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Essentials of Life Span Development 3rd Edition Santrock Test Bank

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Essentials of Life Span Development 3rd Edition Santrock Test Bank

SBN-13: 978-0078035425

ISBN-10: 0078035422

 

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Essentials of Life Span Development 3rd Edition Santrock Test Bank

SBN-13: 978-0078035425

ISBN-10: 0078035422

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

CHAPTER 7: PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE AND LATE CHILDHOOD

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. During the elementary school years, children grow an average of _____ inches a year.
  2. 1 to 2
  3. 2 to 3
  4. 5 to 7
  5. 7 to 10

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 199

 

  1. On average, children gain _____ pounds per year during middle and late childhood.
  2. 1 to 2
  3. 2 to 3
  4. 5 to 7
  5. 7 to 10

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 199

 

  1. During elementary school years, head circumference and waist circumference:
  2. increase in relation to body height.
  3. decrease in relation to body weight.
  4. increase in relation to body weight.
  5. decrease in relation to body height.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 199

 

  1. Improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood is a reflection of:
  2. increased myelination of the central nervous system.
  3. advances in the prefrontal cortex.
  4. an increase in the neurotransmitter dopamine.
  5. a simultaneous process where axons in the brain die off, while dendrites in the brain grow and branch out.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 200

 

  1. Eight-year-old Ella can use scissors to cut small paper dolls out of construction paperRemember,mething she could not do at age 3. What best accounts for her improving dexterity?
  2. Cortical thickening in the temporal lobe
  3. Increased myelination of the central nervous system
  4. Increased bone ossification
  5. Increased muscle development

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 200

 

  1. In 2009–2010, _____ percent of U.S. 6- to 11-year-olds were classified as obese.
  2. 12
  3. 30
  4. 25
  5. 18

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 201

 

  1. Which of the following is the second leading cause of death in U.S. children 5 to 14 years of age?
  2. Cardiovascular disease
  3. Cancer
  4. Motor vehicle accidents
  5. Drowning

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. The incidence of cancer in children has _____ in recent years.
  2. been linked to obesity
  3. increased dramatically
  4. slightly increased
  5. decreased dramatically

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Which type of cancer is most prevalent in children?
  2. Leukemia
  3. Lung cancer
  4. Brain cancer

d, Skin cancer

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. _____ are characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells.
  2. Blood and bone cancers
  3. All child cancers
  4. Skin and bone cancers
  5. Skin and blood cancers

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Children with cancer:
  2. are rarer today than in the 1960s.
  3. are dying earlier today than in the 1960s.
  4. are surviving longer today than in the past.
  5. are yet to receive the benefits of advancements in cancer treatment.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 202

 

  1. One in every _____ children in the United States develops cancer before the age of 19.
  2. 75
  3. 130
  4. 250
  5. 330

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Lillette, 9, has been diagnosed with _____, a cancer in which the bone marrow manufactures an abundance of abnormal white blood cells, which crowd out normal cells, making her susceptible to bruising and infection.
  2. neuroblastoma
  3. lymphosarcoma
  4. leukemia
  5. clear cell sarcoma

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Of all children from 3 to 21 years of age in the United States, _____ percent received special education or related services in 2008–2009
  2. 5
  3. 14
  4. 20
  5. 32

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 203

 

  1. Which was the largest group of students with a disability to be served by federal programs and receive special education in the 2008-2009 school year?
  2. Students with a learning disability
  3. Students with speech or language impairments
  4. Students with intellectual disability
  5. Emotionally disturbed students

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 203

 

  1. A learning disability:
  2. is primarily the result of environmental disadvantage.
  3. is primarily the result of mental retardation.
  4. is mainly due to cultural or economic disadvantage.
  5. is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 203

 

  1. About _____ as many boys as girls are classified as having a learning disability.
  2. twice
  3. three times
  4. half
  5. one-third

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 204

 

  1. One of the explanations for the gender difference in the identification of learning disabilities is that:
  2. boys have a greater biological vulnerability for learning disabilities.
  3. girls are more likely to be referred by teachers for treatment.
  4. girls’ education is given priority in schools and homes.
  5. learning disability is more difficult to detect in boys.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. _____ children with a learning disability have a reading problem.
  2. Few
  3. No
  4. Most
  5. All

