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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 10th Edition Marieb Test Bank

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 10th Edition Marieb Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321732026 ISBN-13: 978-0321732026

 

 

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 10th Edition Marieb Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321732026 ISBN-13: 978-0321732026

 

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 10e (Marieb)

Chapter 15   The Urinary System

 

15.1   Short Answer

 

 

Figure 15.1

 

Using Figure 15.1, identify the following:

1) The ureter is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 515

 

2) The renal pyramid is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 515

 

3) The fibrous capsule is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  F

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 515

 

4) The renal column is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 515

Figure 15.2

 

Using Figure 15.2, identify the following:

5) The loop of Henle is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  J

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 516

 

6) The collecting duct is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  K

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 516

 

7) The glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule) is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 516

 

 

8) The proximal convoluted tubule is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  M

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 516

9) The afferent arteriole is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 516

 

10) The arcuate vein is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  G

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 516

 

11) The glomerulus is indicated by letter __________.

Answer:  O

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 516

 

Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:

12) The medial indentation where the ureter, blood vessels, and nerves are connected to the kidney is called the __________.

Answer:  renal hilum

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 514

 

13) There are three regions of the kidney; the outermost region is known as the __________.

Answer:  renal cortex

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 514

 

14) Renal pyramids are separated by extensions of cortex-like tissue called the __________.

Answer:  renal columns

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

15) The blood vessel carrying blood from the aorta into the kidney is the __________.

Answer:  renal artery

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 514

 

16) The functional unit of the kidney that filters blood and forms urine is the __________.

Answer:  nephron

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

17) The blood vessel directly feeding the glomerulus with blood from the cortical radiate artery is the __________.

Answer:  afferent arteriole

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 517

 

18) The three processes occurring in the nephron that lead to the formation of urine are __________.

Answer:  glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517-519

 

19) The process that removes ions such as potassium and hydrogen from the blood and places them into the nephron for removal from the body as urine is known as __________.

Answer:  tubular secretion

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 519

20) Urine pH is usually around a pH of __________.

Answer:  6

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 521

 

21) Specific gravity is the term used to compare how much heavier urine is than __________.

Answer:  distilled water

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 521

 

22) The tubes connecting the kidney to the bladder are the __________.

Answer:  ureters

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 522

 

23) The smooth triangular region of the bladder base that is outlined by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra is called the __________.

Answer:  trigone

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 523

 

24) Urinary bladder inflammation often caused by bacterial infection is called __________.

Answer:  cystitis

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 524

 

25) The involuntary sphincter that keeps the urethra closed when urine is not being passed is called the __________.

Answer:  internal urethral sphincter

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 524

 

26) The inability to voluntarily control the external urethral sphincter is known as __________.

Answer:  incontinence

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 524

 

27) The process of emptying the bladder is known as voiding or __________.

Answer:  micturition

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 524

 

28) About two-thirds of body fluid is found within living cells; this fluid is called the __________.

Answer:  intracellular fluid or ICF

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 525

 

29) Sodium ion content of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is largely regulated by an adrenal cortex hormone called __________.

Answer:  aldosterone

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 528

30) Highly sensitive cells within the hypothalamus that react to changes in blood composition and cause the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) when appropriate are called __________.

Answer:  osmoreceptors

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 526

31) The abnormal condition that results from the lack of ADH release, causing huge amounts of very dilute urine to be voided, is called __________.

Answer:  diabetes insipidus

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 528

 

32) The primary urinary symptom of Addison’s disease (hypoaldosteronism) is called __________.

Answer:  polyuria

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 530

 

33) Arterial blood pH between 7.35 and 7.0 is called __________.

Answer:  physiological acidosis

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 530

 

34) A strong acid will dissociate and liberate more __________ ions in water than a weak acid.

Answer:  hydrogen or

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 530

 

35) The kidneys can help maintain a rising blood pH by excreting __________ ions and reabsorbing __________ ions by the tubule cells.

Answer:  bicarbonate; hydrogen

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 532

 

36) The need to urinate frequently at night, which plagues over 50% of the elderly, is called __________.

