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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology 5th Edition Scanlon Sanders Test Bank

ISBN

  • 0803615469
  • 9780803615465

 

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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology 5th Edition Scanlon Sanders Test Bank

ISBN

  • 0803615469
  • 9780803615465

 

 

 

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Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

  1. Water found within capillaries is called:
  2. A) intracellular fluid
  3. B) plasma
  4. C) tissue fluid
  5. D) lymph

 

  1. Water found in the spaces between cells is called:
  2. A) intracellular fluid
  3. B) plasma
  4. C) tissue fluid
  5. D) lymph

 

  1. Tissue fluid may also be called:
  2. A) interstitial fluid
  3. B) intercellular fluid
  4. C) both A and B
  5. D) neither A nor B, because these are names for water within cells

 

  1. Tissue fluid that has entered lymph capillaries is called:
  2. A) plasma
  3. B) intracellular fluid
  4. C) intercellular fluid
  5. D) lymph

 

  1. Blood plasma becomes tissue fluid by the process of:
  2. A) osmosis
  3. B) filtration
  4. C) active transport
  5. D) diffusion

 

  1. The lymph in the system of lymph vessels is returned to, or becomes part of:
  2. A) plasma
  3. B) tissue fluid
  4. C) intracellular fluid
  5. D) cerebrospinal fluid

 

  1. Which of these is the proper sequence of names for the formation and destination of lymph?
  2. A) plasma – tissue fluid – lymph – plasma
  3. B) tissue fluid – plasma – lymph – plasma
  4. C) plasma – lymph – tissue fluid – plasma
  5. D) tissue fluid – plasma – lymph – tissue fluid

 

  1. The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the:
  2. A) head
  3. B) arms
  4. C) upper body
  5. D) lower body

 

  1. Lymph from the lower body flows into the ___, then to the ___.
  2. A) cisterna chyli/thoracic duct
  3. B) inferior cisterna/thoracic duct
  4. C) thoracic duct/cisterna chyli
  5. D) thoracic duct/inferior cisterna

 

  1. The thoracic duct empties lymph into the:
  2. A) left subclavian vein
  3. B) superior vena cava
  4. C) right subclavian vein
  5. D) inferior vena cava

 

  1. The right lymphatic duct empties lymph into the:
  2. A) left subclavian vein
  3. B) superior vena cava
  4. C) right subclavian vein
  5. D) inferior vena cava

 

  1. The destination of lymph to be returned to the blood is one of the:
  2. A) subclavian veins
  3. B) thoracic veins
  4. C) cisterna veins
  5. D) jugular veins

 

  1. Blood is prevented from flowing into the lymphatic vessels by:
  2. A) flaps in the subclavian veins
  3. B) flaps in the jugular veins
  4. C) anastomoses from the subclavian to the jugular veins
  5. D) anastomoses from the jugular to the subclavian veins

 

  1. The thoracic duct drains lymph from all these areas of the body except the:
  2. A) upper left quadrant
  3. B) upper right quadrant
  4. C) lower left quadrant
  5. D) lower right quadrant

 

  1. The right lymphatic duct drains lymph from this part of the body:
  2. A) upper left quadrant
  3. B) upper right quadrant
  4. C) lower left quadrant
  5. D) lower right quadrant

 

  1. Backflow of lymph in the larger lymph vessels is prevented by:
  2. A) the lymph pump
  3. B) dilation
  4. C) valves
  5. D) the heart

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a mechanism that keeps lymph moving in lymph vessels?
  2. A) constriction of the larger lymph vessels
  3. B) the respiratory pump for vessels in the chest cavity
  4. C) the skeletal muscle pump for vessels in the legs
  5. D) the cardiac muscle pump for vessels in the chest cavity

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of the system of lymph vessels?
  2. A) The larger vessels have a structure very much like that of veins, including valves.
  3. B) Lymph is collected by dead-end lymph capillaries.
  4. C) The thoracic duct empties lymph into the right subclavian vein.
  5. D) The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lower body.

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a function of lymph nodes and nodules?
  2. A) phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages
  3. B) phagocytosis of old RBCs
  4. C) activation site of lymphocytes
  5. D) production of antibodies by plasma cells

 

  1. The white blood cells produced by lymph nodes and nodules are the:
  2. A) lymphocytes
  3. B) neutrophils
  4. C) eosinophils
  5. D) basophils

 

  1. Lymph nodes (in general) are located:
  2. A) in the dermis of the skin
  3. B) along the pathways of blood vessels
  4. C) in the body tracts that open to the environment
  5. D) along the pathways of lymph vessels

 

  1. The lymph nodes that destroy pathogens in lymph returning from the arms are called:
  2. A) cervical
  3. B) thoracic
  4. C) axillary
  5. D) inguinal

 

  1. The lymph nodes that destroy pathogens in lymph returning from the head are called:
  2. A) cervical
  3. B) thoracic
  4. C) axillary
  5. D) inguinal

 

  1. The lymph nodes that destroy pathogens in lymph returning from the legs are called:
  2. A) cervical
  3. B) thoracic
  4. C) axillary
  5. D) inguinal