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Sabeen has a severe impairment in reading and spelling ability. Identify the condition that Sabeen has.
  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  3. Dysgraphia
  4. Dyslexia
  5. Dyscalculia

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Marshall writes very slowly and his handwriting is virtually illegible. He also makes numerous spelling errors because of his inability to match up sounds and letters. Which of the following conditions does Marshall suffer from?
  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  3. Dysgraphia
  4. Dyslexia
  5. Dyscalculia

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Sandra, 9, was always behind in class because she could only write very slowly, and even then her painstaking efforts would be virtually illegible and riddled with spelling mistakes. Her teacher referred her to a psychologist who diagnosed her with a learning disability called:
  2. ADHD.
  3. dysgraphia.
  4. dyslexia.
  5. dyscalculia.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Terrence has a learning disability that involves difficulty in math computation. This disability is also known as a developmental arithmetic disorder. Identify Terrence’s condition.
  2. ADHD
  3. Dysgraphia
  4. Dyslexia
  5. Dyscalculia

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Samuel, 8, has difficulty in math computation. His physician diagnosed him as suffering from a learning disability called _____, or developmental arithmetic disorder.
  2. dyscalculia
  3. dysgraphia
  4. dyslexia
  5. ADHD

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Research indicates that it is unlikely learning disabilities:
  2. reside in a single, specific brain location.
  3. are due to problems in integrating information from multiple brain regions.
  4. are a result of subtle difficulties in brain structures.
  5. are a result of subtle difficulties in brain functions.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Interventions with children who have a learning disability often focus on improving:
  2. math ability.
  3. right and left brain functioning.
  4. writing skills.
  5. reading ability.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. _____ is a disability in which children consistently show one or more of these characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
  2. ADHD
  3. OCD
  4. PTSD
  5. EMDR

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Damon’s teachers frequently complain that he disrupts his kindergarten class by fidgeting and moving about all the time. He does not pay any attention to what is being taught in class and behaves impulsively. Considering the presence of the tell-tale characteristics of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, Damon’s pediatrician diagnosed him with _____.
  2. ADHD
  3. OCD
  4. PTSD
  5. EMDR

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. The number of children diagnosed and treated for ADHD has _____ in recent decades.
  2. increased marginally
  3. increased substantially
  4. decreased marginally
  5. decreased substantially

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 205

 

  1. ADHD occurs _____ more frequently in boys than in girls.
  2. two to three times
  3. four to nine times
  4. ten times
  5. marginally

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 205

 

  1. A number of causes for ADHD have been proposed, including:
  2. high birth weight.
  3. poor discipline at home.
  4. verbal and physical abuse during childhood.
  5. cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 205

 

  1. A recent study revealed that peak thickness of the cerebral cortex occurs _____ in children with ADHD than in children without ADHD.
  2. in adulthood
  3. in infancy
  4. three years later
  5. two years earlier

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 205

 

  1. Which of the following has been found to be better at improving the behavior of children with ADHD in most cases?
  2. A combination of stimulant medication and sedatives
  3. Primarily stimulant medication
  4. Primarily behavior management
  5. A combination of stimulant medication and behavior management

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 205

 

  1. The most recent estimate is that _____ children had an autism spectrum disorder in 2008.
  2. 1 in 88
  3. 1 in 2,500
  4. 1 in 1,000
  5. 1 in 150

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. _____ is a severe developmental disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
  2. Asperger syndrome
  3. ADHD
  4. Autistic disorder
  5. ICF syndrome

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. Jared, 3, was taken to the doctor by his parents who were concerned by his seeming lack of attachment to those around him. Jared hardly spoke at all and spent all day preoccupied with bouncing his ball off a wall. After a thorough investigation, his pediatrician diagnosed him with _____.
  2. Asperger syndrome
  3. ADHD
  4. autistic disorder
  5. ICF syndrome

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 206

 

  1. _____ is a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder in which the child has relatively good verbal language, milder nonverbal language problems, and a restricted range of interests and relationships.
  2. Asperger syndrome
  3. ADHD
  4. Autistic disorder
  5. ICF syndrome

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. What causes the autism spectrum disorders?
  2. Improper family socialization
  3. A brain dysfunction with abnormalities in brain structure and neurotransmitters
  4. Damage to the prefrontal cortex of the brain
  5. Childhood immunizations

