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Essentials of Life Span Development 4th Edition Santrock Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0077861933

ISBN-10: 0077861930

 

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Essentials of Life Span Development 4th Edition Santrock Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0077861933

ISBN-10: 0077861930

 

 

 

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Chapter 16

Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is Erikson’s eighth stage of development?
  2. Generativity vs. stagnation
    B. Integrity vs. despair
    C. Industry vs. inferiority
    D. Autonomy vs. shame

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. According to Erik Erikson, which of the following stages of development do individuals experience in late adulthood?
  2. Generativity vs. stagnation
    B. Autonomy vs. shame
    C. Industry vs. inferiority
    D. Integrity vs. despair

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. According to Erikson, the _____ stage of development involves reflecting on the past and either piecing together a positive review or concluding that one’s life has not been well spent.
  2. integrity vs. despair
    B. autonomy vs. shame
    C. industry vs. inferiority
    D. generativity vs. stagnation

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. All of the following are part of the life review process EXCEPT:
  2. Looking back at one’s life experiences.
    B. Evaluating life experiences.
    C. Projecting future life experiences.
    D. Interpreting life experiences.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. According to Erik Erikson, what is the last stage of development in life?
  2. Death versus dying
    B. Integrity versus despair
    C. Immortality versus death
    D. Independence versus dependence

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. Robert Butler states that life review is set in motion by:
  2. retrospective glances on life’s worth.
    B. looking forward to death.
    C. handing over the legacy to the next generation.
    D. conflicting views of wisdom against integrity.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. Which of the following is prominent in Erikson’s final stage of integrity versus despair?
  2. Life review
    B. Identity resolution
    C. Integrity formation
    D. Struggle for independence

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:
  2. life review.
    B. identity resolution.
    C. integrity formation.
    D. retrospective spirit.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. Which of the following statements about life review is FALSE?
  2. Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets.
    B. Life reviews can include sociocultural dimensions.
    C. Life reviews lead to revision or expanded understanding of experiences.
    D. Life reviews include interpersonal relationship dimensions.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. One study revealed that an important factor among older adults who showed a higher level of emotion regulation and successful aging was:
  2. increased preoccupation with regrets.
    B. reduced responsiveness to regrets.
    C. moderate productivity.
    D. engaging in prolonged periods of sedentary lifestyle.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. When working with older clientsRemember,me clinicians use _____ therapy. Vanda is in one such therapy program and her clinician has her discussing past activities and experiences with other individuals in her group.
  2. Gestalt
    B. reminiscence
    C. schema
    D. drama

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. Stacy is a director of a senior center. Every week she leads a group where the elders discuss past activities and experiences. The members of the group are encouraged to share anecdotes, old pictures, and other family memorabilia that remind them of significant events in their past. Stacy’s group is a form of:
  2. cognitive behavioral therapy.
    B. past life regression therapy.
    C. reminiscence therapy.
    D. rational emotive therapy.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. A recent meta-analysis of 128 studies found that through reminiscence therapy, clients attained a:
  2. lower sense of intimacy.
    B. lower sense of generativity.
    C. higher sense of despair.
    D. higher sense of integrity.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. Vashti believes that the more energetic and involved older adults are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives. Thus she believes in:
  2. activity theory.
    B. Erikson’s theory of integrity versus despair.
    C. socioemotional selectivity theory.
    D. selective optimization with compensation theory.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Activity Theory

 

  1. As a minister, being conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Reverend Douglas appears to be applying:
  2. disengagement theory.
    B. socioemotional selectivity theory.
    C. evangelical theory.
    D. activity theory.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Activity Theory

 

  1. Voletta believes that older adults become more selective about their social networks as they age. She is a proponent of:
  2. socioemotional selectivity theory.
    B. selective optimization with compensation theory.
    C. activity theory.
    D. social discontinuity theory.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. All of the following are associated with reminiscence therapy in older adults EXCEPT:
  2. Increased self-esteem.
    B. Increased physical mobility.
    C. Increased psychological well-being.
    D. Increased mental health.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. A new finding that Canadian older adults who were more physically active had higher life satisfaction and greater social interaction than their physically inactive counterparts supports which theory of aging?
  2. Activity theory
    B. Socioemotional selectivity theory
    C. Disengagement theory
    D. Selective optimization with compensation theory

