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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 11th Edition Marieb Test Bank

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 11th Edition Marieb Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0321919009
  • ISBN-13:978-0321919007

 

 

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 11th Edition Marieb Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0321919009
  • ISBN-13:978-0321919007

 

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e,  (Marieb)

Chapter 10   Blood

 

10.1   Multiple Choice Part I Questions

 

 

Using Figure 10.1, identify the following:

 

1) The neutrophil is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label A
  2. B) Label B
  3. C) Label C
  4. D) Label D

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 363, 364

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

2) The eosinophil is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label A
  2. B) Label B
  3. C) Label C
  4. D) Label D

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 363

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

3) The monocyte is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label A
  2. B) Label B
  3. C) Label C
  4. D) Label D

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 363

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

4) The lymphocyte is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label A
  2. B) Label B
  3. C) Label C
  4. D) Label D

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 363

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

5) The granulocytes are indicated by ________ and ________.

  1. A) Label A; Label C
  2. B) Label B; Label A
  3. C) Label C; Label D
  4. D) Label D; Label B

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 363

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

6) The most common type of leukocyte is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label A
  2. B) Label B
  3. C) Label C
  4. D) Label D

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 363, 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

7) The type of leukocyte that fights allergies and parasitic worms is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label A
  2. B) Label B
  3. C) Label C
  4. D) Label D

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 363, 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

8) Normal blood pH falls in a range between ________ to ________.

  1. A) 7.1; 7.2
  2. B) 7.35; 7.45
  3. C) 7.6; 7.75
  4. D) 7.85; 8.05

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 362

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

9) An important plasma protein that contributes to the osmotic pressure of blood is ________.

  1. A) thyroglobulin
  2. B) fibrin
  3. C) albumin
  4. D) glucose

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 362

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

10) The percentage of erythrocytes in blood is known as the ________.

  1. A) hematocrit
  2. B) buffy coat
  3. C) hemoglobin
  4. D) plasma

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 362

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

11) Each hemoglobin molecule is able to transport ________ molecules of oxygen.

  1. A) 1 (one)
  2. B) 2 ( two)
  3. C) 3 (three)
  4. D) 4 (four)

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 365

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

12) A decrease in the oxygen-carrying ability of the blood, for any reason, is a condition known as ________.

  1. A) polycythemia
  2. B) leukemia
  3. C) anemia
  4. D) leukocytosis

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 365

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

13) Life at a high altitude can lead to a red blood cell disorder known as ________.

  1. A) anemia
  2. B) polycythemia
  3. C) leukocytosis
  4. D) leukemia

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 365-366

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

14) A total white blood cell count above 11,000 cells/mm3 is a condition known as ________.

  1. A) leukopenia
  2. B) leukocytosis
  3. C) polycythemia
  4. D) anemia

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 366

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

15) The process by which white blood cells travel through the wall of blood vessels is termed ________.

  1. A) diffusion
  2. B) diapedesis
  3. C) filtration
  4. D) chemotaxis

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 366

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

16) Abnormally low levels of white blood cells causes a condition known as ________.

  1. A) leukocytosis
  2. B) anemia
  3. C) thrombocytopenia
  4. D) leukopenia

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

17) White blood cells containing granules and lobed nuclei are classified as ________.

  1. A) agranulocytes
  2. B) granulocytes
  3. C) thrombocytes
  4. D) neutrophils

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

18) Platelets are fragments of a multinucleate cell known as a ________.

  1. A) megakaryocyte
  2. B) erythrocyte
  3. C) reticulocyte
  4. D) monocyte

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

19) The process by which bleeding is stopped is called ________.

  1. A) hematopoiesis
  2. B) erythropoiesis
  3. C) homeostasis
  4. D) hemostasis

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

20) The rate of erythrocyte production is controlled by a hormone known as ________.

  1. A) erythropoietin
  2. B) insulin
  3. C) growth hormone
  4. D) aldosterone

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 369

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

21) During coagulation, long, hairlike molecules known as ________ form the basis for a clot.

  1. A) thrombin
  2. B) prothrombin
  3. C) fibrin
  4. D) fibrinogen

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 371-372

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

22) Hereditary bleeding disorders that result from lack of clotting factors are referred to as ________.