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. Boys are estimated to be _____ more likely to have autism spectrum disorders than girls are.
  2. two to three times
  3. marginally
  4. twice
  5. five times

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, enacted in 1975, required that:
  2. all students with disabilities be brought into mainstream schools.
  3. parents of children with disabilities provide home-schooling for their children.
  4. all students with disabilities be given a free, appropriate public education.
  5. a standard curriculum be provided for students with and without disabilities.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 207

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a written statement that spells out a program that is specifically tailored for the student with a disability.
  2. tailored education plan (TEP)
  3. individualized education plan (IEP)
  4. exclusive education plan (EEP)
  5. disabilities education plan (DEP)

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 207

 

  1. The _____ is a setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated.
  2. ideal learning environment (ILE)
  3. special learning environment (SLE)
  4. least discriminating environment (LDE)
  5. least restrictive environment (LRE)

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 207

 

  1. Jacob is a third-grader and has a disability that has caused him to be separated from his peers during the school day. Recently Jacob has been moved to the regular third-grade classroom. Jacob has just experienced _____.
  2. transformation
  3. transition
  4. seriation
  5. inclusion

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 207

 

  1. Sadie has a learning disability and is being educated in the least restrictive environment possible. This means that Sadie:
  2. is given great freedom and few rules.
  3. is placed in as regular a classroom as possible.
  4. has significant input into developing her educational goals.
  5. spends part of her time in a regular classroom and part of her time in a special education classroom.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 207

 

  1. With regard to the cognitive development theory, Piaget proposed that the concrete operational stage lasts from approximately _____ years of age.
  2. 3 to 5
  3. 5 to 7
  4. 7 to 11
  5. 10 to 13

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 208

 

  1. A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into a long, thin shape; the other remains in its original ball. The child is then asked if there is more clay in the ball or in the long, thin piece of clay. If the child answers the problem correctly, but cannot use abstract reasoning yet, the child MOST likely is in which stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory?
  2. Sensorimotor stage
  3. Preoperational stage
  4. Formal operational stage
  5. Concrete operational stage

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 208

 

  1. Children who have reached the concrete operational stage are capable of _____, which is the ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension.
  2. centration
  3. seriation
  4. reversibility
  5. classification

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 208

 

  1. Luis is able to organize coins in a row from the largest in size to the smallest. His newfound ability is called _____.
  2. centration
  3. seriation
  4. reversibility
  5. classification

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 208

 

  1. Byron can take sticks of different lengths and put them all in order from shortest to longest. He can also discern that if stick A is longer then B and B is longer than C, then A is longer then C. This ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions is _____.
  2. seriation
  3. transitivity
  4. transduction
  5. classification

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 208-209

 

  1. _____ develop(s) more rapidly during early childhood, and _____ develop(s) more rapidly during middle and late childhood.
  2. Long-term memory; short-term memory
  3. Short-term memory; long-term memory
  4. Knowledge; expertise
  5. Expertise; knowledge

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 209-210

 

  1. Compared with novices, experts have:
  2. better overall memory regardless of their area of expertise.
  3. acquired extensive knowledge about a particular content area.
  4. less experiences in their area of expertise.
  5. higher levels of motivation.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 210

 

  1. If the word “win” is on a list of words a child is asked to remember, the child might think of the last time he won a pony race with a friend. This is an example of _____.
  2. rehearsal
  3. organization
  4. inclusion
  5. elaboration

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 210

 

  1. Which of the following is a strategy for improving children’s memory skills?
  2. Avoid repetition of the same instructional information.
  3. Embed memory-relevant language when instructing children.
  4. Motivate children to remember material by memorizing it.
  5. Discourage children from engaging in mental imagery.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 210

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an effective memory strategy?
  2. Encourage elaboration, or more extensive processing
  3. Encourage the use of mental imagery
  4. Encourage memorization rather than understanding of information
  5. Repeat with variation often and link information early

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 210

 

  1. At some point during the early elementary school years, children begin to use _____ more and, according to the fuzzy trace theory, this contributes to the improved memory and reasoning of older children.
  2. verbatim traces
  3. elaboration
  4. verbal traces
  5. gist

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 211

 