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Activity Theory

 

  1. A new study revealed that older adults report more ______ emotions than younger adults in both the morning and the evening.
  2. negative
    B. neutral
    C. positive
    D. mixed

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. Which theory gained support by the finding that as individuals grow older they had fewer peripheral social contacts but retained close relationships with people who provided them with emotional support?
  2. Activity
    B. Socioemotional selectivity theory
    C. Disengagement theory
    D. Selective optimization with compensation theory

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. Which of the following theories explains why older adults spend MOST of their time with familiar individuals and family?
  2. Activity theory
    B. Socioemotional selectivity theory
    C. Social discontinuity theory
    D. Disengagement theory

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. Why, according to the socioemotional selectivity theory, do older adults deliberately increase the time spent with close friends and family members?
  2. They crave financial security.
    B. They want to maximize emotional risks.
    C. They cannot communicate effectively with new individuals.
    D. They place a high value on emotional satisfaction.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. Joaquin believes that older adults deliberately withdraw from social contact with individuals peripheral to their lives while maintaining or increasing contact with close friends and family members with whom they have had enjoyable relationships. He is a proponent of:
  2. activity.
    B. selective optimization with compensation.
    C. socioemotional selectivity.
    D. social discontinuity.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, selective narrowing of social interaction as individuals get older:
  2. minimizes health-related complications.
    B. minimizes emotional risks.
    C. maximizes social isolation.
    D. maximizes financial freedom.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. Which of the following theories challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?
  2. Socioemotional selectivity theory
    B. Activity theory
    C. Disengagement theory
    D. Social breakdown theory

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. Now that Benita is in late adulthood, the socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that she will:
  2. become more socially withdrawn as she prepares for death.
    B. continue to actively make new friends.
    C. spend most of her time with familiar friends.
    D. emotionally invest in peripheral relationships.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotional and:
  2. spiritual.
    B. practical.
    C. relational.
    D. knowledge-related.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. The _____ theory focuses on the types of goals that individuals are motivated to achieve as they approach the end of life.
  2. selective optimization with compensation
    B. activity
    C. socioemotional selectivity
    D. disengagement

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, the trajectory of motivation for knowledge-related goals peaks in:
  2. middle and late adulthood.
    B. adolescence and early adulthood.
    C. early childhood.
    D. infancy.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, the trajectory of motivation for knowledge-related goals declines during:
  2. middle and late adulthood.
    B. adolescence and early adulthood.
    C. early childhood.
    D. infancy.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, the emotion trajectory is high during:
  2. early adulthood.
    B. adolescence.
    C. middle childhood.
    D. infancy and early childhood.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. Recent studies have led researchers to conclude that the emotional life of older adults is more _____ than once thought.
  2. negative
    B. positive
    C. depressed
    D. flat

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:
  2. assortment, enhancement, and remuneration.
    B. reorganization, compensation, and optimization.
    C. selection, optimization, and compensation.
    D. remuneration, selection, and enhancement.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

 

  1. _____ theory describes how people can produce new resources and allocate them effectively to the tasks they want to master.
  2. Activity
    B. Selective optimization with compensation
    C. Socioemotional selectivity
    D. Psychoanalytical

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

 

  1. The model of selective optimization with compensation proposes that successful aging is related to three main factors. Which of these factors is based on the concept that, in old age, there is a reduced capacity and loss of functioning that mandate a reduction of performance in most domains of life?
  2. Selection
    B. Optimization
    C. Compensation
    D. Remuneration

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

 

  1. According to Baltes, _____ becomes relevant when life tasks require a level of capacity beyond the current level of the older adult’s performance potential.
  2. selection
    B. organization
    C. optimization
    D. compensation

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

 