  1. A) petechiae
  2. B) hemophilia
  3. C) aplastic anemia
  4. D) thrombocytopneia

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 372

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

23) Substances that the body recognizes as foreign are called ________.

  1. A) antigens
  2. B) antibodies
  3. C) formed elements
  4. D) megakaryocytes

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 373

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

24) When antibodies bind to antigens on foreign blood types, clumping or ________ occurs.

  1. A) coagulation
  2. B) hematopoiesis
  3. C) agglutination
  4. D) alkalosis

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 373

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

25) The ABO blood groups are based on two antigens: antigen ________ and antigen ________.

  1. A) A; B
  2. B) A; O
  3. C) AB; O
  4. D) B; O

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

26) The blood type that contains both antigens A and B is ________.

  1. A) AB
  2. B) A
  3. C) B
  4. D) O

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 375-376

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

27) A person with type B blood can receive blood from blood type(s) ________.

  1. A) AB, B
  2. B) B, O
  3. C) A, B, AB, O
  4. D) B, O, AB

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 375-376

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

28) If you carry the Rh antigen, you are referred to as Rh ________.

  1. A) positive
  2. B) sensitive
  3. C) negative
  4. D) compatible

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

29) The condition in which maternal antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the baby’s RBCs is called ________.

  1. A) hemophilia
  2. B) thrombus
  3. C) hemolytic disease of the newborn
  4. D) physiologic jaundice

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 376

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

30) The condition in which fetal RBCs are destroyed faster than the infant liver can rid the body of the breakdown products of hemoglobin is called ________.

  1. A) hemolytic disease of the newborn
  2. B) pernicious anemia
  3. C) sickle cell trait
  4. D) physiologic jaundice

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 377

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

10.2   Multiple Choice Part II Questions

 

1) The matrix of blood is called ________.

  1. A) buffy coat
  2. B) plasma
  3. C) erythrocytes
  4. D) lymphocytes
  5. E) formed elements

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 362

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

2) In a centrifuged blood sample, the buffy coat situated between the formed elements and the plasma contains ________.

  1. A) leukocytes and erythrocytes
  2. B) platelets and erythrocytes
  3. C) leukocytes and platelets
  4. D) eythrocytes only
  5. E) leukocytes only

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 362

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

3) Blood is ________.

  1. A) acidic
  2. B) cooler than body temperature
  3. C) sweet tasting
  4. D) composed mostly of white blood cells and platelets
  5. E) slightly alkaline

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 362

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

4) The hematocrit is the percentage of ________.

  1. A) plasma in blood
  2. B) erythrocytes in blood
  3. C) leukocytes in blood
  4. D) formed elements in blood
  5. E) platelets in blood

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 362

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

5) Which formed element is the most abundant in blood?

  1. A) erythrocyte
  2. B) eosinophil
  3. C) platelet
  4. D) basophil
  5. E) lymphocyte

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 363, 364

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

6) Erythrocytes ________.

  1. A) possess lobed nuclei and cytoplasmic granules
  2. B) lack a nucleus and most organelles
  3. C) are the least common of all formed elements
  4. D) travel by diapedesis through the walls of vessels
  5. E) clot blood

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 364

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

7) Normal whole blood contains ________ g of hemoglobin per 100 mL.

  1. A) 4-8
  2. B) 12-18
  3. C) 15-20
  4. D) 30-35
  5. E) 42-48

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 365

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

8) Which of the following red blood cell disorders may result from life at a higher altitude?

  1. A) aplastic anemia
  2. B) sickle cell anemia
  3. C) pernicious anemia
  4. D) polycythemia
  5. E) hemolytic anemia

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 365-366

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

9) White blood cells differ from red blood cells because only they contain ________.

  1. A) a biconcave shape
  2. B) a nucleus and most organelles
  3. C) the ability to transport both oxygen and carbon dioxide
  4. D) the iron-containing molecule called hemoglobin
  5. E) cytoplasm

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 366

Bloom’s:  4) Analysis

 

10) Jordan works in a hematology lab and received a blood report showing 22,000 white blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood for a patient. He determines this patient has ________.