  1. According to the fuzzy trace theory, the _____ consists of the precise details of the information.
  2. gist
  3. verbatim memory trace
  4. fuzzy trace
  5. mental imagery

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 211

 

  1. Voletta thinks reflectively and reviews, connects, and reflects as a means of evaluating evidence. This means that she is engaging in:
  2. critical thinking.
  3. metacognition.
  4. cognitive monitoring.
  5. control processes.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 211

 

  1. Emily has the ability to think about things in novel and unusual ways; this allows her to come up with unique solutions to problems. This ability is called _____.
  2. logical thinking
  3. analytical thinking
  4. critical thinking
  5. creative thinking

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 211

 

  1. _____ thinking characterizes the kind of thinking that is required on conventional tests of intelligence.
  2. Convergent
  3. Creative
  4. Divergent
  5. Abstract

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 211-212

 

  1. The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
  2. divergent thinking.
  3. convergent thinking.
  4. expressive thinking.
  5. productive thinking.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 212

 

  1. “What would you do if you could be invisible for a day?” This is an example of a question that has many possible answers and fosters _____ thinking.
  2. divergent
  3. convergent
  4. expressive
  5. productive

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 211-212

 

  1. _____ involves knowing about knowing.
  2. Cognition
  3. Brainstorming
  4. Metacognition
  5. Metadata

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 212

 

  1. Knowledge about memory is known as:
  2. metamemory.
  3. working memory.
  4. implicit memory.
  5. metadata.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 212

 

  1. Megan, 8, has a test tomorrow. “It’s an easy test,” she tells her mother. “I just have to recognize a bunch of stuff on a chart. I finished studying for it yesterday.” Megan is exhibiting her:
  2. brainstorming ability.
  3. creative thinking.
  4. metamemory.
  5. metadata.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 212

 

  1. Michael Pressley believes that the key to education is helping students to:
  2. develop social skills.
  3. learn creativity.
  4. learn a repertoire of strategies for problem solving.
  5. formulate career plans.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 213

 

  1. Mental age (MA) is:
  2. the age that an individual mentally identifies himself at.
  3. the age at which an individual attains cognitive maturity.
  4. an individual’s level of mental development relative to others.
  5. an individual’s age at the time of peak cortical thickness.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 214

 

  1. A person’s mental age divided by chronological age (CA), multiplied by 100 would indicate that person’s:
  2. emotional quotient.
  3. intelligence quotient.
  4. level of mental development relative to others.
  5. cognitive maturity.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Sergio’s mental age is 8, but his chronological age is 9, we would say that Sergio’s IQ is:
  2. average
  3. bellow average
  4. above average
  5. cannot be determined from the information provided.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Who created the concept of intelligence quotient?
  2. Alfred Binet
  3. William Stern
  4. David Wechsler
  5. Robert J. Sternberg

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Sally’s mental age is 12, but her chronological age is 9. Sally’s IQ is _____.
  2. 75
  3. 100
  4. 108
  5. 133

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 214

 

  1. If intelligence is assumed to be normally distributed, which of the following would you expect to find in the overall population?
  2. More people of high intelligence than of low intelligence
  3. More people of moderate intelligence than of high or low intelligence
  4. More people of high intelligence than of moderate or low intelligence
  5. More people of low intelligence than of moderate or high intelligence

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Amber is given a Stanford-Binet intelligence test. Her mental age is determined to be 14 and her chronological age is 10. Which of the following can be said about Amber?
  2. Her IQ score is 86.
  3. Her IQ score is about average.
  4. Her IQ score is below the majority of the population.
  5. Her IQ score is above the majority of the population.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 214

 

  1. The _____ not only provide an overall IQ score, but they also yield several composite indexes that allow the examiner to quickly determine the areas in which the child is strong or weak.
  2. Wechsler scales
  3. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scales
  4. Stanford-Binet tests
  5. Apgar Scales

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Which of the following is a type of intelligence identified in Robert J. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
  2. Cultural intelligence
  3. Practical intelligence
  4. Spatial intelligence
  5. Verbal intelligence

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Although Casey scores only about average on standardized intelligence tests, he is street smart, and has excellent social skills and good common sense. According to Sternberg, he has _____ intelligence.
  2. spatial
  3. practical
  4. analytical
  5. interpersonal

