims tend to be active when passive behavior is expected.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 342 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Bullies and Their Victims

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.6

79)  Which of the following statements about controversial and neglected children is true?

  1. A) Controversial children display a blend of positive and negative social behaviors.
  2. B) Neglected children report feeling lonely and unhappy.
  3. C) Controversial children have few friends and are unhappy with their peer relationships.
  4. D) Neglected children are as socially maladjusted as rejected children.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.6

80)  __________ improves both school achievement and social acceptance of rejected children.

  1. A) Intensive academic tutoring
  2. B) Cooperative play
  3. C) Training in perspective taking
  4. D) Training in personal defense

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.6

81)  Research has shown that parents promote gender stereotypes by

  1. A) more often attributing girls’ failures to insufficient effort and boys’ failures to ability.
  2. B) harshly punishing children for gender-atypical behavior.
  3. C) praising girls for knowledge and boys for obedience.
  4. D) behaving in a more mastery-oriented fashion with sons than with daughters.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 343

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.7

82)  Recent research on gender-stereotyped beliefs about achievement found that a majority of elementary and secondary students agreed with the idea that __________ is a “__________” subject.

  1. A) music; masculine
  2. B) language arts; masculine
  3. C) math; feminine
  4. D) science; feminine

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 343

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.7

83)  From third to sixth grade, boys tend to __________ their identification with “masculine” personality traits, whereas girls’ identification with “feminine” personality traits __________.

  1. A) strengthen; declines
  2. B) weaken; strengthens
  3. C) steadily maintain; accelerates over time
  4. D) weaken; remains steady

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 344

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.7

84)  School-age children are likely to view which of the following activities as nearly as bad as a moral transgression?

  1. A) 5-year-old Kimberly wearing a boy’s shirt and her father’s shoes
  2. B) 5-year-old Jenny playing with trucks
  3. C) 5-year-old Frank watching My Little Pony with his baby sister
  4. D) 5-year-old Mark wearing his mother’s nail polish

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 344

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.7

85)  Research shows that school-age children

  1. A) rate “masculine” occupations as having higher status than “feminine” occupations.
  2. B) rate “feminine” occupations as having higher status than “masculine” occupations.
  3. C) often feel gender-atypical but are afraid to talk about it.
  4. D) will usually reject and ridicule a tomboyish girl.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 344

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.7

86)  Octavio feels comfortable being a boy, which consequently makes him happy. Which of the following self-evaluations reflects Octavio’s gender identity?

  1. A) gender contentedness
  2. B) gender typicality
  3. C) feels pressure to conform to gender roles
  4. D) gender-disconnectedness

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 344

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.7

87)  Dwayne feels that his parents and peers disapprove of his knitting hobby. His parents have tried to encourage him to consider other hobbies, such as woodworking or coin collecting. Dwayne is distressed and stops knitting. Which of the following accurately describes Dwayne’s gender identity self-evaluation?

  1. A) gender contentedness
  2. B) gender typicality
  3. C) feels pressure to conform to gender roles
  4. D) gender-disconnectedness

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 344

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.7

88)  Which of the following statements about gender identity and behavior in middle childhood is true?

  1. A) How children feel about themselves in relation to their gender group is less important in middle childhood than it was during the preschool years.
  2. B) Children who experience rejection because of gender-atypical personality traits suffer profoundly.
  3. C) Researchers agree that the only way to help children who feel gender-atypical is to make them more gender-typical.
  4. D) Gender-typical and gender-discontented children show gains in self-worth between third and seventh grade.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 344

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.7

89)  Despite the concerns of middle childhood, child rearing becomes easier for those parents who established a(n) __________ style in the early years.