  1. A) a normal blood count
  2. B) polycythemia
  3. C) anemia
  4. D) leukocytosis
  5. E) leukopenia

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 366

Bloom’s:  4) Analysis

 

11) The two major groups of white blood cells are ________.

  1. A) leukocytes and erythrocytes
  2. B) platelets and megakaryocytes
  3. C) neutrophils and basophils
  4. D) granulocytes and agranulocytes
  5. E) granulocytes and leukocytes

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

12) Which of the following cells are classified as granulocytes?

  1. A) neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
  2. B) lymphocytes and monocytes
  3. C) eosinophils and monocytes
  4. D) basophils and lymphocytes
  5. E) neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

13) Which type of granulocyte produces antibodies?

  1. A) eosinophils
  2. B) basophils
  3. C) neutrophils
  4. D) lymphocytes
  5. E) monocytes

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 368

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

14) The most numerous of the white blood cells are the ________.

  1. A) lymphocytes
  2. B) neutrophils
  3. C) eosinophils
  4. D) monocytes
  5. E) basophils

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

15) Which type of leukocyte contains heparin, an anticoagulant?

  1. A) neutrophil
  2. B) monocyte
  3. C) lymphocyte
  4. D) basophil
  5. E) eosinophil

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 368

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

16) Place these leukocytes in order from the most common to the least common:

1) basophil

2) eosinophil

3) lymphocyte

4) monocyte

5) neutrophil

  1. A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  2. B) 3, 4, 5, 1, 2
  3. C) 5, 3, 2, 4, 1
  4. D) 5, 2, 3, 1, 4
  5. E) 5, 3, 4, 2, 1

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  4) Analysis

 

17) Platelets are fragments of multinucleate cells called ________.

  1. A) erythrocytes
  2. B) eosinophils
  3. C) basophils
  4. D) megakaryocytes
  5. E) macrophages

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

18) Where does hematopoiesis produce new red blood cells?

  1. A) yellow bone marrow
  2. B) articular cartilage
  3. C) red bone marrow
  4. D) epiphyseal line
  5. E) synovial membrane

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 369

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

19) Low levels of oxygen in the blood stimulate the release of erythropoietin by the ________.

  1. A) stomach
  2. B) pancreas
  3. C) kidneys
  4. D) hypothalamus
  5. E) spleen

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 370

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

20) The average functional lifespan of an RBC is ________.

  1. A) 20-30 days
  2. B) 50-75 days
  3. C) 100-120 days
  4. D) one year
  5. E) the body’s lifetime

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 369

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

21) An immature RBC which contains some endoplasmic reticulum is called a(n) ________.

  1. A) megakaryocyte
  2. B) hemocytoblast
  3. C) reticulocyte
  4. D) agranulocyte
  5. E) granulocyte

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 369

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

22) What enzyme joins soluble fibrinogen proteins into long molecules of fibrin during coagulation?

  1. A) PF3
  2. B) thrombin
  3. C) tissue factor
  4. D) prothrombin
  5. E) calcium

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

23) The application of a sterile gauze to a cut aids with ________.

  1. A) platelet plug formation
  2. B) the release of tissue factor
  3. C) the formation of fibrin
  4. D) coagulation
  5. E) vascular spasms

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 372

Bloom’s:  4) Analysis

 

24) The series of reactions that stop blood flow following a cut is called ________.

  1. A) homeostasis
  2. B) coagulation
  3. C) hemostasis
  4. D) erythropoiesis
  5. E) agglutination

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

25) Which one of the following represents the proper sequence of hemostasis?

  1. A) platelet plug formation, coagulation, vascular spasm
  2. B) vascular spasm, coagulation, platelet plug formation
  3. C) coagulation, vascular spasm, platelet plug formation
  4. D) vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation
  5. E) coagulation, platelet plug formation, vascular spasm

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  3) Application

 

26) Why do you think Mrs. Gonzalez was prescribed heparin, an anticoagulant?

  1. A) to enhance hematopoiesis
  2. B) to inhibit release of erythopoietin
  3. C) to enhance the formation of clots
  4. D) to increase vascular spasms
  5. E) to inhibit the formation of clots

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 372

Bloom’s:  4) Analysis

27) Blood normally clots in approximately ________.