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Robert J. Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that:
  2. intelligence is a general ability.
  3. there are three types of intelligence.
  4. intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.
  5. culture plays an important role in the development of intelligence.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 215-216

 

  1. Howard Gardner suggests that there are _____ types of intelligence.
  2. 4
  3. 6
  4. 8
  5. 11

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. According to Gardner, Colin has _____ skills.
  2. spatial
  3. intrapersonal
  4. bodily-kinesthetic
  5. naturalist

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Who among the following would have good spatial abilities?
  2. A journalist
  3. A theologian
  4. A botanist
  5. An architect

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 216

 

  1. According to Howard Gardner, successful theologians and psychologists most likely to have high levels of which type of intelligence?
  2. Naturalist
  3. Intrapersonal
  4. Spatial
  5. Bodily-kinesthetic

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Patrick is an experienced farmer who is very good at his job. According to Howard Gardner, which of the following types of intelligence is Patrick most likely to score highly on?
  2. Bodily-kinesthetic
  3. Intrapersonal
  4. Naturalist
  5. Mathematical

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Which of the following is a type of intelligence identified by Howard Gardner?
  2. Intrapersonal
  3. Analytical
  4. Practical
  5. Creative

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Nathan Brody and many other researchers have observed that people who excel at one type of intellectual task are:
  2. likely to underperform in other tasks.
  3. evidence that the multiple-intelligence approaches are correct.
  4. proof that intelligence is a number of specific abilities.
  5. likely to excel at others too.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Which of the following statements about IQ and intelligence is true?
  2. Modifications in environment have no impact on one’s IQ score.
  3. Schooling has been shown to have no influence over intelligence.
  4. IQ scores have been slowly decreasing around the world.
  5. IQ scores have been rapidly increasing around the world.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 218

 

  1. The worldwide increase in intelligence scores that has occurred over a short period of time has been called the:
  2. Binet effect.
  3. Goleman effect.
  4. Flynn effect.
  5. Wechsler effect.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 218

 

  1. The consensus among psychologists that both heredity and environment influence intelligence reflects the _____.
  2. nature-nurture issue
  3. evolutionary psychology perspective
  4. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
  5. theory of social cognition

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 219

 

  1. According to some studies, African American schoolchildren in the United States score, on average, _____ points lower on standardized intelligence tests than non- Latino White American schoolchildren do.
  2. 2 to 5
  3. 10 to 15
  4. 20 to 30
  5. 30 to 40

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 219

 

  1. Many intelligence tests are biased in that they:
  2. test predominantly nonverbal skills.
  3. consider the values common to all test takers.
  4. reflect the cultures of some test takers more than others.
  5. use only standardized test items familiar to all test takers.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 219

 

  1. Because of the difficulties in creating culture-fair tests, Robert Sternberg concludes that there are only _____ tests.
  2. culture-reduced
  3. culture-free
  4. culture-biased
  5. culture-neutral

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 219

 

  1. Paul has an IQ of 60. He lives in his own apartment and supports himself with a job. He has many friends, goes bowling, and eats out frequently. He has no difficulty adapting to everyday life. According to the definition of mental retardation, Paul is:
  2. not mentally retarded.
  3. mildly retarded.
  4. moderately retarded.
  5. severely mentally retarded.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Those individuals who have IQs of 55 to 70 fall into the _____ category of mental retardation.
  2. mild
  3. moderate
  4. severe
  5. profound

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. About _____ percent of the mentally retarded fall into the mild category.
  2. 89
  3. 6
  4. 3.5
  5. 1

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. What percentage of mentally retarded are considered moderately retarded?
  2. About 89 percent
  3. About 6 percent
  4. About 3.5 percent
  5. Less than 1 percent

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Individuals who are categorized as having moderate mental retardation have an IQ of _____.
  2. 25 to 39
  3. 71 to 100
  4. 55 to 70
  5. 40 to 54

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Less than 1 percent of mentally retarded Americans are considered to be:
  2. mildly mentally retarded.
  3. moderately mentally retarded.
  4. severely mentally retarded.
  5. profoundly mentally retarded.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. About _____ percent of the mentally retarded are in the severe category, with IQs of _____.
  2. 1; 55 to 70
  3. 6; 40 to 54
  4. 3.5; 25 to 39
  5. 10; 15 to 24