Answer:  nocturia

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 535

 

37) Untreated streptococcal infections in childhood that can lead to the kidney infection characterized by antigen-antibody complexes clogging the glomerular filters is known as __________.

Answer:  glomerulonephritis

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 535

 

38) A feeling that it is necessary to void, which is experienced more regularly in the elderly, is known as __________.

Answer:  urgency

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 535

 

 

15.2   Multiple Choice

 

1) Which one of the following is NOT one of the functions of the kidneys:

  1. A) manufacture urine
  2. B) convert vitamin D from its inactive to its active form
  3. C) dispose of metabolic waste products
  4. D) produce hormones that assist in digestion
  5. E) regulate blood volume

Answer:  D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 512

2) Which organ filters blood, regulates blood volume and chemical makeup:

  1. A) kidney
  2. B) ureter
  3. C) liver
  4. D) urinary bladder
  5. E) urethra

Answer:  A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 512

 

3) Which one of the following terms describes the location of the kidneys:

  1. A) suprarenal
  2. B) retroperineal
  3. C) adrenal
  4. D) intraperitoneal
  5. E) retroperitoneal

Answer:  E

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 513

 

4) The kidneys are aided in the excretion of fluids by the:

  1. A) lungs
  2. B) skin
  3. C) hair
  4. D) lungs and skin
  5. E) skin and hair

Answer:  D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 512

 

5) The triangular regions of the kidneys that are striped in appearance and separated by the renal columns are the:

  1. A) renal cortex
  2. B) renal medulla
  3. C) renal pyramids
  4. D) renal pelvis
  5. E) calyces

Answer:  C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 514

 

6) As venous blood is drained from the kidney, which path does it follow:

  1. A) cortical radiate veins, arcuate veins, interlobar veins, renal vein
  2. B) renal vein, interlobar veins, segmental veins, arcuate veins
  3. C) arcuate veins, cortical radiate veins, interlobar veins, renal vein
  4. D) renal vein, segmental veins, interlobar veins, arcuate veins, cortical radiate veins
  5. E) cortical radiate veins, arcuate veins, interlobar veins, segmental veins, renal vein

Answer:  A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 514

7) As filtrate flows through the proximal convoluted tubule, where does it travel next:

  1. A) collecting duct
  2. B) glomerulus
  3. C) loop of Henle
  4. D) glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
  5. E) distal convoluted tubule

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517

 

8) The capillary bed surrounding the renal tubule is the:

  1. A) afferent arteriole
  2. B) segmental arteries
  3. C) peritubular capillaries
  4. D) cortical radiate arteries
  5. E) glomerular capillaries

Answer:  C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 517

 

9) Starting from the glomerular capsule, the correct order of the renal tubule regions is:

  1. A) proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle
  2. B) distal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, proximal convoluted tubule
  3. C) loop of Henle, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule
  4. D) proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
  5. E) distal convoluted tubule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle

Answer:  D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 517

 

10) The portion of the renal tubule closest to the glomerulus is the:

  1. A) collecting duct
  2. B) proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
  3. C) glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
  4. D) distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
  5. E) loop of Henle

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517

 

 

11) Most nephrons are located within the renal:

  1. A) pelvis
  2. B) calyces
  3. C) medulla
  4. D) pyramids
  5. E) cortex

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517

12) The percentage of filtrate eventually reabsorbed into the bloodstream is closest to:

  1. A) 10%
  2. B) 25%
  3. C) 50%
  4. D) 80%
  5. E) 99%

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517

 

13) Of the capillary beds associated with each nephron, the one that is both fed and drained by arterioles is the:

  1. A) peritubular capillaries
  2. B) pyramidal capillaries
  3. C) glomerulus
  4. D) Henle capillaries
  5. E) Bowman’s capillaries

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 517

 

14) Filtrate typically does NOT contain:

  1. A) water
  2. B) blood proteins
  3. C) glucose
  4. D) ions
  5. E) amino acids

Answer:  B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 517

 

15) The nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma without blood proteins is called:

  1. A) absorption
  2. B) secretion
  3. C) filtration
  4. D) tubular reabsorption
  5. E) glomerular reabsorption

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517

 