  1. A) 1 minute
  2. B) 3 to 6 minutes
  3. C) 5 to 10 minutes
  4. D) 15 minutes
  5. E) 30 minutes

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 372

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

28) The formation of an insoluble clot during hemostasis is termed ________.

  1. A) agglutination
  2. B) coagulation
  3. C) hematopoiesis
  4. D) positive chemotaxis
  5. E) diapedesis

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

29) Which of the following insoluble fibers forms a mesh network and the basis for the formation of a clot during coagulation?

  1. A) albumin
  2. B) fibrin
  3. C) thrombin
  4. D) fibrinogen
  5. E) hemoglobin

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

30) A persistent clot in an unbroken blood vessel is known as ________.

  1. A) an embolus
  2. B) polycythemia
  3. C) hemophilia
  4. D) a thrombus
  5. E) leukopenia

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 372

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

31) Which of the following is a blood clotting disorder?

  1. A) polycythemia
  2. B) hemophilia
  3. C) leukocytosis
  4. D) leukopenia
  5. E) anemia

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 372

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

32) Bleeding disorders often result from a lack of which one of the following vitamins ________.

  1. A) vitamin B12
  2. B) vitamin A
  3. C) vitamin C
  4. D) vitamin D
  5. E) vitamin K

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 372

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

33) The ion essential for blood clotting is ________.

  1. A) sodium
  2. B) calcium
  3. C) iodine
  4. D) potassium
  5. E) hydrogen

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

34) The organ largely responsible for the synthesis of clotting factors is the ________.

  1. A) pancreas
  2. B) thyroid
  3. C) liver
  4. D) spleen
  5. E) kidneys

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 372

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

35) Treatment of hemophilia often involves ________.

  1. A) transfusion of plasma and vitamin K supplements
  2. B) injections of missing clotting factors and vitamin B12injections
  3. C) vitamin K supplements only
  4. D) transfusion of plasma or injections of missing clotting factor
  5. E) vitamin K supplements and vitamin B12injections

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 372

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

36) Severe shock that can be fatal occurs with blood loss exceeding ________.

  1. A) 5 percent
  2. B) 10 percent
  3. C) 20 percent
  4. D) 30 percent
  5. E) 50 percent

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 373

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

37) A substance that stimulates the immune system to release antibodies is the ________.

  1. A) antigen
  2. B) antibody
  3. C) interleukin
  4. D) fibrinogen
  5. E) prothrombin activator

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 373

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

38) The process whereby the binding of antibodies to antigens causes RBCs to clump is called ________.

  1. A) hemostasis
  2. B) coagulation
  3. C) agglutination
  4. D) clotting cascade
  5. E) hemolysis

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 373

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

39) Which blood type contains the A antigen only?

  1. A) blood type A
  2. B) blood type B
  3. C) blood type AB
  4. D) blood types A and AB
  5. E) blood type O

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

40) The most common type of blood in the U.S. population is ________.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) AB
  4. D) O
  5. E) AO

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

41) Molly has blood type A and her daughter has blood type B. Why can’t Molly donate blood to her daughter?

  1. A) Blood types A and B will coagulate during a transfusion.
  2. B) Mothers cannot donate blood to their daughters.
  3. C) Blood type B contains anti-A antibodies, which will agglutinate with type A blood.
  4. D) Blood transfusions cannot be performed among relatives.
  5. E) Only fathers can donate blood to their daughters.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 373, 375

Bloom’s:  4) Analysis

42) Hemolysis most likely will occur when ________.

  1. A) an Rh negative person receives the first transfusion of blood that is Rh positive
  2. B) any person receives blood type O during a transfusion
  3. C) an Rh positive person receives the first transfusion of blood that is Rh negative
  4. D) an Rh negative person receives the second transfusion of blood that is Rh positive
  5. E) platelets cling to the ruptured endothelium of a blood vessel

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  2) Comprehension

 

43) Which blood type(s) can a person with blood type O receive?

  1. A) blood type A
  2. B) blood type B
  3. C) blood type AB
  4. D) blood type O
  5. E) blood types A, B, AB, or O

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

44) The immune serum used to prevent maternal sensitization to Rh antigens is ________.