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. What percentage of the mentally retarded fall into the classification of the profoundly mentally retarded?
  2. About 1 percent
  3. About 3.5 percent
  4. About 6 percent
  5. About 89 percent

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Which of the following individuals is likely to fall into the profoundly mentally retarded category?
  2. Maria who has an IQ of 65
  3. Sally who has an IQ of 45
  4. Tom who has an IQ of 30
  5. Harry who has an IQ of 20

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Individuals who fall into the profoundly mentally retarded classification:
  2. are able to live independently as adults.
  3. can attain a second-grade level of skills.
  4. learn to talk and accomplish very simple tasks.
  5. need constant supervision.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Julie has an IQ of 50. She lives in a group home and works at a recycling plantRemember,rting cans and bottles into bins. Overall, Julie functions at the level of a second-grader. Julie’s level of mental retardation is considered _____.
  2. mild
  3. moderate
  4. severe
  5. profound

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Organic retardation is caused by:
  2. a genetic disorder or brain damage.
  3. being raised by poorly educated parents.
  4. an impoverished intellectual environment.
  5. traumatic experiences in early childhood.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Most people who suffer from organic retardation have IQs that range between _____.
  2. 25 and 60
  3. 40 and 65
  4. 0 and 50
  5. 15 and 65

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Cultural-familial retardation is characterized by:
  2. mild to moderate retardation.
  3. moderate to severe retardation.
  4. severe to profound retardation.
  5. moderate damage to brain tissues.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Children with superior talent for something are called:
  2. gifted.
  3. creative.
  4. perspicacious.
  5. sagacious.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220

 

  1. A child with an IQ of _____ or higher is considered to be gifted.
  2. 90
  3. 100
  4. 120
  5. 130

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Fiona, 10, is an outstanding pianist and has an IQ of 140. Fiona is:
  2. an anomaly.
  3. gifted.
  4. sagacious.
  5. maladjusted.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Ethan is a gifted 14-year-old child who excels academically and has an IQ of 140. In the light of the findings from Lewis Terman’s study of high IQ children, it is likely that Ethan is:
  2. suffering from a mental disorder.
  3. maladjusted.
  4. more mature than others his own age.
  5. at higher risk for emotional problems.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Ellen Winner described three criteria that characterize gifted children. Which of the following was NOT one of these criteria?
  2. Precocity
  3. Marching to their own drummer
  4. Easily bored
  5. A passion to master

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220-221

 

  1. Which of the following is true of giftedness?
  2. Signs of high ability of an individual in a particular area do not manifest themselves at a very young age.
  3. Deliberate practice is not required of individuals who become experts in a particular domain.
  4. Individuals with world-class status in the arts, mathematics, science, and sports all report strong family support.
  5. Individuals who are highly gifted are typically gifted in many domains.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 221

 

  1. Which of the following is an important characteristic of individuals who become experts in a particular domain?
  2. Low innate ability
  3. An IQ below 70
  4. Intermittent practice
  5. Deliberate practice

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 221

 

  1. By the time children are 11 years old their vocabulary has increased to approximately:
  2. 10,000 words.
  3. 200,000 words.
  4. 40,000 words.
  5. 100,000 words.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. _____ is knowledge about language, such as knowing what a preposition is or the ability to discuss the sounds of a language.
  2. Metacognition
  3. Metalinguistic awareness
  4. Metapragmatics
  5. Morphology

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. _____ allows children “to think about their language, understand what words are, and even define them.”
  2. Metacognition
  3. Morphology
  4. Metapragmatics
  5. Metalinguistic awareness

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. Which of the following improves considerably during the elementary school years?
  2. Metalinguistic awareness
  3. Postconventional reasoning
  4. Formal Operational thought
  5. Metapragmatics

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 222

 

  1. Defining words becomes a regular part of classroom discourse, and children increase their knowledge of _____ as they study and talk about the components of sentences, such as subjects and verbs.
  2. morphology
  3. syntax
  4. semantics
  5. pragmatics

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. A process called _____ involves understanding how to use language in culturally appropriate ways.
  2. morphology
  3. syntax
  4. pragmatics
  5. semantics

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. The _____ approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child’s natural language learning.
  2. assisted-language
  3. remedial-language
  4. complex-language
  5. whole-language

