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Essential Biochemistry 3rd Edition Pratt Cornely Feldman Test Bank

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Essential Biochemistry 3rd Edition Pratt Cornely Feldman Test Bank

ISBN: 978-1-118-08350-5

 

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Essential Biochemistry 3rd Edition Pratt Cornely Feldman Test Bank

ISBN: 978-1-118-08350-5

 

 

 

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Package Title: Pratt & Cornely Test Bank

Course Title: Pratt & Cornely

Chapter Number: 14

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) What cellular location contains pyruvate dehydrogenase and most of the citric acid cycle enzymes?

 

  1. A) cytosol
  2. B) mitochondrial matrix
  3. C) inner mitochondrial membrane
  4. D) mitochondrial inter-membrane space
  5. E) outer mitochondrial membrane

 

Answer:  B

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-1

Learning Objective:  Summarize the reactions carried out by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 

 

2) Which of the following is correct concerning the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase?

 

  1. A) it is an oxidative decarboxylation
  2. B) it is activated by high concentrations of ATP
  3. C) the enzyme contains a pyridoxal phosphate prosthetic group
  4. D) the reaction is an anaplerotic reaction since it can replace citric acid intermediates that are removed for other pathways
  5. E) the enzyme contains two different types of subunits

 

Answer:  A

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-1

Learning Objective:  Summarize the reactions carried out by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 

 

3) Which of the following indicates the correct order of product release by pyruvate dehydrogenase?

 

  1. A) acetyl-CoA, CO2, NADH
  2. B) NADH, CO2, acetyl-CoA
  3. C) CO2, NADH, acetyl-CoA
  4. D) CO2, acetyl-CoA, NADH
  5. E) NADH, acetyl-CoA, CO2

 

Answer:  D

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-1

Learning Objective:  Summarize the reactions carried out by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 

 

4) Which of the following pyruvate dehydrogenase enzymes is correctly paired with the coenzyme that is associated with it?

 

  1. A) E1: coenzyme A
  2. B) E2: thiamine pyrophosphate
  3. C) E3: FAD
  4. D) E2: NAD+
  5. E) E3: lipoamide

 

Answer:  C

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-1

Learning Objective:  Summarize the reactions carried out by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 

 

5) Which of the following coenzymes is directly responsible for the oxidation of the hydroxyethyl group to the acetyl group?

 

  1. A) coenzyme A
  2. B) thiamine pyrophosphate
  3. C) FAD
  4. D) NAD+
  5. E) lipoamide

 

Answer:  E

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-1

Learning Objective:  Summarize the reactions carried out by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 

 

6) What amino acid is covalently linked to lipoic acid in E2?

 

  1. A) Lys
  2. B) Ser
  3. C) His
  4. D) Gln
  5. E) Thr

 

Answer:  A

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-1

Learning Objective:  Summarize the reactions carried out by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 

 

7) What type of bond forms when the hydroxyethyl group is transferred to lipoamide?

 

  1. A) ester
  2. B) amide
  3. C) thioester
  4. D) anhydride
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer:  C

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-1

Learning Objective:  Summarize the reactions carried out by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 

 

8) Which of the following is an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase?

 

  1. A) CoA
  2. B) pyruvate
  3. C) FADH2
  4. D) NADH
  5. E) CO2

 

Answer:  D

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-1

Learning Objective:  Summarize the reactions carried out by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

 

 

9) In the citric acid cycle, what reduced cofactors are derived from the oxidation of one molecule of acetyl CoA to two molecules of CO2?

 

  1. A) 2 NADH and 1 QH2
  2. B) 3 NADH and 1 QH2
  3. C) 2 NADH and 2 QH2
  4. D) 3 NADH and 2 QH2
  5. E) 4 NADH and 2 QH2

 

Answer:  B

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

10) What makes the reaction catalyzed by citrate synthase highly exergonic?

 

  1. A) hydrolysis of ATP
  2. B) hydrolysis of GTP
  3. C) decarboxylation reaction
  4. D) conversion from keto to enol tautomer
  5. E) hydrolysis of thioester

 

Answer:  E

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

 

11) Which of the following explains the proper binding of the two substrates for citrate synthase?

 

  1. A) the binding is random
  2. B) acetyl-CoA binds, then oxaloacetate
  3. C) oxaloacetate binds, then acetyl-CoA
  4. D) oxaloacetate binds to one subunit, acetyl-CoA binds to the other
  5. E) in one subunit, acetyl-CoA binds, then oxaloacetate; on the other subunit, this is reversed

 

Answer:  C

 

Difficulty:  Hard

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

12) Which of the following is observed in the mechanism of citrate synthase?

 

  1. A) a histidine residue acts as a base, deprotonating oxaloacetate
  2. B) an aspartic acid residue acts as a base, deprotonating oxaloacetate
  3. C) a histidine residue hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl oxygen of oxaloacetate to enable a nucleophilic attack
  4. D) removal of the CoA is accomplished by transfer to a serine residue, then hydrolysis
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer:  B

 

Difficulty:  Hard

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

13) Which of the following condenses with oxaloacetate to form citrate?