  1. A) serotonin
  2. B) interleukin
  3. C) agglutinin
  4. D) RhoGAM
  5. E) fibrinogen

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

45) Which of these blood types carries no antigens?

  1. A) blood type A
  2. B) blood type B
  3. C) blood type AB
  4. D) blood types A, B, and AB
  5. E) blood type O

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 373, 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

46) Compatibility testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipients’ serum is called ________.

  1. A) blood typing
  2. B) transfusion reaction
  3. C) cross matching
  4. D) hemolysis
  5. E) hemodialysis

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 376

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

47) Physiologic jaundice occurring in newborns results from ________.

  1. A) bone marrow disorders
  2. B) accumulation of destroyed fetal red blood cells
  3. C) a diseased gallbladder that needs to be removed
  4. D) erythrocyte mutations
  5. E) vitamin deficiencies

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 377

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

10.3   True/False Questions

 

1) Normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 362

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

2) Erythrocytes make up the majority of the formed elements.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 362, 363

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

3) The primary job of erythrocytes is to transport oxygen.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 364

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

4) Polycythemia arises from an excess or abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 365

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

5) The amount of hemoglobin contained within a RBC determines its capability to transport oxygen.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 364

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

6) Megakaryocytes are classified as agranulocytes since they lack visible granules in the cytoplasm.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

7) Basophils are the most numerous type of leukocyte.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

8) All formed elements arise from a common type of stem cell called a hemocytoblast.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 369

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

9) The life span of a red blood cell is 100 to 120 days.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 369

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

10) Erythropoeitin is released to stimulate platelet production in response to inadequate amounts of oxygen in the blood.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 369

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

11) Vascular spasms, a part of process of hemostasis, limit blood loss during blood vessel injury.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

 

12) Calcium is necessary for coagulation to properly occur during hemostasis.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

13) Blood type A can receive blood from blood types A and AB during a transfusion.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

14) Rh-related problems occur in pregnant Rh- women carrying an Rh+ baby.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

15) Cross matching prevents transfusion reactions by testing for agglutination between donor and recipient blood prior to the transfusion.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 376

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

10.4   Matching Questions

Match the following function with its blood cell:

 

  1. A) platelet
  2. B) leukocyte
  3. C) erythrocyte

 

1) Excess numbers of these cells cause leukocytosis

Page Ref: 366

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

2) Alternate name for white blood cell

Page Ref: 366

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

3) Granulocytes and agranulocytes are classified as types of these cells

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

4) Excess of these cells cause polycythemia

Page Ref: 365

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

5) Type of cell produced in response to erythropoietin

Page Ref: 369

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

6) Cell fragments that form from the rupture of a megakaryocyte

Page Ref: 367

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

7) Immature form of this cell is called a reticulocyte

Page Ref: 369

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

8) Type of cell that contains hemoglobin for gas transport

Page Ref: 364

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

9) Most common type of blood cell

Page Ref: 364

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

10) Type of cell fragment involved in hemostasis

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

Answers: 1) B 2) B 3) B 4) C 5) C 6) A 7) C 8) C 9) C 10) A

 

Match the following blood types:

 

  1. A) Blood type A
  2. B) Blood type O
  3. C) Blood type AB

 

11) The blood type that has no antigens

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

12) The blood type that possesses the A antigen only

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

13) The blood type that can receive blood types B and AB

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

14) The blood type that forms both anti-A and anti-B antibodies

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

15) The most common blood type

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

16) The blood type that does not form anti-A or anti-B antibodies

Page Ref: 375

Bloom’s:  1) Knowledge

 

Answers: 11) B 12) A 13) C 14) B 15) B 16) C

 

 

10.5   Essay Questions

 

1) Scott’s blood test shows that he has excess red blood cells. Identify and describe two causes of this disorder.

Answer:  Scott’s disorder is polycythemia, which results from excess numbers of erythrocytes in the blood.

This disorder may result from:

  1. Bone marrow cancer (called polycythemia vera)
  2. Life at a high altitude where the air is thinner and less oxygen is available (called secondary polycythemia)

Increased sluggishness of the blood results from polycythemia.