 

  1. Submaxillary lymph nodes would be found near the ___, and popliteal nodes would be found at the ___.
  2. A) jaw/knee
  3. B) nose/foot
  4. C) nose/knee
  5. D) jaw/foot

 

  1. Mesenteric lymph nodes would be found near the ___, and mediastinal nodes would be found near the ___.
  2. A) intestines/heart
  3. B) heart/lungs
  4. C) lungs/heart
  5. D) heart/intestines

 

  1. The function of lymph nodes is to destroy pathogens in the:
  2. A) blood coming from the extremities
  3. B) inhaled air
  4. C) food that has been ingested
  5. D) lymph coming from the extremities

 

  1. Lymph nodules (in general) are located:
  2. A) along the pathways of lymph vessels
  3. B) in the body tracts that open to the environment
  4. C) along the pathways of blood vessels
  5. D) in the dermis of the skin

 

  1. The tonsils are the ___ of the ___.
  2. A) lymph nodules/pharynx
  3. B) lymph nodes/larynx
  4. C) lymph nodules/larynx
  5. D) lymph nodes/pharynx

 

  1. The lymph nodules of the pharynx are called:
  2. A) Peyer’s patches
  3. B) tonsils
  4. C) the Circle of Nodules
  5. D) respiratory nodules

 

  1. The function of lymph nodules is to destroy pathogens that:
  2. A) enter the body through breaks in the skin
  3. B) enter the body through natural openings such as the nose
  4. C) are in lymph from the arms and legs
  5. D) are in lymph from the head and neck

 

  1. In the abdominal cavity, the spleen is located:
  2. A) behind the stomach
  3. B) behind the liver
  4. C) above the diaphragm
  5. D) behind the sternum

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a function of the adult spleen?
  2. A) destruction of damaged platelets
  3. B) production of RBCs
  4. C) production of antibodies by plasma cells
  5. D) phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages

 

  1. Production of RBCs is a function of the spleen:
  2. A) during fetal development
  3. B) during infancy
  4. C) during childhood
  5. D) throughout life

 

  1. With respect to its functions, the spleen is most similar to:
  2. A) the liver
  3. B) the red bone marrow
  4. C) a lymph node
  5. D) the yellow bone marrow

 

  1. Which of these organs does NOT compensate for the removal of the spleen in an adult?
  2. A) the liver
  3. B) the red bone marrow
  4. C) the lymph nodes
  5. D) the thymus gland

 

  1. The cells in the spleen that phagocytize old RBCs are:
  2. A) macrophages
  3. B) T cells
  4. C) B cells
  5. D) plasma cells

 

  1. When the spleen destroys old RBCs, it:
  2. A) forms bilirubin, which will be excreted by the liver
  3. B) makes new hemoglobin
  4. C) makes new RBCs
  5. D) stores the iron from old hemoglobin

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of the adult spleen?
  2. A) It is a site of activation of lymphocytes.
  3. B) It produces RBCs and destroys old RBCs.
  4. C) It is located behind the stomach.
  5. D) It forms bilirubin from the hemoglobin of old RBCs.

 

  1. In the fetus, the organ that is important for the normal development of the immune system is the:
  2. A) liver
  3. B) spleen
  4. C) thymus gland
  5. D) lymph node

 

  1. The lymphocytes that are produced by the thymus are called:
  2. A) T cells
  3. B) B cells
  4. C) plasma cells
  5. D) macrophages

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of the thymus?
  2. A) It is important for the development of normal immune responses.
  3. B) It produces lymphocytes called T cells.
  4. C) It is most active in the fetus and young child.
  5. D) It is located behind the spleen.

 

  1. A foreign antigen is an antigen that:
  2. A) will stimulate antibody production
  3. B) is found on a person’s cells rather than in the blood
  4. C) is found in a person’s blood rather than on cells
  5. D) is one of a person’s HLA types

 

  1. If a microorganism stimulates antibody production, it is considered to be a:
  2. A) foreign antigen
  3. B) potential pathogen
  4. C) both of these
  5. D) neither of these

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a foreign antigen for an individual?
  2. A) bacteria
  3. B) cancer cells
  4. C) viruses
  5. D) the HLA types present

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of innate immunity?
  2. A) It does not create memory for a pathogen.
  3. B) Its antibody production is usually slow.
  4. C) Its responses are always the same.
  5. D) It involves inflammation.

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of adaptive immunity?
  2. A) The second exposure to a pathogen is often more efficient than the first.
  3. B) It involves both T and B lymphocytes.
  4. C) Its antibody-producing cells are T cells.
  5. D) It does create memory for a pathogen.

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of innate immunity and adaptive immunity?
  2. A) Innate immune responses are triggered by damage of any kind.
  3. B) T and B lymphocytes are specific for particular foreign antigens.
  4. C) Macrophages are part of both components of immunity.
  5. D) Only innate immunity creates memory.