  1. A) authoritarian
  2. B) authoritative
  3. C) permissive
  4. D) uninvolved

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 345

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.8

90)  Effective parents gradually shift control from adult to child. They do not let go entirely but, rather, engage in

  1. A)
  2. B) transitive inference.
  3. C) distributive justice.
  4. D) permissive parenting.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 345

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.8

91)  Coregulation is a(n)

  1. A) form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment-by-moment decision making.
  2. B) permissive child-rearing style where the child takes responsibility for making rules.
  3. C) agreement between parents and other caregivers to be consistent with rules and discipline.
  4. D) authoritarian child-rearing style where the parent exercises firm control.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 345

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.8

92)  During middle childhood,

  1. A) fathers engage in as much caregiving as mothers.
  2. B) fathers spend more time than mothers with school-age children.
  3. C) fathers are more knowledgeable than mothers about children’s everyday activities.
  4. D) each parent tends to devote more time to children of their own sex.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 345

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.8

93)  A study conducted showed that fifth and sixth graders describe __________ as the most influential people in their lives.

  1. A) peers
  2. B) best friends
  3. C) parents
  4. D) siblings

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 345

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.8

94)  Which of the following is supported by research on sibling rivalry?

  1. A) Destructive sibling conflict in middle childhood is associated with negative outcomes, including later substance use and delinquency.
  2. B) Sibling rivalry is greater between brothers and sisters than among same-sex siblings.
  3. C) During the middle childhood years, sibling rivalry tends to decrease.
  4. D) Sibling rivalry often increases when siblings intentionally strive to be different from one another.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 346

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.8

95)  Research demonstrates that only children __________ compared to children with siblings.

  1. A) exhibit higher rates of antisocial behavior
  2. B) have lower self-esteem
  3. C) display poorer social skills
  4. D) are higher in self-esteem and achievement motivation

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 346

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.8

96)  Which of the following is an accurate statement about divorce statistics?

  1. A) Russia now has the highest divorce rate in the world.
  2. B) Children of divorce spend an average of three years in a single-parent home.
  3. C) At any given time, one-third of U.S. children live in single-parent households.
  4. D) About two-thirds of divorced parents marry again.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 347

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.9

97)  Research shows that declines in well-being following divorce are greatest for

  1. A) noncustodial fathers.
  2. B) mothers of young children.
  3. C) mothers of children in middle childhood.
  4. D) mothers of teens.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 347

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.9

98)  Noncustodial fathers who see their children only occasionally tend to take on a(n) __________ style of parenting.

  1. A) authoritarian
  2. B) authoritative
  3. C) uninvolved
  4. D) permissive

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 347

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.9         

99)  About __________ percent of children in divorced families display severe problems.

  1. A) 10 to 15
  2. B) 15 to 20
  3. C) 20 to 25
  4. D) 25 to 30

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 347

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.9

100)  Mr. and Mrs. Frishman recently divorced. Their 5-year-old son is likely to

  1. A) take on extra household chores.
  2. B) blame himself for the marital breakup.
  3. C) escape into undesirable peer activities.
  4. D) provide emotional support to his mother.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 347

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.9

101)  Which of the following statements about children’s temperament and sex differences in adjustment to parental divorce is true?

  1. A) Easy children are more often targets of parental anger and also cope less effectively with adversity.
  2. B) In mother-custody family arrangements, girls are at greater risk than boys for serious adjustment problems.
  3. C) Coercive maternal behavior and defiance by sons are common in divorcing households.
  4. D) Girls receive less emotional support than boys from teachers and peers.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 348

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.9

102)  The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is

  1. A) shielding the child from family conflict and using authoritative child rearing.
  2. B) children’s cognitive and social maturity.
  3. C) children’s relationships with extended family, teachers, and friends.
  4. D) court-mandated counseling for parents and children.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 348

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.9

103)  Regardless of the extent of their friction, divorcing parents who manage to engage in __________ greatly improve their children’s chances of growing up competent, stable, and happy.

  1. A) mediation
  2. B) coparenting
  3. C) joint physical custody
  4. D) authoritarian parenting

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 348

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.9

104)  Research shows that divorce mediation

  1. A) increases involvement of both parents in child rearing.
  2. B) increases family conflict over child rearing.
  3. C) decreases children’s feelings of well-being.
  4. D) decreases parents’ feelings of well-being.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 348

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.9

105)  Jennifer and Joel’s children reside with Joel and see Jennifer on a fixed schedule. Both parents have an equal say in important decisions about their children’s upbringing. Which type of custodial arrangement do they have?