Page Ref: 365-366

Bloom’s:  3) Application

 

2) Discuss why Martina, who has blood type A, cannot receive blood type B during a transfusion.

Answer:  Martina has the antigen for A on her red blood cells. During infancy, her body built anti-B antibodies since she lacked that antigen in her blood. If she receives a transfusion of blood type B, her body will already have the anti-B antibodies in place. Agglutination will occur as the anti-B antibodies bind and clump to the foreign B antigen. The red blood cells will be lysed, hemoglobin will be released into the blood stream, and these events would lead to a transfusion reaction.

Page Ref: 373, 375

Bloom’s:  2) Comprehension

 

3) While looking through a microscope in your anatomy lab, you see a cell whose cytoplasm has a pale pink color with fine granules and a tri-lobed deep purple nucleus. Determine what type of cell you see (be specific). Explain why you made this selection.

Answer:  You have likely seen a neutrophil, a type of leukocyte, while looking through the microscope. Neutrophils are granulocytes with a pale pink cytoplasm and fine granules that are difficult to see. Neutrophils have nuclei with three to seven lobes connected by thin strands of nucleoplasm.

Page Ref: 367, 368

Bloom’s:  3) Application

 

4) Describe the three phases of the normal blood-clotting process.

Answer:  Hemostasis involves three major phases. The first phase is the vascular spasm phase, in which serotonin released by the platelets causes the blood vessels to spasm and constrict, thus decreasing blood loss. The second phase is the platelet plug formation, in which platelets become “sticky” and cling to the site of injury. The third phase is coagulation wherein thromboplastin interacts with PF3 and calcium, as well as other blood proteins, to form prothrombin activator. Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin, which then joins with fibrinogen to form fibrin, the basis of the clot.

Page Ref: 371

Bloom’s:  2) Comprehension

 

5) Which situation do you predict to prompt the release of more erythropoietin into the blood: anemia or polycythemia? Explain.

Answer:  Any decline in the level of oxygen in the blood prompts the kidneys to release more erythropoietin into the blood. Erythropoietin targets the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. Anemia is a decrease in the blood’s ability to transport oxygen for any reason while polycythemia is an excessive or abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells. Therefore, anemia would prompt the release of more erythropoietin so that the blood could transport more oxygen. In fact, polycythemia would inhibit erythropoietin production by the kidneys.

Page Ref: 365, 369-370

Bloom’s:  3) Application

 

6) Describe ABO and Rh blood groups.

Answer:  The blood groups are based on the presence or absence of specific surface antigens. Blood group A has type A antigens on their RBCs, blood group B has type B antigens on their RBCs, blood group AB has both type A and type B antigens on their RBCs, and blood group O lacks either type A or type B antigens. The Rh+ blood group indicates the presence of the Rh antigens on their RBCs. Individuals belong to blood groups A, B, AB, or O, and they are also classified as either Rh+ or Rh-.

Page Ref: 373, 375

Bloom’s:  2) Comprehension

 

7) Explain agglutination as it relates to blood groups.

Answer:  Antigens are surface proteins found on all cells including blood cells. In the case of blood groups, an individual’s blood type reflects the presence or absence of specific antigens. An antigen-antibody response is initiated if the individual receives a transfusion of blood containing antigens that it identifies as being “foreign.” Antibodies found in a person’s blood bind to the foreign antigen, causing agglutination, or clumping. The antigen-antibody complexes clog the small blood vessels, and the foreign RBCs are lysed, releasing hemoglobin into the bloodstream. The most serious complication of a transfusion reaction is kidney failure due to blockage of the kidney tubules by the hemoglobin molecules.

Page Ref: 373-376

Bloom’s:  2) Comprehension

 

8) Mrs. Litaker was concerned because her baby was born with yellow skin. Name and explain this condition to her.

Answer:  This condition is known as physiologic jaundice and it arises because fetal red blood cells are destroyed at a rate faster than the newborn’s liver can rid the body of the hemoglobin breakdown products in bile. This form of jaundice typically causes no major problems.

Page Ref: 376-377

Bloom’s:  3) Application

 

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