 

  1. All of these are barriers of innate immunity except:
  2. A) the stratum corneum
  3. B) serous membranes
  4. C) mucous membranes
  5. D) the subcutaneous tissue

 

  1. The lysozyme of innate immunity is found in:
  2. A) tears, to inhibit bacterial growth
  3. B) saliva, to stimulate inflammation
  4. C) gastric juice, to destroy bacteria
  5. D) the stratum corneum, to inhibit fungi

 

  1. Mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract help prevent the entry of pathogens because they have:
  2. A) smooth muscle tissue
  3. B) stratified squamous epithelial tissue
  4. C) microvilli
  5. D) ciliated epithelial tissue

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of the barriers of innate immunity?
  2. A) The gastric mucosa secretes HCl to destroy pathogens in food.
  3. B) Defensins are produced by the cells of the epidermis.
  4. C) The subcutaneous tissue contains mast cells and WBCs in areolar connective tissue.
  5. D) The Langerhans cells of the epidermis destroy bacteria with chemicals called perforators.

 

  1. In innate immunity, all of these cells are phagocytic except:
  2. A) natural killer cells
  3. B) neutrophils
  4. C) macrophages
  5. D) eosinophils

 

  1. In innate immunity, histamine and leukotrienes are produced by:
  2. A) Langerhans cells and eosinophils
  3. B) eosinophils and basophils
  4. C) basophils and mast cells
  5. D) mast cells and Langerhans cells

 

  1. In innate immunity, destruction of tumor cells by secretion of perforins is a function of:
  2. A) macrophages, which differentiate from monocytes
  3. B) natural killer cells, a type of lymphocyte
  4. C) Langerhans cells circulating in the blood
  5. D) neutrophils, one of the granular WBCs

 

  1. Natural killer cells are different from other lymphocytes because they:
  2. A) produce antibodies
  3. B) are not specific for a particular foreign antigen
  4. C) are specific for a particular foreign antigen
  5. D) become memory cells

 

  1. The lymphocytes that are not specific for a particular foreign antigen are the:
  2. A) natural killer cells
  3. B) helper T cells
  4. C) memory B cells
  5. D) plasma cells

 

  1. The lymphocytes that help destroy many kinds of foreign antigens by disrupting their cell membranes are the:
  2. A) helper T cells
  3. B) plasma cells
  4. C) memory B cells
  5. D) natural killer cells

 

  1. The cells of innate immunity that activate the lymphocytes of adaptive immunity are the:
  2. A) macrophages and Langerhans cells
  3. B) mast cells and neutrophils
  4. C) basophils and eosinophils
  5. D) eosinophils and monocytes

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of the defensive cells of innate immunity?
  2. A) Macrophages are phagocytes.
  3. B) Langerhans cells take foreign antigens to lymph nodes.
  4. C) Basophils produce histamine as part of inflammation.
  5. D) Mast cells activate the lymphocytes of adaptive immunity.

 

  1. Interferon is produced by ___, and its function is to ___.
  2. A) T cells/stimulate inflammation
  3. B) B cells/stimulate antibody production
  4. C) T cells/block viral reproduction
  5. D) B cells/block the effects of histamine

 

  1. In innate immunity, the chemical that blocks viral reproduction is :
  2. A) histamine
  3. B) complement
  4. C) leukotrienes
  5. D) interferon

 

  1. In innate immunity, the function of complement is to:
  2. A) lyse cellular antigens
  3. B) label non-cellular antigens
  4. C) attract WBCs to the area
  5. D) all of these

 

  1. In innate immunity, histamine and leukotrienes do all of these except:
  2. A) make capillaries more permeable
  3. B) cause vasodilation
  4. C) inhibit viral reproduction
  5. D) permit the formation of more tissue fluid

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a sign of inflammation?
  2. A) redness
  3. B) swelling
  4. C) pain
  5. D) coolness

 

  1. The purpose of inflammation is to ___ and to ___.
  2. A) create pain/make the person see a doctor
  3. B) bring more RBCs to the area/supply more oxygen
  4. C) decrease tissue fluid formation in the damaged area/prevent damage to healthy tissue
  5. D) eliminate the cause of the damage/permit tissue repair to begin

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of the chemicals of innate immunity?
  2. A) Leukotrienes increase capillary permeability.
  3. B) Histamine causes vasodilation.
  4. C) Interferon prevents the growth of fungi within cells.
  5. D) Complement may be a label for a non-cellular foreign antigen.