  1. According to Baltes, which of the following factors suggests that it is possible to maintain performance in some areas through continued practice and the use of new technologies?
  2. Selection
    B. Compensation
    C. Optimization
    D. Reorganization

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

 

  1. In which of the following scenarios is the need for compensation for older adults the MOST obvious?
  2. Reminiscing on life’s regrets
    B. Watching soaps on TV
    C. Being bedridden due to illness
    D. Narrating bedtime stories to grandchildren

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

 

  1. Which of the two personality traits in the Big Five factors of personality are associated with mortality (an earlier death)?
  2. Low conscientiousness and high neuroticism
    B. Low religiosity and high materialism
    C. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism
    D. Low extroversion and low openness

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Personality

 

  1. According to new studies, which of the Big Five factors of personality was linked to older adults’ medication non-adherence across a six-year time frame?
  2. Low level of openness to experience
    B. Moderate level of conscientiousness
    C. High level of agreeableness
    D. High level of neuroticism

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Personality

 

  1. Studies on the Big Five factors of personality found that transition into late adulthood was characterized by increases in the aspects of impulse control, reliability, and conventionality. To which Big Five personality factor do these aspects belong?
  2. Openness to experience
    B. Neuroticism
    C. Agreeableness
    D. Conscientiousness

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Personality

 

  1. A longitudinal study of more than 1,200 individuals across seven decades revealed that a higher score on the Big Five personality factor of _____ predicted a lower risk of earlier death from childhood through late adulthood.
  2. agreeableness
    B. conscientiousness
    C. neuroticism
    D. extraversion

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Personality

 

  1. Prejudice against others because of their age, especially prejudice against older adults, is known as:
  2. ageism.
    B. adultism.
    C. racism.
    D. adultcentrism.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Stereotyping

 

  1. Older adults not being hired for new jobs and being eased out of old ones because they are perceived as too rigid or feeble-minded and are not considered cost effective are examples of:
  2. eldercare.
    B. ageism.
    C. generational inequity.
    D. age incongruity.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Stereotyping

 

  1. Which of the following is the MOST frequent form of ageism?
  2. Assumptions about frailty of older adults
    B. Assumptions about ailments caused by age
    C. Disrespect for older adults
    D. Older adults being edged out of their family life

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Stereotyping

 

  1. In terms of the Big Five factors of personality, perceived social support predicted increased:
  2. extraversion.
    B. neuroticism.
    C. conscientiousness.
    D. openness.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Personality

 

  1. According to recent research, severe depression in older adults was associated with higher:
  2. extraversion.
    B. neuroticism.
    C. conscientiousness.
    D. openness.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Personality

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of U.S. women 65 years of age and older were living in poverty in 2010?
  2. 6
    B. 11
    C. 24
    D. 49

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of U.S. men 65 years of age and older were living in poverty in 2010?
  2. 6
    B. 11
    C. 24
    D. 49

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. Internet use by older adults rose approximately _____ percent from 2000 to 2013.
  2. 20
    B. 45
    C. 65
    D. 80

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. Approximately _____ of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults 65 and over, who comprise only 12 percent of the population.
  2. one-fifth
    B. one-fourth
    C. half
    D. one-third

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. Researchers have found that poverty in late adulthood is linked to:
  2. an increase in longevity.
    B. an increase in physical and mental health problems in older adults.
    C. greater sexual activity.
    D. an increase in marital and life satisfaction.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. In 2012, _____ percent of older adults in the United States were living in poverty.
  2. 9.1
    B. 2.5
    C. 22
    D. 44

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. In 2010, almost _____as many U.S. women 65 years and older lived in poverty as did their male counterparts.
  2. half
    B. four times
    C. thrice
    D. twice

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. The health-care needs of older adults are reflected in _____, the program that provides health-care insurance to adults over 65 under the Social Security system.
  2. Medicaid
    B. eldercare
    C. Medicare
    D. Family Care