 

  1. A) acetyl-CoA
  2. B) cis-aconitate
  3. C) carboxybiotin
  4. D) oxalosuccinate
  5. E) succinyl-phosphate

 

Answer:  A

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

14) Which of the following is an intermediate between citrate and isocitrate in the citric acid cycle?

 

  1. A) oxalosuccinate
  2. B) succinyl-phosphate
  3. C) cis-aconitate
  4. D) carboxybiotin
  5. E) hydroxyethyl-TPP

 

Answer:  C

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

15) Aconitase catalyzes the _____ of citrate to aconitate followed by the _____ of aconitate to isocitrate.

 

  1. A) oxidation; reduction
  2. B) reduction; oxidation
  3. C) hydration; dehydration
  4. D) dehydration; hydration
  5. E) isomerization; isomerization

 

Answer:  D

 

Difficulty:  Hard

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

16) Which of the following describes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate?

 

  1. A) a major regulatory step for the citric acid cycle
  2. B) an oxidation reaction
  3. C) the only unnecessary step of the citric acid cycle
  4. D) protects cells from the toxic effects of arsenite ion
  5. E) converts a tertiary alcohol, which cannot easily be oxidized, to a secondary alcohol that can be oxidized

 

Answer:  E

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

17) Given the following structure of isocitrate, the carbon labeled _____ is lost as CO2 by isocitrate dehydrogenase while the carbon labeled _____ is lost as CO2 by a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.

 

 

 

  1. A) 1; 2
  2. B) 2; 1
  3. C) 1; 3
  4. D) 3; 1
  5. E) 2; 3

 

Answer:  E

 

Difficulty:  Hard

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

18) During the oxidation of isocitrate, the intermediate that is decarboxylated to form α-ketoglutarate is _____.

 

  1. A) oxalosuccinate
  2. B) succinyl-phosphate
  3. C) cis-aconitate
  4. D) carboxybiotin
  5. E) hydroxyethyl-TPP

 

Answer:  A

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

19) Which enzyme catalyzes a reaction most similar to that catalyzed by a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase?

 

  1. A) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
  2. B) pyruvate dehydrogenase
  3. C) isocitrate dehydrogenase
  4. D) succinate dehydrogenase
  5. E) malate dehydrogenase

 

Answer:  B

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

20) Which of the following enzymes catalyzes a substrate-level phosphorylation?

 

  1. A) malate synthase
  2. B) succinate dehydrogenase
  3. C) a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
  4. D) succinyl-CoA synthetase
  5. E) fumarase

 

Answer:  D

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

21) Which of the following amino acids participates in the transfer of a phosphate group in the reaction catalyzed by succinyl-CoA synthetase?

 

  1. A) lysine
  2. B) serine
  3. C) glutamine
  4. D) aspartic acid
  5. E) histidine

 

Answer:  E

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

22) Which of the following is an enzyme-associated intermediate that is similar in energy to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate?

 

  1. A) phosphohistidine
  2. B) succinyl phosphate
  3. C) oxalosuccinate
  4. D) carboxybiotin
  5. E) hydroxyethyl-TPP

 

Answer:  B

 

Difficulty:  Hard

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

23) Which of the following enzymes contains an FAD prosthetic group?

 

  1. A) pyruvate dehydrogenase
  2. B) isocitrate dehydrogenase
  3. C) succinate dehydrogenase
  4. D) a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
  5. E) malate dehydrogenase

 

Answer:  C

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

24) Where is succinate dehydrogenase located?

 

  1. A) mitochondrial matrix
  2. B) mitochondrial inner membrane
  3. C) mitochondrial inter-membrane space
  4. D) mitochondrial outer membrane
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer:  B

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

25) The oxidation of succinate to fumarate is best characterized as an oxidation of _____.

 

  1. A) an alkane to an alkene
  2. B) an alcohol to an aldehyde
  3. C) an alcohol to a ketone
  4. D) an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid
  5. E) a b-keto acid to CO2 and a carboxylic acid that is one carbon smaller

 

Answer:  A

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

26) The reaction catalyzed by fumarase is _____.

 

  1. A) an isomerization of an alcohol
  2. B) a dehydration of an alcohol
  3. C) a hydroxylation of an alkene
  4. D) a hydration of an alkene
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer:  D

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

27) How does the reaction catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase proceed despite a DG°¢ of 29.7 kJ/mol?

 

  1. A) an elevated [H+] allows the reaction to proceed
  2. B) high levels of NAD+ allow the reaction to proceed
  3. C) concentrations of oxaloacetate are kept very low by rapid use in the subsequent step
  4. D) the enzyme is unique in its ability only to catalyze the reaction in one direction
  5. E) the enzyme catalyzed reaction under cellular conditions has a much smaller energy of activation

 

Answer:  C

 

Difficulty:  Hard

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

28) How many electrons are transferred from one acetyl group when it is converted to two carbon dioxide molecules in the citric acid cycle?

 

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 8
  5. E) 10

 

Answer:  D

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

29) If acetyl-CoA labeled on the methyl carbon were used as the substrate for the citric acid cycle, where would the labeled carbon appear in oxaloacetate produced from one round of the cycle?