 

  1. The T cells that participate in the recognition of foreign antigens are called:
  2. A) helper T cells
  3. B) cytotoxic T cells
  4. C) memory T cells
  5. D) killer T cells

 

  1. The function of helper T cells is to:
  2. A) help recognize foreign antigens
  3. B) produce antibodies
  4. C) help remember a pathogen
  5. D) help neutralize viruses

 

  1. The cells of adaptive immunity that are involved in the recognition of foreign antigens are:
  2. A) helper T cells and helper B cells
  3. B) macrophages and helper B cells
  4. C) macrophages and helper T cells
  5. D) plasma cells and macrophages

 

  1. The mechanism of adaptive immunity that involves antibody production is called:
  2. A) cellular immunity
  3. B) antigen immunity
  4. C) cell-mediated immunity
  5. D) humoral immunity

 

  1. The mechanism of adaptive immunity that does not involve antibody production is called:
  2. A) antigen immunity
  3. B) splenic immunity
  4. C) cell-mediated immunity
  5. D) humoral immunity

 

  1. The labeling of a foreign antigen by antibodies is called ___, and results in ___.
  2. A) opsonization/phagocytosis of the antigen
  3. B) lymphokinesis/production of more antibodies
  4. C) opsonization/production of more antibodies
  5. D) lymphokinesis/phagocytosis of the antigen

 

  1. Which statement is true of the mechanism of antibody-mediated immunity?
  2. A) Memory T cells remember the specific foreign antigen.
  3. B) Antibodies are produced by helper T cells.
  4. C) Complement fixation is activated.
  5. D) No T cells are involved.

 

  1. The T cells that remember a specific foreign antigen are called:
  2. A) helper T cells
  3. B) cytotoxic T cells
  4. C) memory T cells
  5. D) killer T cells

 

  1. The T cells that chemically destroy foreign antigens are called:
  2. A) helper T cells
  3. B) cytotoxic T cells
  4. C) memory T cells
  5. D) plasma T cells

 

  1. The function of cytotoxic T cells is to:
  2. A) help recognize foreign antigens
  3. B) guide antibodies to their targets
  4. C) remember cellular pathogens such as bacteria
  5. D) chemically destroy foreign antigens

 

  1. The B cells that produce antibodies are called:
  2. A) killer B cells
  3. B) memory B cells
  4. C) helper B cells
  5. D) plasma cells

 

  1. The function of plasma cells is to:
  2. A) produce antibodies
  3. B) help recognize foreign antigens
  4. C) produce plasma
  5. D) guide cytotoxic T cells to their targets

 

  1. The B cells that remember a specific foreign antigen are called:
  2. A) killer B cells
  3. B) memory B cells
  4. C) helper B cells
  5. D) plasma cells

 

  1. In the embryo, T cells are produced in the:
  2. A) bone marrow and thymus
  3. B) bone marrow only
  4. C) liver and thymus
  5. D) liver only

 

  1. In the embryo, B cells are produced in the:
  2. A) bone marrow and thymus
  3. B) bone marrow only
  4. C) liver and spleen
  5. D) spleen only

 

  1. Which statement is true of the mechanism of cell-mediated immunity?
  2. A) Complement fixation is activated.
  3. B) Opsonization takes place.
  4. C) Memory B cells remember the specific foreign antigen.
  5. D) Cytotoxic T cells destroy a specific foreign antigen.

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of antibody-mediated immunity?
  2. A) Some B cells become plasma cells that produce antibodies.
  3. B) Antibodies label the specific foreign antigen for phagocytosis by macrophages.
  4. C) Some B cells become memory B cells.
  5. D) The antigen is recognized as foreign by helper B cells and helper T cells.

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of cell-mediated immunity?
  2. A) It is effective against viruses and other intracellular pathogens.
  3. B) Memory T cells remember the specific foreign antigen.
  4. C) Cytotoxic T cells phagocytize antigens labeled with antibodies.
  5. D) The antigen is recognized as foreign by macrophages and helper T cells.

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the process of complement fixation is activated by:
  2. A) foreign antigens alone
  3. B) macrophages alone
  4. C) antigen–antibody complexes
  5. D) macrophages and plasma cells

 

  1. The process of complement fixation destroys cellular antigens by:
  2. A) lysis
  3. B) attracting mast cells
  4. C) activating plasma cells
  5. D) activating helper T cells

 

  1. The process of complement fixation destroys non-cellular antigens by:
  2. A) lysis
  3. B) attracting macrophages
  4. C) activating plasma cells
  5. D) activating mast cells

 

  1. The process of ___ requires a series of plasma proteins that will lyse cellular antigens.
  2. A) complement fixation
  3. B) opsonization
  4. C) neutralization
  5. D) agglutination

 

  1. The clumping of bacteria by attached antibodies is called:
  2. A) agglutination
  3. B) complement fixation
  4. C) immunization
  5. D) neutralization

 

  1. With respect to immunity, agglutination is:
  2. A) antibodies changing the shape of viruses
  3. B) antibodies clumping bacteria
  4. C) memory cells being activated
  5. D) cytotoxic T cells being activated

 

  1. The changing of the shape of viruses or bacterial toxins by attached antibodies is called:
  2. A) agglutination
  3. B) complement fixation
  4. C) immunization
  5. D) neutralization

 

  1. With respect to immunity, neutralization is:
  2. A) antibodies changing the shape of viruses
  3. B) antibodies clumping bacteria
  4. C) memory cells being activated
  5. D) cytotoxic T cells being activated

 

  1. Bacterial toxins may be inactivated because antibodies:
  2. A) change their shape
  3. B) cut them in two pieces
  4. C) phagocytize them
  5. D) blow them up

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true of antibodies?
  2. A) They are protein molecules made by plasma cells.
  3. B) An antibody is specific for one antigen only.
  4. C) An antigen-antibody complex activates complement fixation.
  5. D) Opsonization refers to antibodies phagocytizing antigens.