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 223

 

  1. At Jackson Elementary, children are taught to read by learning to recognize entire words and sentences and to use the context words are used in the text to guess their meaning. Their reading material consists of stories, poems, and later, newspapers and magazines. This school is using the _____ approach to reading instruction.
  2. assisted-language
  3. remedial-language
  4. phonics
  5. whole-language

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 223

 

  1. The _____ approach to reading instruction emphasizes the teaching of basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
  2. whole-language
  3. phonics
  4. balanced-instruction
  5. morphological

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 223

 

  1. Louise is teaching her son to read by telling him the sound that each alphabet stands for. What approach is she using?
  2. Whole-language
  3. Phonics
  4. Balanced-instruction
  5. Morphological

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 223

 

  1. Alberta is a school teacher who introduces children to reading by teaching them a rhyme that goes, “A for apple, A says ah; B for ball, B says buh,” and so on. This exemplifies the _____ approach to reading instruction.
  2. whole-language
  3. phonics
  4. information-processing
  5. analytic

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 223

 

  1. Which of the following statements represents the current thinking among increasing numbers of experts in the field of reading?
  2. Direct instruction in the whole-language approach is a key aspect of learning to read.
  3. Direct instruction in phonics is a key aspect of learning to read.
  4. The whole-language approach and the phonics approach are equally effective in teaching children to read.
  5. The morphological approach has been shown to be the best way to teach reading.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 223

 

  1. Which of the following is true about second-language learning?
  2. For adolescents and adults, new vocabulary is easier to learn than new sounds or new grammar.
  3. Children’s ability to pronounce words with a native-like accent in a second language typically increases with age.
  4. Sensitive periods for learning a second language are constant across different language systems.
  5. Adults tend to learn a second language slower than children, but their final level of second-language attainment is higher.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 223-224

 

  1. Which of the following statements about children who are bilingual is NOT true?
  2. Children who are bilingual do better on tests of concept formation than children who speak only one language.
  3. Children who are bilingual are better at analytical reasoning than children who speak only one language.
  4. Children who are bilingual are less conscious of the structure of spoken language than children who speak only one language.
  5. Children who are bilingual have more cognitive flexibility than children who speak only one language.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 223-224

 

  1. Before she started school in the U.S., Mita, daughter of immigrant parents of Indian origin, used to speak only her home language of Hindi fluently. She then learned to speak English in school and attained fluency in both Hindi and English. However, as she grew older, she started to feel ashamed of her roots and has given up speaking Hindi altogether. This phenomenon is called:
  2. subjective bilingualism.
  3. relapsed bilingualism.
  4. subtractive bilingualism.
  5. retractive bilingualism.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 224

 

 

Identification Questions

 

  1. Tabitha has a learning disability that involves a severe impairment her ability to read and spell. She most likely has _____.

Answer: dyslexia

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. This is a disability in which individuals consistently show problems in one or more of these areas: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Answer: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 204

 

  1. The concept that a child with a disability must be educated in a setting that is as similar as possible to settings of children who do not have disabilities.

Answer: Least restrictive environment (LRE)

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 207

 

  1. Moira’s teacher asks her to put sticks in order from smallest to largest. The cognitive ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension is known as _____.

Answer: seriation

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 208

 

  1. A theory that states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representation: verbatim memory trace and gist.

Answer: Fuzzy trace theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 211

 

  1. These theorists proposed the fuzzy trace theory in understanding the development of memory.

Answer: Charles Brainerd and Valerie Reyna

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 211

 

  1. This theorist distinguished between convergent thinking and divergent thinking.

Answer: J. P. Guilford

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 211-212

 

  1. Quinn is asked, “How many things can you do with a paper clip?” This kind of question, which can produce many different answers, is a test of _____.

Answer: divergent thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 212

 

  1. If we look at Madeline’s mental age and divided it by her chronological age, and then multiply it by 100, we are calculating her _____.

Answer: intelligence quotient (IQ)

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 214

 

  1. This theorist developed the triarchic theory of intelligence.

Answer: Robert J. Sternberg

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 215

 

  1. This theorist described three criteria that characterize gifted children, whether in art, music, or academic domains.

Answer: Ellen Winner

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Discuss height and weight changes that take place during middle and late childhood.