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of Internet penetration and usage amongst older adults?
  2. Older adults are less likely to have a computer in their home.
    B. Older adults are less likely to use the Internet than younger adults.
    C. Older adults are the fastest-growing segment of Internet users.
    D. Older adults log lesser time on the Internet than younger adults.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE of the usage of Internet among older adults?
  2. Older adults visit fewer Web sites than their younger counterparts.
    B. Older adults spend less money on the Internet than their younger counterparts.
    C. Increasing numbers of older adults use e-mail to communicate with relatives.
    D. Older adults are especially interested in going online for social networking.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. In 2012, _____ percent of U.S. adults over 65 years of age were married.
  2. 80
    B. 75
    C. 58
    D. 20

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Marriage

 

  1. Data from a recent longitudinal study found that internet use by older adults was associated with a decrease of one-third in the likelihood of developing:
  2. schizophrenia.
    B. depression.
    C. Alzheimer disease.
    D. osteoporosis.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. All of the following are associated with older adults using the internet EXCEPT:
  2. Increased fear of technology.
    B. Greater ease meeting people.
    C. Feeling less isolated.
    D. Feeling more connected.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of adults age 65 or over were widowed in 2012?
  2. 10
    B. 30
    C. 50
    D. 80

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Marriage

 

  1. A recent study revealed that marital satisfaction in older adults was linked to whether an individual was _____ or not.
  2. depressed
    B. present
    C. worried
    D. satiated

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Marriage

 

  1. According to studies conducted, the majority of older adults evaluate their marriages as:
  2. happy or very happy.
    B. unsatisfactory.
    C. unhappy or very unhappy.
    D. peaceful.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Marriage

 

  1. The stress of caring for a spouse who has a chronic disease can:
  2. promote life satisfaction.
    B. increase marital satisfaction.
    C. lead to divorce.
    D. place demands on intimacy.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Marriage

 

  1. The majority of divorced older adults are women due to:
  2. their tendency to initiate divorce procedures.
    B. their greater longevity.
    C. their tendency to remarry quickly.
    D. men’s tendency to delay remarriage.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Divorce and Remarriage

 

  1. In 2010, _____ percent of older adults were cohabiting.
  2. 4
    B. 1
    C. 3
    D. 10

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Cohabitation

 

  1. Which of the following statements about cohabiting older adults is TRUE?
  2. Cohabiting older adults were more likely to receive partner care than married older adults, as per latest research.
    B. Research indicates that middle-aged and older adult cohabiting men and women reported higher levels of depression than their married counterparts.
    C. Cohabiting older adults were more likely to have plans to marry their partner than cohabiting young adults.
    D. Older adults cohabit solely for love.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Cohabitation

 

  1. Adult daughters are _____ times more likely than are adult sons to give parents assistance with daily living activities.
  2. three
    B. five
    C. two
    D. four

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Adult Parents and Adult Children

 

  1. Attachment anxiety _____ as one ages.
  2. increases
    B. decreases
    C. remains the same
    D. fluctuates

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Attachment

 

  1. In late adulthood, which type of attachment is associated with greater psychological and physical well-being?
  2. Attachment anxiety
    B. Insecure attachment
    C. Secure attachment
    D. Close attachment

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Attachment

 

  1. In late adulthood, which type of attachment is linked to more perceived caregiver burden in caring for patients with Alzheimer disease?
  2. Attachment anxiety
    B. Insecure attachment
    C. Secure attachment
    D. Close attachment

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Attachment

 

  1. A recent study found that activities with friends _____ positive affect and life satisfaction in older adults.
  2. increased
    B. decreased
    C. reduced
    D. had no influence on

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Friendship

 

  1. Aging expert Laura Carstensen concluded that people:
  2. become socially inept as they grow older.
    B. tend to prefer loneliness as they grow older.
    C. choose to have a lot more friends as they grow older.
    D. choose close friends over new friends as they grow older.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Friendship

 

  1. Alice, Jane, Lois, and Sandra have been friends since grade school. Over the years, they have given each other support and shared in each other’s joys and sadness. This is an example of which model of social relations?
  2. The longitudinal model
    B. The cohort model
    C. The convoy model
    D. The network model

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

 