 

  1. During the first exposure to an antigen, antibodies are produced:
  2. A) not at all
  3. B) slowly, in small amounts
  4. C) rapidly, in large amounts
  5. D) first rapidly, then slowly

 

  1. During the second exposure to a foreign antigen, antibodies are produced:
  2. A) not at all
  3. B) slowly, in small amounts
  4. C) rapidly, in large amounts
  5. D) first rapidly, then slowly

 

  1. Which class of antibodies is produced first during an infection?
  2. A) IgA
  3. B) IgG
  4. C) IgE
  5. D) IgM

 

  1. Which class of antibodies is able to cross the placenta?
  2. A) IgA
  3. B) IgG
  4. C) IgE
  5. D) IgM

 

  1. Which class of antibodies is found in breast milk?
  2. A) IgA
  3. B) IgG
  4. C) IgE
  5. D) IgM

 

  1. Which class of antibodies is especially important in mucous membranes?
  2. A) IgA
  3. B) IgG
  4. C) IgE
  5. D) IgM

 

  1. Which class of antibodies provides long-term immunity following recovery from a disease?
  2. A) IgA
  3. B) IgG
  4. C) IgE
  5. D) IgD

 

  1. Which class of antibodies does the infant’s maturing immune system first produce?
  2. A) IgA
  3. B) IgG
  4. C) IgE
  5. D) IgM

 

  1. Which class of antibodies is found on mast cells and is significant in allergic reactions?
  2. A) IgA
  3. B) IgG
  4. C) IgE
  5. D) IgM

 

  1. In a mismatched blood transfusion between a type A person and a type B person, which antibodies would trigger hemolysis?
  2. A) IgA
  3. B) IgG
  4. C) IgE
  5. D) IgM

 

  1. During an infection, the antibodies produced first are ___, and those produced second are ___.
  2. A) IgM/IgE
  3. B) IgG/IgM
  4. C) IgM/IgG
  5. D) IgG/IgE

 

  1. The fetus acquires ___ maternal antibodies, and the breast-fed infant acquires ___ maternal antibodies.
  2. A) IgA/IgG
  3. B) IgM/IgG
  4. C) IgM/IgA
  5. D) IgG/IgA

 

  1. The antibodies produced first after a vaccination would be ___, followed by production of ___.
  2. A) IgM/IgG
  3. B) IgA/IgG
  4. C) IgG/IgM
  5. D) IgG/IgA

 

  1. Which of these would NOT be found in a vaccine?
  2. A) a killed pathogen
  3. B) a living pathogen
  4. C) a toxoid
  5. D) part of a pathogen

 

  1. A vaccine is protective in that it takes the place of:
  2. A) genetic immunity to the pathogen
  3. B) the second exposure to the pathogen
  4. C) the helper T cells and macrophages
  5. D) the first exposure to the pathogen

 

  1. Bacterial diseases of insects do not affect people because people have ___ to them.
  2. A) genetic immunity
  3. B) active acquired immunity
  4. C) passive acquired immunity
  5. D) passive-active immunity

 

  1. An example of genetic immunity is:
  2. A) the genes we have for antibody production to cold viruses
  3. B) that a pet cat cannot be infected by the chickenpox virus
  4. C) the maternal immunity passed to the fetus across the placenta
  5. D) all of these are genetic immunity

 

  1. Placental transmission of antibodies provides:
  2. A) artificially acquired passive immunity
  3. B) naturally acquired passive immunity
  4. C) naturally acquired active immunity
  5. D) artificially acquired active immunity

 

  1. An example of naturally acquired passive immunity is:
  2. A) placental transmission of antibodies
  3. B) transmission of antibodies in breast milk
  4. C) both A and B
  5. D) both A and B, and immunity from an asymptomatic infection

 

  1. Recovery from a disease provides:
  2. A) artificially acquired passive immunity
  3. B) naturally acquired passive immunity
  4. C) naturally acquired active immunity
  5. D) artificially acquired active immunity

 

  1. An example of naturally acquired active immunity is:
  2. A) recovery from the flu
  3. B) receiving the flu vaccine that is made in duck eggs
  4. C) both A and B
  5. D) both A and B, and receiving gamma globulin for the flu

 

  1. A vaccine provides:
  2. A) artificially acquired passive immunity
  3. B) naturally acquired passive immunity
  4. C) naturally acquired active immunity
  5. D) artificially acquired active immunity

 

  1. An example of artificially acquired active immunity is:
  2. A) a tetanus booster shot
  3. B) the oral polio vaccine
  4. C) the combination measles-mumps-rubella immunization
  5. D) all of these

 

  1. An injection of gamma globulins provides:
  2. A) artificially acquired passive immunity
  3. B) naturally acquired passive immunity
  4. C) naturally acquired active immunity
  5. D) artificially acquired active immunity

 