 

16) Uric acid, a nitrogenous waste product, results from the metabolism of:

  1. A) creatinine
  2. B) nucleic acids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) amino acids
  5. E) salt

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 518

17) Which one of the following is NOT a substance typically reabsorbed by the tubules under normal healthy conditions:

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) urea
  3. C) amino acids
  4. D) sodium
  5. E) water

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 518

 

18) Kidney inflammation is called:

  1. A) anuria
  2. B) pyelonephritis
  3. C) glucosuria
  4. D) hydronephrosis
  5. E) incontinence

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 521

 

19) Which one of the following substances is normally found in urine:

  1. A) blood proteins
  2. B) red blood cells
  3. C) hemoglobin
  4. D) white blood cells
  5. E) creatinine

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 521

 

20) The presence of pus in urine is called:

  1. A) glycosuria
  2. B) pyuria
  3. C) bilirubinuria
  4. D) hematuria
  5. E) proteinuria

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 522

 

 

21) Dilute urine would have a specific gravity closest to:

  1. A) 0.005
  2. B) 1.001
  3. C) 1.010
  4. D) 1.020
  5. E) 1.030

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 521

22) The tube connecting the renal hilum of the kidney to the bladder is the:

  1. A) urethra
  2. B) proximal convoluted tubule
  3. C) distal convoluted tubule
  4. D) ureter
  5. E) collecting duct

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

23) Smooth muscle in the walls of the urine move urine along to the bladder by:

  1. A) peristalsis
  2. B) segmentation
  3. C) defecation
  4. D) micturition
  5. E) regurgitation

Answer:  A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 522

 

24) The bladder is able to expand as urine accumulates within it due to the presence of:

  1. A) simple squamous epithelium
  2. B) transitional epithelium
  3. C) stratified squamous epithelium
  4. D) pseudostratified epithelium
  5. E) sphincters

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 523

 

25) Urine is transported from the bladder to the outside of the body by the:

  1. A) ureter
  2. B) trigone
  3. C) prostate gland
  4. D) urethra
  5. E) collecting duct

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 524

 

 

26) The average adult bladder is moderately full with __________ of urine within it.

  1. A) 100 mL
  2. B) 500 mL
  3. C) 1 liter
  4. D) 2 liters
  5. E) 1 gallon

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 524

27) The voluntarily controlled sphincter fashioned by skeletal muscle at the point where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor is called the:

  1. A) internal urethral sphincter
  2. B) internal anal sphincter
  3. C) external urethral sphincter
  4. D) trigone
  5. E) detrusor sphincter

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 524

 

28) The process of emptying the bladder is referred to as voiding or:

  1. A) tubular secretion
  2. B) filtration
  3. C) tubular reabsorption
  4. D) incontinence
  5. E) micturition

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 524

 

29) In males, the urethra is part of both the urinary system and:

  1. A) endocrine system
  2. B) digestive system
  3. C) immune system
  4. D) respiratory system
  5. E) reproductive system

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 524

 

30) Enlargement of the prostate that surrounds the neck of the bladder in adult men is called __________ , which may cause voiding difficulty.

  1. A) atrophy
  2. B) dystrophy
  3. C) hyperplasia
  4. D) hypoplasia
  5. E) eutrophy

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 525

 

 

31) In one 24-hour period, the kidneys of an average-sized healthy adult filter approximately __________ through their glomeruli into the tubules.

  1. A) 10-15 liters of blood plasma
  2. B) 50-75 liters of blood plasma
  3. C) 100-125 liters of blood plasma
  4. D) 150-180 liters of blood plasma
  5. E) 200-240 liters of blood plasma

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 521

32) Who has the highest percentage of water in the body:

  1. A) 30 year old female, overweight
  2. B) 90 year old male, normal weight
  3. C) 9 month old baby
  4. D) 30 year old male, muscular build
  5. E) 80 year old female, normal weight

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 525

 

33) Which one of the following is NOT one of the major roles of the kidneys in normal healthy adults:

  1. A) excretion of nitrogen-containing wastes
  2. B) maintenance of water balance of the blood
  3. C) maintenance of electrolyte balance of the blood
  4. D) conversion of ammonia to bicarbonate ion
  5. E) ensuring proper blood pH