 

  1. A) C1
  2. B) C4
  3. C) C1 or C2
  4. D) C1 or C4
  5. E) C2 or C3

 

Answer:  E

 

Difficulty:  Hard

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

30) If all reduced electron carriers are reoxidized to run oxidative phosphorylation, how many ATP can be generated from the oxidation of one acetyl-CoA?

 

  1. A) 6
  2. B) 10
  3. C) 15
  4. D) 20
  5. E) 32

 

Answer:  B

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

31) Which of the following is an equilibrium-controlled step within the mitochondria?

 

  1. A) malate dehydrogenase
  2. B) isocitrate dehydrogenase
  3. C) citrate synthase
  4. D) pyruvate dehydrogenase
  5. E) a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

 

Answer:  A

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

32) Which of the following is activated by ADP?

 

  1. A) malate dehydrogenase
  2. B) aconitase
  3. C) isocitrate dehydrogenase
  4. D) citrate synthase
  5. E) succinyl-CoA synthetase

 

Answer:  C

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-2

Learning Objective:  Describe the substrate, product, chemical reaction, and regulation for each step of the citric acid cycle

 

 

33) Which of the following can be converted into glutamic acid in a single enzyme-catalyzed step?

 

  1. A) isocitrate
  2. B) oxaloacetate
  3. C) malate
  4. D) a-ketoglutarate
  5. E) succinyl-CoA

 

Answer:  D

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

34) Which of the following can be converted into glucose using parts of the citric acid cycle?

 

  1. A) malate
  2. B) isocitrate
  3. C) glutamic acid
  4. D) succinate
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer:  E

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

35) What citric acid cycle intermediate is effectively used as a mechanism for the transport of acetyl-CoA from the mitochondria to the cytosol?

 

  1. A) citrate
  2. B) isocitrate
  3. C) fumarate
  4. D) malate
  5. E) oxaloacetate

 

Answer:  A

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

36) When acetyl-CoA and NADPH are needed for lipid synthesis, which of the following reactions is used to produce NADPH in the cytosol?

 

  1. A) reduction of oxaloacetate to malate
  2. B) oxidation of malate to pyruvate
  3. C) reduction of fumarate to succinate
  4. D) oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate
  5. E) oxidation of isocitrate to a-ketoglutarate

 

Answer:  B

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

37) Which of the following is an anaplerotic reaction that is often used in the cell?

 

  1. A) conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
  2. B) conversion of a-ketoglutarate to glutamic acid
  3. C) conversion of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA
  4. D) conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate
  5. E) conversion of succinyl-CoA to heme

 

Answer:  D

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

38) Which of the following terms indicates that the citric acid cycle is both catabolic and anabolic in nature?

 

  1. A) cataplerotic
  2. B) amphipathic
  3. C) anaplerotic
  4. D) diabolic
  5. E) amphibolic

 

Answer:  E

 

Difficulty:  Easy

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

39) Which of the following is activated by high levels of acetyl-CoA?

 

  1. A) malate dehydrogenase
  2. B) succinyl-CoA synthetase
  3. C) pyruvate carboxylase
  4. D) pyruvate dehydrogenase
  5. E) a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

 

Answer:  C

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

40) Which of the following enzymes allows for a net increase of citric acid cycle metabolites without expending any energy in the form of ATP or its equivalents?

 

  1. A) alanine aminotransferase
  2. B) pyruvate dehydrogenase
  3. C) pyruvate carboxylase
  4. D) citrate lyase
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer:  A

 

Difficulty:  Hard

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

41) Which of the following can cause a large increase in the activity of the citric acid cycle?

 

  1. A) activation of isocitrate dehydrogenase by ADP
  2. B) activation of a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase by Ca2+
  3. C) increasing concentrations of oxaloacetate by pyruvate carboxylase
  4. D) increasing concentrations of a-ketoglutarate by transamination
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer:  E

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

42) The mechanism of malate synthase that catalyzes the conversion of glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate would be most similar to which citric acid cycle enzyme?

 

  1. A) fumarase
  2. B) aconitase
  3. C) citrate synthase
  4. D) isocitrate dehydrogenase
  5. E) succinyl-CoA synthetase

 

Answer:  C

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

43) Why can germinating plant seeds convert acetyl-CoA from fatty acids into carbohydrates, while animals are incapable of converting fatty acids into glucose?

 

  1. A) animals have glycogen and don’t need to make glucose from fatty acids
  2. B) plants, not animals, use the glyoxylate cycle to convert acetyl CoA to oxaloacetate
  3. C) plant seeds use photosynthesis to make sugar
  4. D) animals use the citric acid cycle exclusively for energy production, plants only use glycolysis for energy
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer:  B

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

 

44) What citric acid cycle enzyme is not used in the glyoxylate cycle?

 

  1. A) isocitrate dehydrogenase
  2. B) fumarase
  3. C) malate dehydrogenase
  4. D) aconitase
  5. E) succinate dehyrogenase

 

Answer:  A

 

Difficulty:  Medium

Section Reference:  14-3

Learning Objective: List the pathways that consume and generate citric acid cycle intermediates

 

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