  1. An example of artificially acquired passive immunity is:
  2. A) preformed antibodies to hepatitis B
  3. B) tetanus immune globulin for someone with symptoms of tetanus
  4. C) rabies immune globulin for someone bitten by a rabid raccoon
  5. D) all of these

 

  1. Which of these is NOT paired with the proper type of immunity?
  2. A) vaccine – artificially acquired active immunity
  3. B) recovery from a disease – naturally acquired active immunity
  4. C) placental transmission of antibodies – naturally acquired active immunity
  5. D) injection of immune globulins – artificially acquired passive immunity

 

  1. Water within capillaries is called ______________________.

 

 

  1. Water found in the spaces between cells is called __________________________.

 

 

  1. Tissue fluid is made from __________________ by the process of ______________________.

 

 

  1. Blood plasma becomes tissue fluid by the process of ______________________.

 

 

  1. Tissue fluid that has entered lymph capillaries is called ________________________.

 

 

  1. Water in the body has several names: in capillaries it is ________________________; in between cells it is ______________________; and in lymph capillaries it is ________________.

 

 

  1. The thoracic duct empties lymph into the _______________________ vein.

 

 

  1. The vessel that empties lymph into the left subclavian vein is the _______________________.

 

 

  1. The right lymphatic duct empties lymph into the ______________________ vein.

 

 

  1. The vessel that empties lymph into the right subclavian vein is the _____________________.

 

 

  1. The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the ____________________________.

 

 

  1. Lymph from the lower body is first collected by the large vessel called the ________________________.

 

 

  1. Lymph from the lower half and upper left quadrant of the body drains into the ______________________.

 

 

  1. Lymph from the upper right quadrant of the body drains into the ____________________________.

 

 

  1. Backflow of lymph in the larger lymph vessels is prevented by _______________________.

 

 

  1. Lymph is kept moving in the larger lymph vessels by contraction of the ___________________________ in their walls.

 

 

  1. In the larger lymph vessels of the legs, lymph is kept moving by the _____________________________.

 

 

  1. In the larger lymph vessels in the thoracic cavity, lymph is kept moving by the ________________________.

 

 

  1. Lymphatic tissue is the site of ________________________ of lymphocytes.

 

 

  1. Lymphocytes are activated and proliferate within _____________________________.

 

 

  1. In general, lymph nodes are located along ______________________________, and _______________________ flows through them.

 

 

  1. Lymph nodes and nodules contain macrophages to ____________________________, and plasma cells that produce ____________________________.

 

 

  1. Lymph nodes and nodules contain ___________________ to phagocytize pathogens and _______________________ that produce antibodies.

 

 

  1. The _____________________ lymph nodes destroy pathogens in the lymph returning from the arms.

 

 

  1. The ______________________ lymph nodes destroy pathogens in the lymph returning from the legs.

 

 

  1. The _______________________ lymph nodes destroy pathogens in the lymph returning from the head.

 

 

  1. The cervical lymph nodes are in the ____________________, and destroy pathogens in the lymph returning from the ___________________.

 

 

  1. In general, lymph nodules are located beneath the _________________________ of body tracts lined with _________________________.

 

 

  1. Lymph nodules destroy pathogens that have entered the body by way of _________________________.

 

 

  1. In the abdomen, the spleen is located on the _____________________ side behind the ________________________.

 

 

  1. The cells in the spleen that phagocytize pathogens are ________________________, and the cells that produce antibodies are _______________________.

 

 

  1. The adult spleen, in terms of its functions, is very similar to a _________________________.

 

 

  1. If the adult spleen must be removed, the organs that will compensate for its functions are the __________________________ and the _______________________.

 

 

  1. The ______________________ and ____________________ are blood cells that are destroyed by the spleen.

 

 

  1. When the spleen destroys old RBCs, _________________________ is formed from the heme portion of the _________________________.

 

 

  1. When the spleen destroys old RBCs, the ______________________ that is formed circulates to the ______________________ to be excreted.

 

 

  1. The fetal spleen has a function that ceases after birth; this is the production of ______________________.

 

 

  1. In the fetus and young child, the organ that is most important for the development of the immune system is the ______________________________.

 

 

  1. The lymphocytes that are produced by the thymus are called ________________________.

 

 

  1. In the young child, the thymus is located below the ________________________ and behind the _______________________.

 

 

  1. As a person reaches adulthood, the thymus gland ___________________ in size.

 

 

  1. Antigens that are found on the cells of an individual are called ______________ antigens.

 

 

  1. Foreign antigens are those that will stimulate production of _______________________.

 

 

  1. Examples of foreign antigens are bacteria, ___________________ and ___________________.

 

 

  1. The component of immunity that is specific as to antigen is _________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. The component of immunity that is not specific as to antigen is ___________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. The component of immunity that creates memory is ____________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. The component of immunity that does not create memory is ____________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. The component of immunity that may become more efficient with repeated exposures is _____________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. The component of immunity that does not become more efficient with repeated exposures is _____________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the body’s outermost defense is an unbroken_______________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, defensins are antimicrobial chemicals produced by the cells of the ____________________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the mobile cells of the epidermis that pick up pathogens are _____________________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the secondary line of defense that contains mast cells and WBCs is the _______________________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the antibacterial chemical in tears and saliva is ____________________.