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 525

 

34) Which of the following is the major stimulus for the thirst mechanism:

  1. A) hunger
  2. B) decreased urination
  3. C) increased osmolarity of blood plasma
  4. D) defecation
  5. E) increased saliva production

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 527

 

35) Extracellular fluid is found everywhere in the body EXCEPT:

  1. A) within living cells
  2. B) blood plasma
  3. C) interstitial fluid
  4. D) cerebrospinal fluid
  5. E) humors of the eye and lymph

Answer:  A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 525

 

 

36) The main hormone that acts on the kidneys to regulate sodium ion concentration of the extracellullar fluid (ECF) is:

  1. A) ADH
  2. B) renin
  3. C) secretin
  4. D) aldosterone
  5. E) epinephrine

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 528

37) Antidiuretic hormone prevents excessive water loss by promoting water reabsorption in the:

  1. A) glomerulus
  2. B) proximal convoluted tubule
  3. C) distal convoluted tubule
  4. D) collecting duct
  5. E) bladder

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 528

 

38) A simple rule concerning water and electrolyte regulation is:

  1. A) salt passively follows water
  2. B) salt actively follows water
  3. C) potassium passively follows sodium
  4. D) water passively follows salt
  5. E) water actively follows salt

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 528

 

39) The results of the renin-angiotensin mechanism mediated by the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the renal tubules include all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. A) vasoconstriction
  2. B) increased peripheral resistance
  3. C) blood volume increase
  4. D) blood pressure increase
  5. E) suppression of aldosterone

Answer:  E

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 528

 

40) A blood pH of 7.4 is considered:

  1. A) physiological acidosis
  2. B) neutral
  3. C) normal
  4. D) alkosis
  5. E) acidosis

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 530

 

41) The chemical buffer system that includes carbonic acid and its salt, which ties up the H+ released by strong acids, is called the:

  1. A) phosphate buffer system
  2. B) protein buffer system
  3. C) ionic buffer system
  4. D) bicarbonate buffer system
  5. E) carbonic buffer system

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 531

42) Which of these chemicals dissociates completely and liberates all the hydrogen ions when dissolved in water:

  1. A) strong acids
  2. B) weak acids
  3. C) neutral substances
  4. D) weak bases
  5. E) strong bases

Answer:  A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 530

 

43) When carbon dioxide enters the blood from tissue cells, it is converted to __________ for transport within blood plasma.

  1. A) sodium hydroxide
  2. B) ammonia
  3. C) carbonic anhydrase
  4. D) bicarbonate ion
  5. E) sodium bicarbonate

Answer:  D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 531

 

44) When blood pH begins to rise, the respiratory control centers in the brain are:

  1. A) accelerated
  2. B) depressed
  3. C) not effected
  4. D) shut off
  5. E) controlled by the kidneys

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 532

 

45) How does the respiratory system respond to blood that has become acidic:

  1. A) secrete more hydrogen ions
  2. B) breathing rate increases
  3. C) reabsorb more bicarbonate ions
  4. D) breathing rate decreases
  5. E) breathing stops

Answer:  B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 532

46) The need to get up during the night to urinate is called:

  1. A) hypospadias
  2. B) frequency
  3. C) nocturia
  4. D) urgency
  5. E) glomerulonephritis

Answer:  C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 535

47) The degenerative condition in which blisterlike sacs (cysts) containing urine form on the kidneys and obstruct urine drainage is called:

  1. A) cystitis
  2. B) dysuria
  3. C) hypospadias
  4. D) epispadias
  5. E) polycystic kidney

Answer:  E

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 532, 535

 

48) Hypospadias is a condition of male children that involves:

  1. A) atrophied prostate
  2. B) opening of the urethra on the ventral surface of the penis
  3. C) cysts on the kidneys
  4. D) closing of the foreskin over the end of the penis
  5. E) inflammation of the glomerulus

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 535

 

49) The average output of urine for a normal healthy adult is:

  1. A) 500 mL/day
  2. B) 1000 mL/day
  3. C) 1500 mL/day
  4. D) 2000 mL/day
  5. E) 2500 mL/day

Answer:  C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 535

 

50) Control of the voluntary urethral sphincter in normal children is related to:

  1. A) intelligence
  2. B) nervous system development
  3. C) enzymatic regulation
  4. D) hormone regulation
  5. E) muscular development

Answer:  B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 535

 

 

51) From childhood through late middle age, one of the most common bacteria to infect and inflame the urinary tract and cause urethritis and cystitis is:

  1. A) streptococcus
  2. B) staphylococcus
  3. C) Escherichia coli
  4. D) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  5. E) Clostridium botulinum

Answer:  C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 535

15.3   True/False

 

1) The kidneys are situated in a retroperitoneal position and found between the T12 and L3 vertebrae.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 513

 

2) The tiny filtering structures of the kidneys are called nephrons.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 514

 

3) The lumen surfaces of the tubule cells within the proximal convoluted tubule are covered with microvilli.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517

 

4) The region of the renal tubule closest to the glomerular capsule is the distal convoluted tubule.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517

 

5) The peritubular capillary bed arises from the afferent arteriole.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 517

 

6) Blood proteins and blood cells are too large to pass through the filtration membrane and should not be found in filtrate.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517

 

7) Tubular reabsorption begins in the glomerulus.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 518

 

8) Most reabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 519

 

9) The pigment that gives urine its characteristic yellow color is urochrome.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 521

 

10) A diet rich in proteins such as eggs, cheese, and whole-wheat products produces urine with an alkaline pH.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 521

 

11) Tubular secretion, which seems to be important for removal of substances not already in the filtrate, is essentially reabsorption in reverse.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 519

12) Urine moves down the ureters into the bladder due to gravitational pull alone.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 522

 

13) The internal urethral sphincter is involuntary.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 524

 

14) The urethra, which carries urine exiting the bladder by peristalsis, is typically shorter in females than in males.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 524

 

15) The involuntary internal urethral sphincter is composed of skeletal muscle.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 524

 

16) The fluid stored inside cells is referred to as extracellular fluid (ECF).

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 525

 

17) Excess blood plasma in the bloodstream initiates the thirst mechanism to restore fluid balance.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 526

 

18) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes increased water loss through the urine.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 528

 

19) The most important trigger for aldosterone release is the renin-angiotensin mechanism, mediated by the renal tubules.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 528

20) A person with arterial blood pH above 7.45 is said to have acidosis.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 530

 

21) Carbon dioxide is most commonly transported as the bicarbonate ion in the blood.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 531

 

22) When blood pH becomes too acidic, the tubule cells of the kidneys excrete bicarbonate ions and retain hydrogen ions.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 532

 

23) Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are primarily infections of the reproductive tracts but may also cause urinary tract infections.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 535

24) Incontinence is often the final outcome of the urinary system during the aging process.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 535

 

 

15.4   Matching

 

Identify the process that occurs in the kidney.

 

  1. A) glomerular filtration
  2. B) tubular reabsorption
  3. C) tubular secretion

 

1) Fluid passes from the blood into the glomerular capsule of the nephron

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517

 

2) Needed substances are moved from the filtrate back into the blood

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 518

 

3) Aldosterone promotes sodium and thus water to move from the filtrate through the tubule cells into the blood

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 518, 528

 

4) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) promotes the movement of water from the filtrate back into the blood of the peritubular capillaries

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 518, 528

 

5) Substances are moved from the blood of the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 519

 

6) Urine is produced during this process

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 521

 

Answers: 1) A 2) B 3) B 4) B 5) C 6) C

 

Identify the urinary structure with its associated description:

 

  1. A) renal cortex
  2. B) calyces
  3. C) renal pyramids
  4. D) renal vein
  5. E) renal artery
  6. F) pyramids
  7. G) renal pelvis
  8. H) renal medulla
  9. I) renal columns

 

7) Cup-shaped extensions of the pelvis

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

8) Outer, lighter region of the kidney

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

9) Vessels supplying each kidney with blood to be filtered

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

10) Cortex-like extensions that separate the pyramids

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

11) Darker, reddish-brown internal area of the kidney

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

12) Triangular regions with a striped appearance

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

13) Flat, basinlike cavity medial to the hilus of the kidney

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514

 