  1. For older adultsRemember,cial support is linked to a(n):
  2. increased probability of becoming institutionalized.
    B. higher socioeconomic status.
    C. increase in mortality rates.
    D. reduction in symptoms of disease.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

 

  1. Which of the following statements about social support for older adults is FALSE?
  2. Social support for older adults may vary across cultures.
    B. Friends play a vital role in social support.
    C. Married people need less formal social support than single people.
    D. Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

 

  1. A low level of social integration is linked with:
  2. an improved sense of well-being among older adults.
    B. a more peaceful life for older adults.
    C. poorer health and earlier death in older adults.
    D. a more active lifestyle.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

 

  1. A recent study revealed that social isolation in late adulthood was associated with:
  2. a more active lifestyle.
    B. health-risk behaviors.
    C. a lower incidence of smoking.
    D. fewer negative emotional experiences.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

 

  1. Which of the following could be the probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults?
  2. Younger adults tend to perceive time differently, influencing their definition of loneliness.
    B. Most of the older adults are in community homes, thus reducing loneliness.
    C. Most of the older adults tend to reemploy themselves, thus reducing loneliness.
    D. Older adults have more selective social networks and a greater acceptance of solitude.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

 

  1. A 12-year longitudinal study revealed that older adults who had persistently low or declining feelings of usefulness to others had:
  2. steadily improving life satisfaction.
    B. an increased risk of fatal injuries.
    C. an increased risk of earlier death.
    D. an increased risk of divorce.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Altruism/Volunteering

 

  1. A recent analysis concluded that rates of volunteering do not decline significantly until the:
  2. mid-seventies.
    B. mid-sixties.
    C. mid-nineties.
    D. mid-twenties.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Altruism/Volunteering

 

  1. According to research, which of the following age groups is MOST likely to volunteer more than 100 hours annually?
  2. Emerging adults
    B. Older adults
    C. Adolescents
    D. Middle-aged adults

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Altruism/Volunteering

 

  1. In a study of older adults at 70, 78, and 85, the MOST consistent factor that predicted loneliness was:
  2. a lack of children.
    B. a lack of grandchildren.
    C. not being married.
    D. not having friends.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

 

  1. For 60- to 80-year-olds, the death of a partner was a stronger indicator of loneliness:
  2. for men than for women.
    B. for women than men.
    C. for children than grandchildren.
    D. for grandchildren than great grandchildren.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

 

  1. According to research, decrease in cognitive functioning of older adults was linked to:
  2. loneliness and isolation.
    B. aerobic exercise.
    C. mindfulness training.
    D. marriage.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE regarding altruism and volunteerism in older adults?
  2. Older adults are more focused on optimizing personal financial gain.
    B. The highest percentage of volunteers are age 23-31.
    C. Older adults are focused on contributing to the public good.
    D. There are multiple negative consequences associated with older adults volunteering.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Altruism/Volunteering

 

  1. All of the following are associated with volunteering in late adulthood EXCEPT:
  2. Social integration.
    B. Increased mortality risk.
    C. Enhanced meaningfulness.
    D. Feeling productive.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Altruism/Volunteering

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of adults 65 years and over engaged in volunteering in 2013?
  2. 15
    B. 25
    C. 45
    D. 65

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Altruism/Volunteering

 

  1. Identify the possible double jeopardy for elderly ethnic minority individuals.
  2. Sexism and chauvinism
    B. Nepotism and egotism
    C. Adultism and adultcentrism
    D. Ageism and racism

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.4: Summarize how ethnicity, gender, and culture are linked with aging.
Topic: Ethnicity

 

  1. What is the “triple jeopardy” faced by African-American and Latino women when it comes to income and financial levels of support in the elder years?
  2. Ageism, sexism, and racism
    B. Medicare, Medicaid, and welfare
    C. Unemployment, poverty, and insufficient Medicare
    D. Inadequate housing, job displacement, and lack of medical care

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.4: Summarize how ethnicity, gender, and culture are linked with aging.
Topic: Gender

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture?
  2. Whether older people control key community resources
    B. Whether the extended family is a common family arrangement
    C. Whether older people are permitted to engage in useful functions
    D. Whether older people have had a large number of children