 

 

  1. Ingested pathogens are usually destroyed by the _____________ in the _________________.

 

 

  1. The respiratory mucosa is lined with ______________________ to sweep inhaled pathogens out.

 

 

  1. The cells of innate immunity that activate the lymphocytes of adaptive immunity are the _________________________ and ________________________.

 

 

  1. The cells of innate immunity that are the most important phagocytes are the ________________________ and the _______________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the nonspecific lymphocytes that use perforins to destroy foreign cells are the ________________________.

 

 

  1. The cells of innate immunity that produce histamine and leukotrienes are the ________________________ and __________________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, two chemicals that make capillaries more permeable are _________________________ and _______________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the effect of histamine on arterioles is to cause _____________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the chemical that inhibits the reproduction of viruses within cells is _____________________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the function of interferon is to prevent the reproduction of ____________________ within cells.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the chemical that lyses cellular antigens or labels non-cellular antigens is ______________________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the purpose of inflammation is to destroy _____________________ and to permit ___________________________ to begin.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the signs of inflammation are pain, redness, ___________________, and _________________________.

 

 

  1. In innate immunity, the function of neutrophils is _______________________, and the function of basophils is to produce _______________________.

 

 

  1. Inflammation is the body’s response to ______________________, and is part of ________________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the cells that work together are the ______________________ and the __________________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, macrophages and helper T cells work together to __________________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the cells that have self antigens to be used for comparison to foreign antigens are the ___________________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the mechanism that does not involve antibody production is _________________________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the labeling of a foreign antigen by antibodies is called _______________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the labeling of a foreign antigen by antibodies is called _______________________, and it results in ________________________ of the antigen.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the _____________________ T cells chemically destroy foreign antigens.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, cytotoxic T cells use _______________________ to destroy foreign antigens.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the _____________________ T cells remember a specific foreign antigen.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the _____________________ T cells contribute to the recognition of an antigen as foreign.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the ___________________ T cells activate B cells.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, T cells are involved in all aspects of the mechanism called _______________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. In the embryo, T cells are produced in the _______________________ and ______________.

 

 

  1. In the embryo, B cells are produced in the _____________________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the B cells that produce antibodies are called _______________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, plasma cells differentiate from ____________________ and produce ___________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the __________________ B cells remember a specific foreign antigen.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the process of complement fixation is activated by an _____________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the process of complement fixation destroys cellular antigens by _______________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the process of complement fixation destroys non-cellular antigens by attracting ________________________ for _________________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, when antibodies bond to bacteria they may cause clumping, which is called _____________________.

 

 

  1. An antibody molecule is made of _______________ and is shaped like a ___________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, when antibodies bond to viruses, they change the shape of the viruses, which is called _____________________________.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, the bonding of antibodies to a bacterial toxin inactivates the toxin because its _____________________ has been changed.

 

 

  1. In adaptive immunity, a virus with antibodies attached is likely to be ____________________ by a __________________________.

 

 

  1. During the first exposure to a pathogen such as the chickenpox virus, antibodies are produced at a _____________________ rate of speed and in __________________ amounts.

 

 

  1. After the first exposure to a pathogen such as the chickenpox virus, the person is left with ___________________ and __________________ that are specific for the virus.

 

 

  1. The first exposure to a pathogen such as the chickenpox virus often results in disease because antibodies are produced ______________________ to prevent it.

 

 

  1. During the second exposure to a pathogen such as the chickenpox virus, antibodies are produced at a ______________________ rate of speed and in __________________ amounts.

 

 

  1. A vaccine may contain a ______________________ or a _______________________ as an antigen.

 

 

  1. A vaccine stimulates production of _________________ and ___________________.

 

 

  1. A vaccine works because it takes the place of the _______________________ to the pathogen.

 

 

  1. Virus diseases of plants do not affect people because people have _____________________ immunity to them.

 

 

  1. Recovery from a disease provides ____________________ acquired ___________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. A vaccine such as that for measles provides ____________________ acquired ______________ immunity.

 

 

  1. Placental transmission of maternal antibodies to a fetus provides _____________________ acquired _____________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. An injection of gamma globulins provides ________________________ acquired _______________________ immunity.

 

 

  1. Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when a person __________________________.