Answer: During the elementary school years, children grow an average of 2 to 3 inches a year until, at the age of 11, the average girl is 4 feet, 10 inches tall, and the average boy is 4 feet, 9 inches tall. During the middle and late childhood years, children gain about 5 to 7 pounds a year.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 199

 

  1. Identify and describe the most common child cancer.

Answer: The most common cancer in children is leukemia, a cancer in which bone marrow manufactures an abundance of abnormal white blood cells, which crowd out normal cells, making the child susceptible to bruising and infection.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Analyze

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Briefly describe the three types of learning disabilities. Discuss the various treatment options. Do you think that educators treat learning disabilities appropriately? Provide reasons for your answer.

Answer: Three types of learning disabilities are dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia. Dyslexia involves individuals who have a severe impairment in their ability to read and spell. Dysgraphia is a learning disability that involves difficulty in handwriting. Dyscalculia, also known as developmental arithmetic disorder, is a learning disability that involves difficulty in math computation.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. What are the treatment options available for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Answer: Stimulant medication such as Ritalin or Adderall (which has fewer side effects than Ritalin) is effective in improving the attention of many children with ADHD, but it usually does not improve their attention to the same level as children who do not have ADHD. A meta-analysis concluded that behavior management treatments are effective in reducing the effects of ADHD. Researchers have often found that a combination of medication, such as Ritalin, and behavior management improves the behavior of children with ADHD better than medication alone or behavior management alone, although not in all cases.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 206

 

  1. Discuss what Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) does.

Answer: Until the 1970s, most U.S. public schools either refused enrollment to children with disabilities or inadequately served them. This changed in 1975 when Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, required that all students with disabilities be given a free, appropriate public education. In 1990, Public Law 94-142 was recast as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA was amended in 1997 and then reauthorized in 2004 and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. IDEA spells out broad mandates for services to children with disabilities of all kinds. These services include evaluation and eligibility determination, appropriate education and an individualized education plan (IEP), and education in the least restrictive environment (LRE).

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 207

 

  1. Compare and contrast convergent thinking with divergent thinking.

Answer: Convergent thinking produces one correct answer to a question, characteristic of the kind of thinking on standardized intelligence tests. Divergent thinking produces many answers to the same question and characterizes creativity.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 211-212

 

  1. According to Robert J. Sternberg, which type of intelligence in students is most likely to be favored in conventional schooling?

Answer: According to Robert J. Sternberg, students with high analytic ability tend to be favored in conventional schooling. They often do well under direct instruction, in which the teacher lectures and gives students objective tests. They often are considered to be “smart” students who get good grades, show up in high-level tracks, do well on traditional tests of intelligence and the SAT, and later get admitted to competitive colleges.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 215

 

  1. What are the barriers to creating culture-fair tests?

Answer: Most tests tend to reflect what the dominant culture thinks is important. If tests have time limits, that will bias the test against groups not concerned with time. If languages differ, the same words might have different meanings for different language groups. Even pictures can produce bias because some cultures have less experience with drawings and photographs. Because of such difficulties in creating culture-fair tests, Robert Sternberg concludes that there are no culture-fair tests, only culture-reduced tests.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Analyze

Page(s): 219

 

  1. Is giftedness a product of heredity or environment? Give one example.

Answer: It is likely that giftedness is a product of both heredity and environment. Individuals who are gifted recall that they had signs of high ability in a particular area at a very young age, prior to or at the beginning of formal training. This suggests the importance of innate ability in giftedness. However, researchers have also found that individuals with world-class status in the arts, mathematics, science, and sports all report strong family support and years of training and practice. Deliberate practice is an important characteristic of individuals who become experts in a particular domain. For example, in one study, the best musicians engaged in twice as much deliberate practice over their lives as did the least successful ones.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Analyze

Page(s): 221

 

  1. What is bilingual education? What are the positive aspects of bilingual education?

Answer: Bilingual education teaches academic subjects to immigrant children in their native language while slowly teaching English. Advocates of bilingual education programs argue that if children who do not know English are taught only in English, they will fall behind in academic subjects. Research supports bilingual education in that (1) children have difficulty learning a subject when it is taught in a language they do not understand, and (2) when both languages are integrated in the classroom, children learn the second language more readily and participate more actively.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 224-225

 

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