Answers: 7) B 8) A 9) E 10) I 11) H 12) C 13) G

 

Identify these organs of the urinary system with their associated descriptions:

 

  1. A) bladder
  2. B) ureter
  3. C) urethra

 

14) Tube that drains urine from the kidney to the bladder

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 514, 522

 

15) Muscular sac suitable for temporary urine storage

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 523

 

16) Transports urine and sperm in males

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 524

 

17) In males, this organ is surrounded by the prostate

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 523

 

18) Contains an area called the trigone formed by the openings of the ureters and urethra

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 523

 

19) Inflammation of this organ is called cystitis

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 524

 

Answers: 14) B 15) A 16) C 17) A 18) A 19) A

 

15.5   Essay

 

1) Identify and describe the three major processes involved in urine formation.

Answer:  Glomerular filtration is a nonselective, passive process with the glomerulus acting as the filter. The filtrate formed is essentially blood plasma without blood proteins, which are too large to pass through the filtration membrane into the renal tubule. Tubular reabsorption is the process by which the body reclaims substances within the filtrate that it wants to keep. Most reabsorption is an active process using membrane carriers. Substances that are typically reabsorbed include amino acids, glucose, and ions. Most reabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubules. Tubular secretion is the opposite process. With secretion, substances such as hydrogen ions, potassium ions, and creatinine are removed from the peritubular capillaries into the tubules to be eliminated in urine.

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 517-519

 

2) Describe the normal characteristics of freshly-voided urine in a healthy adult.

Answer:  Urine is a pale, straw-colored liquid that progressively becomes a darker yellow color as it becomes more concentrated. The yellow color is a result of the presence of urochrome pigment, a by-product of hemoglobin breakdown. Urine is more dense than water with a specific gravity of 1.001 to l.035. Urine is sterile and slightly aromatic and has an acidic pH of around 6. Urine normally contains sodium and potassium ions, urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and bicarbonate ions, as well as other ions the body needs to dispose of.

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 521

 

3) Trace the pathway of a red blood cell through the kidney from the renal artery to the renal vein.

Answer:  Red blood cells are not filtered by the glomerulus since they are too large to pass through the filtration membrane. Instead, red blood cells travel through the renal artery, segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, cortical radiate artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, and on to the efferent arteriole. Then, the red blood cell continues its travels to the peritubular capillaries and exits the kidney via the cortical radiate vein, arcuate vein, interlobar vein, and the renal vein.

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 514, 515

 

4) Contrast the roles of the ureters and urethra in the urinary system.

Answer:  The ureters are tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder. Each ureter transports urine to the bladder. Both gravity and peristalsis aid in the movement of urine.

The urethra is a tube that transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. The passage of urine from the bladder into the urethra is controlled by two sphincters: the internal, involuntary sphincter and the external, voluntary sphincter.

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 522-524

 

5) Explain the renin-angiotensin mechanism.

Answer:  The renin-angiotensin mechanism is the most important trigger for the release of aldosterone. It is mediated by the juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus of the renal tubules. The JG apparatus consists of modified smooth muscle cells that are stimulated by low blood pressure within the afferent arteriole or changes in solute content of the filtrate. The JG cells respond to these changes by releasing renin into the blood. Renin catalyzes reactions that lead to angiotensin II production, which then acts directly on the blood vessels to cause vasoconstriction as well as aldosterone release. Aldosterone then causes the reabsorption of sodium and water, leading to increased blood volume and blood pressure.

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 528-530

 

6) Explain how antidiuretic hormone (ADH) compensates for blood that contains too many solutes. 

Answer:  Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus react to changes in blood composition, such as less water and too many solutes. The posterior pituitary is alerted to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which travels through the blood to its target organ, the kidney. In the kidney, the collecting ducts respond to ADH by reabsorbing more water. As a result, more water returns to the blood while small amounts of concentrated urine are formed. ADH is released and additional water is reabsorbed from the filtrate until blood solute concentration returns to normal.

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 528

 

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