 

 

  1. Artificially acquired active immunity occurs when a person ______________________.

 

 

  1. An example of passive immunity that is naturally acquired is _________________________.

 

 

  1. An example of passive immunity that is artificially acquired is ________________________.

 

 

  1. In any form of passive immunity, the antibodies have come from _______________________.

 

 

  1. In any form of active immunity, the antibodies have come from ______________________________.

 

 

  1. A tetanus booster shot is an example of _________________ immunity, and an injection of tetanus immune globulin is an example of _______________________ immunity.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

  1. B
  2. C
  3. C
  4. D
  5. B
  6. A
  7. A
  8. D
  9. A
  10. A
  11. C
  12. A
  13. A
  14. B
  15. B
  16. C
  17. D
  18. C
  19. B
  20. A
  21. D
  22. C
  23. A
  24. D
  25. A
  26. A
  27. D
  28. B
  29. A
  30. B
  31. B
  32. A
  33. B
  34. A
  35. C
  36. D
  37. A
  38. A
  39. B
  40. C
  41. A
  42. D
  43. A
  44. C
  45. D
  46. B
  47. C
  48. D
  49. B
  50. A
  51. D
  52. D
  53. A
  54. C
  55. B
  56. B
  57. A
  58. D
  59. A
  60. D
  61. C
  62. D
  63. D
  64. C
  65. D
  66. D
  67. C
  68. A
  69. A
  70. C
  71. D
  72. C
  73. A
  74. C
  75. C
  76. B
  77. D
  78. D
  79. A
  80. B
  81. A
  82. B
  83. D
  84. D
  85. C
  86. C
  87. A
  88. B
  89. A
  90. A
  91. B
  92. D
  93. A
  94. A
  95. D
  96. B
  97. C
  98. D
  99. B
  100. A
  101. A
  102. B
  103. D
  104. C
  105. D
  106. C
  107. D
  108. A
  109. B
  110. D
  111. A
  112. B
  113. B
  114. C
  115. C
  116. A
  117. D
  118. D
  119. A
  120. D
  121. C
  122. plasma
  123. tissue fluid; interstitial fluid

124A.  plasma

124B.  filtration

  1. filtration
  2. lymph

127A.  plasma

127B.  tissue fluid

127C.  lymph

  1. left subclavian
  2. thoracic duct
  3. right subclavian
  4. right lymphatic duct
  5. lower body
  6. cisterna chyli
  7. thoracic duct
  8. right lymphatic duct
  9. valves
  10. smooth muscle
  11. skeletal muscle pump
  12. respiratory pump
  13. activation
  14. lymphatic tissue; spleen; lymph nodes

142A.  lymph vessels

142B.  lymph

143A.  phagocytize pathogens

143B.  antibodies

144A.  macrophages

144B.  plasma cells

  1. axillary
  2. inguinal
  3. cervical

148A.  neck

148B.  head

149A.  epithelium

149B.  mucous membranes

  1. natural openings

151A.  left

151B.  stomach

152A.  macrophages

152B.  plasma cells

  1. lymph node

154A.  liver

154B.  lymph nodes

155A.  red blood cells

155B.  platelets

156A.  bilirubin

156B.  hemoglobin

157A.  bilirubin

157B.  liver

  1. RBCs
  2. thymus gland
  3. T cells

161A.  thyroid gland

161B.  sternum

  1. decreases
  2. self
  3. antibodies

165A.  viruses

165B.  fungi; protozoa; tumor cells

  1. adaptive
  2. innate
  3. adaptive
  4. innate
  5. adaptive
  6. innate
  7. stratum corneum; epidermis
  8. epidermis
  9. Langerhans cells
  10. subcutaneous tissue
  11. lysozyme

177A.  HCl

177B.  stomach

  1. ciliated epithelium

179A.  macrophages

179B.  Langerhans cells

180A.  macrophages

180B.  neutrophils

  1. natural killer cells

182A.  basophils

182B.  mast cells

183A.  histamine

183B.  leukotrienes

  1. vasodilation
  2. interferon
  3. viruses
  4. complement

188A.  pathogens

188B.  tissue repair

189A.  swelling

189B.  heat

190A.  phagocytosis

190B.  histamine

191A.  damage of any kind

191B.  innate

192A.  macrophages

192B.  helper T cells

  1. recognize foreign antigens
  2. macrophages
  3. cell-mediated immunity
  4. opsonization

197A.  opsonization

197B.  phagocytosis

  1. cytotoxic
  2. chemicals
  3. memory
  4. helper
  5. helper
  6. cell-mediated

204A.  red bone marrow

204B.  thymus

  1. red bone marrow
  2. plasma cells

207A.  B cells

207B.  antibodies

  1. memory
  2. antigen–antibody complex
  3. lysis; rupturing them

211A.  macrophages

211B.  phagocytosis

  1. agglutination

213A.  protein

213B.  Y

  1. neutralization
  2. shape

216A.  phagocytized

216B.  macrophage

217A.  slow

217B.  small

218A.  antibodies

218B.  memory cells

  1. too slowly

220A.  rapid

220B.  large

221A.  killed pathogen

221B.  part of a pathogen; weakened pathogen; toxoid

222A.  antibodies

222B.  memory cells

  1. first exposure
  2. genetic

225A.  naturally

225B.  active

226A.  artificially

226B.  active

227A.  naturally

227B.  passive

228A.  artificially

228B.  passive

  1. recovers from a disease
  2. receives a vaccine
  3. placental transmission of antibodies; breast milk
  4. an injection of gamma globulins
  5. someone else
  6. the person’s own plasma cells

235A.  active

235B.  passive

 

 

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