  1. A) coregulation
  2. B) joint custody
  3. C) paternal custody
  4. D) mediated custody

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 348

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.9

106)  According to research on blended families, which of the following children is the most likely to have adjustment problems when his or her mother remarries?

  1. A) Alan, a 4-year-old boy
  2. B) Suzanne, a 6-year-old girl
  3. C) Jay, a 10-year-old boy
  4. D) Selma, a 15-year-old girl

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 349–350

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.9

107)  Hank, a noncustodial father of four, is remarrying. Which of Hank’s children is the most likely to have difficulty getting along with his new wife?

  1. A) Liam, his 3-year-old son
  2. B) Harry, his 6-year-old son
  3. C) Kate, his 9-year-old daughter
  4. D) Max, his 11-year-old son

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 350

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.9

108)  Children whose mothers enjoy their work outside the home and remain committed to parenting __________ than children of stay-at-home mothers.

  1. A) are more popular
  2. B) get better grades in school
  3. C) display more advanced moral reasoning
  4. D) display more gender-stereotyped beliefs

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 350  

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.10

109)  Employed mothers who value their parenting role are more likely to use

  1. A) coercive discipline.
  2. B)
  3. C) authoritarian child rearing.
  4. D) high-quality child care.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 350

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.10

110)  Research shows that maternal employment

  1. A) reduces the time school-age children spend with their fathers.
  2. B) often predicts declines in children’s academic achievement.
  3. C) tends to create increased gender-stereotyped beliefs in children.
  4. D) leads fathers to take on greater child-care responsibilities.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 350

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.10

111)  Part-time maternal employment and flexible work schedules are associated with

  1. A) permissive child rearing.
  2. B) good child adjustment.
  3. C) reduced parental sensitivity.
  4. D) role overload for mothers.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 351

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.10

112)  Children in self-care, who regularly look after themselves for some period of time after school, __________ than children in after-school programs.

  1. A) have fewer emotional difficulties
  2. B) are less likely to bend to peer pressure.
  3. C) show greater academic achievement
  4. D) are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 351

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.10

113)  Beginning in middle childhood, a common fear is

  1. A) the dark.
  2. B) ghosts and goblins.
  3. C) the possibility of personal harm.
  4. D) thunder and lightning.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 352

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.11

114)  Children in Western nations mention __________ as the most common source of their fears.

  1. A) exposure to fairy tales
  2. B) direct exposure to frightening events
  3. C) school or neighborhood bullies
  4. D) exposure to negative information in the media

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 352

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.11

115)  Most cases of school phobia appear around age

  1. A) 5 to 7.
  2. B) 8 to 10.
  3. C) 11 to 13.
  4. D) 14 to 16.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 352

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.12

116)  Elliott, age 11, is suddenly afraid to go to school. Which of the following is the best advice you can give to Elliott’s parents?

  1. A) Allow him to stay home from school until he feels more comfortable.
  2. B) Become more protective of him by accompanying him to his classes.
  3. C) Lightheartedly point out that being afraid of going to school is not normal.
  4. D) Firmly insist that he return to school, and train him in how to cope with difficult situations.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 352

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.11

117)  Goran is a child victim of war. Research shows that Goran is likely to experience

  1. A) an increase in anxiety and depression.
  2. B) long-term amnesia.
  3. C) an increased sensitivity to violence.
  4. D) a decrease in aggression.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 353 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Impact of Ethnic and Political Violence on Children

Skill: Apply

Objective: 10.11

118)  Which of the following statements about the impact on U.S. children of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks is true?

  1. A) Those with indirect exposure from the media suffered no real distress.
  2. B) Distress reactions declined more slowly for children with conflict-ridden parent–child relationships.
  3. C) Distress reactions improved more rapidly for children with indirect rather than direct exposure.
  4. D) Repeatedly witnessing the attacks on TV desensitized children, decreasing their distress.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 353 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Impact of Ethnic and Political Violence on Children

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.11

119)  Research on child sexual abuse indicates that

  1. A) both boys and girls are equally likely to be sexually abused.
  2. B) reported cases are highest in adolescence.
  3. C) the abuser is typically a parent or someone the parent knows well.
  4. D) the abuser is typically a stranger.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 352

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.12

120)  Children who __________ are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse.

  1. A) live in a large extended family household
  2. B) are aggressive and hostile
  3. C) belong to churches and community organizations
  4. D) live in homes with a constantly changing cast of characters

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 352

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.12

121)  Which of the following statements about the consequences of child sexual abuse is true?

  1. A) The adjustment problems of victims tend to subside once the abuse stops.
  2. B) Repeated sexual abuse is associated with central nervous system damage.
  3. C) In adolescence, abused young people are less promiscuous than their agemates.
  4. D) Women who were sexually abused are less likely to choose partners who abuse them and their children.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 353

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.12

122)  The best way to reduce the suffering of a child sexual abuse victim is to

  1. A) prevent sexual abuse from continuing.
  2. B) expose the child to other children who have had similar experiences.
  3. C) allow the child to see that the abuser is severely punished.
  4. D) move on quickly and not dwell much on what has happened.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 354

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.12

123)  Research on children’s ability to provide eyewitness testimony in legal situations shows that

  1. A) children younger than age 5 or 6 are unable to provide legally relevant, accurate details about experienced events.
  2. B) there are no reliable age differences in children’s resistance to misleading questioning.
  3. C) children are rarely misled into fabricating false details in response to repeated, suggestive questioning.
  4. D) the more distinctive and personally relevant an event is, the more likely children are to recall it accurately over time.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 355 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Children’s Eyewitness Testimony

Skill: Remember

Objective: 10.12

124)  Which of the following questions or statements will likely elicit accurate, detailed information from a child witness?

  1. A) “Your friend answered ‘yes’ to this next question, and I want to see if you agree with her.”
  2. B) “He touched you there, didn’t he?”
  3. C) “The bad man who went to jail came into your room, didn’t he?”
  4. D) “Tell me what happened.”

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 355 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Children’s Eyewitness Testimony

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.12

125)  Which of the following statements about resilience is true?

  1. A) Resilience is a preexisting attribute rather than a capacity that develops over time.
  2. B) Resilience enables children to use internal and external resources to cope with adversity.
  3. C) Because they are repeatedly exposed to adversity, abused children become increasingly resilient over time.
  4. D) Resilience is less common among children with a mastery-oriented approach to new situations.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 354

Skill: Understand

Objective: 10.13

Essay

126)  Describe the development of self-esteem in middle childhood. How is it structured, and how does it change?

Answer: Most preschoolers have extremely high self-esteem. But as children enter school and receive much more feedback about how well they perform compared with their peers, self-esteem differentiates and also adjusts to a more realistic level. By age 6 to 7, children in diverse Western cultures have formed at least four broad self-evaluations: academic competenceRemember,cial competence, physical/athletic competence, and physical appearance. Within these are more refined categories that become increasingly distinct with age. The capacity to view the self in terms of stable dispositions permits school-age children to combine their separate self-evaluations into a general psychological image of themselves—an overall sense of self-esteem. Children attach greater importance to certain self-evaluations than to others. Although individual differences exist, during childhood and adolescence, perceived physical appearance correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than any other self-esteem factor. Self-esteem declines during the first few years of elementary school as children evaluate themselves in various areas. Typically, the drop is not great enough to be harmful. Most (but not all) children appraise their characteristics and competencies realistically while maintaining an attitude of self-respect. Then, from fourth grade on, self-esteem rises for the majority of young people, who feel especially good about their peer relationships and athletic capabilities.

Page Ref: 331

127)  Define problem-centered coping and emotion-centered coping. How do school-age children use these strategies?

Answer:   Rapid gains in emotional self-regulation occur in middle childhood. As children engage in social comparison and care more about peer approval, they must learn to manage negative emotion that threatens their self-esteem. Two general strategies for managing emotion are problem-centered coping and emotion-centered coping. In problem-centered coping, children appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it. If problem solving does not work, they engage in emotion-centered coping, which is internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome. For example, when faced with an anxiety-provoking test or an angry friend, older school-age children view problem solving and seeking social support as the best strategies. But when outcomes are beyond their control—for example, after receiving a bad grade—they opt for distraction or try to redefine the situation: “Things could be worse. There’ll be another test.” School-age children’s improved ability to appraise situations and reflect on thoughts and feelings means that, compared with preschoolers, they more often use these internal strategies to manage emotion. By age 10, most children shift adaptively between the two strategies.

Page Ref: 336

128)  Anya is a rejected-withdrawn child. Describe the characteristics that Anya likely displays as a result.

Answer: Anya is probably passiveRemember,cially awkward, and timid. She is likely to be overwhelmed by social anxiety, hold negative expectations for treatment by peers, and worry about being scorned and attacked. As a rejected child, Anya might have been excluded by her peers as early as kindergarten. As a result, she probably does not participate in the classroom and has low academic achievement. Anya is likely to feel lonely and may want to avoid school. She may have a few friends, or she may have none. Anya is at risk for peer harassment and is especially likely to be the victim of bullying.

Page Ref: 341

129)  Define coregulation and explain how it is used by parents of school-age children.

Answer:   Coregulation is a form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. As children demonstrate that they can manage daily activities and responsibilities, effective parents gradually shift control from adult to child. They do not let go entirely but, rather, engage in coregulation. Coregulation grows out of a warm, cooperative relationship between parent and child based on give-and-take. Parents must guide and monitor from a distance and effectively communicate expectations when they are with their children. And children must inform parents of their whereabouts, activities, and problems so parents can intervene when necessary. Coregulation supports and protects children while preparing them for adolescence, when they will make many important decisions themselves.

Page Ref: 345

130)  Describe the long-term consequences of divorce on children. What factors help children make a more positive adjustment?

Answer:   While most children show improved adjustment by two years after divorce, overall, children and adolescents of divorced parents continue to score slightly lower than children of continuously married parents in academic achievement, self-esteemRemember,cial competence, and emotional and behavior problems. Divorce is also linked to problems with adolescent sexuality and development of intimate ties. Young people who experienced parental divorce—especially more than once—display higher rates of early sexual activity and adolescent parenthood. Some experience other lasting difficulties—reduced educational attainment, troubled romantic relationships and marriages, divorce in adulthood, and unsatisfying parent–child relationships.

The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is effective parenting—shielding the child from family conflict and using authoritative child rearing. Where the custodial parent is the mother, contact with fathers is important. The more paternal contact and the warmer the father–child relationship, the less children react with defiance and aggression. Several studies indicate that outcomes for sons are better when the father is the custodial parent. Regardless of the extent of their friction, divorcing parents who manage to engage in coparenting, supporting each other in their child-rearing roles, greatly improve their children’s chances of growing up competent, stable, and happy. Caring extended-family members, teachers, siblings, and friends also reduce the likelihood that divorce will result in long-term difficulties.

Page Ref: 348

131)  What factors foster resilience in middle childhood?

Answer:   Throughout middle childhood, children encounter challenging and sometimes threatening situations that require them to cope with psychological stress. Yet only a modest relationship exists between stressful life experiences and psychological disturbance in childhood. Some children manage to overcome school difficulties, family transitions, the experience of war, and child maltreatment. Rather than a preexisting attribute, resilience is a capacity that develops, enabling children to use internal and external resources to cope with adversity. Four broad factors protect against maladjustment: (1) the child’s personal characteristics, including an easy temperament and a mastery-oriented approach to new situations; (2) a warm parental relationship; (3) an adult outside the immediate family who offers a support system; and (4) community resources, such as good schoolsRemember,cial services, and youth organizations and recreation centers. Often just one or a few of these ingredients account for why one child is stress-resilient and another is not. Usually, however, personal and environmental factors are interconnected: Each resource favoring resilience strengthens others. For example, safe, stable neighborhoods with family-friendly community services reduce parents’ daily hassles and stress, thereby promoting good parenting.

Page Ref: 354

 

 

 

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