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.4: Summarize how ethnicity, gender, and culture are linked with aging.
Topic: Culture

 

  1. It is observed that respect for older adults is greater in _____ cultures than in _____ cultures.
  2. socialistic; capitalistic
    B. spiritualistic; competitive
    C. collectivistic; individualistic
    D. religious; materialistic

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.4: Summarize how ethnicity, gender, and culture are linked with aging.
Topic: Culture

 

  1. Which of the following factors is MOST likely to predict high status for older adults in a culture?
  2. Age-related role changes involve reduced responsibility.
    B. Older persons control key family/community resources.
    C. Nuclear families are the most common family arrangement in a culture.
    D. Older adults retire early and authority shifts to younger adults.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.4: Summarize how ethnicity, gender, and culture are linked with aging.
Topic: Culture

 

  1. Which of the following is especially important to successful aging?
  2. Being active
    B. Retiring early
    C. Avoiding physical activity
    D. Avoiding challenging cognitive activities

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.5: Identify strategies for successful aging.
Topic: Successful Aging

 

  1. In a recent Canadian study of older adults, which of the following was NOT linked to aging successfully?
  2. Being single
    B. A regular drinker
    C. Good health
    D. Life satisfaction

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.5: Identify strategies for successful aging.
Topic: Successful Aging

 

  1. According to a recent study, maximization of which psychological resource was linked to a higher quality of life in the future?
  2. Preconventional reasoning
    B. Preoperational thought
    C. Self-efficacy
    D. Pessimism

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.5: Identify strategies for successful aging.
Topic: Successful Aging

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

Identification Questions

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. According to Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory, this is the name of the eighth and final stage of development.

Integrity versus despair

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

  1. 98. The process of looking back at one’s life experiences, evaluating them, interpreting them, and often reinterpreting them.

Life review

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

  1. 99. Therapy that involves discussing past activities and experiences with another individual or group.

Reminiscence therapy

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. A theory of aging suggests that older adults become more selective about their social networks because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction in their relationships.

Socioemotional selectivity theory

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

  1. 101. This theorist proposed the “selective optimization with compensation theory” of aging.

Paul Baltes

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

  1. 102. The theory that successful aging is related to three main factors: selection, optimization, and compensation.

Selective optimization with compensation theory

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

 

  1. The concept that suggests that it is possible to maintain performance in some areas through continued practice and the use of new technologies.

Optimization

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

  1. 104. Prejudice against individuals because of their age, especially prejudice against older adults.

Ageism

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Stereotyping

  1. 105. Used by 71 percent of adults 65 or older and linked to improved cognitive function and reduction of depression.

The Internet

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Policy Issues

 

  1. The social support model that says that individuals go through life embedded in a personal network of individuals from whom they give and receive social support.

The social convoy model

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Social Support/Integration

Short Answer Questions

  1. Name and briefly discuss Erikson’s final stage of development.

Integrity versus despair is Erikson’s eighth and final stage of development, which individuals experience during late adulthood. This stage involves reflecting on the past and either piecing together a positive review or concluding that one’s life has not been well spent.

If the older adult has developed a positive outlook in each of the preceding periods, retrospective glances and reminiscences will reveal a picture of a life well spent, and the older adult will be satisfied (integrity). But if the older adult resolved one or more of the earlier stages in a negative way, retrospective glances about the total worth of his/her life might be negative (despair).

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Integrity versus Despair

 

  1. What does activity theory suggest for older adults?

Activity theory states that the more active and involved older adults are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives. Activity theory suggests that many individuals will achieve greater life satisfaction if they continue their middle-adulthood roles into late adulthood. If these roles are stripped from them (as in early retirement), it is important for them to find substitute roles that keep them active and involved.

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Activity Theory

  1. 109. What is the socioemotional selectivity theory?

The socioemotional selectivity theory states that older adults become more selective about their social networks. Because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction, older adults often spend more time with familiar individuals with whom they have had rewarding relationships.

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

 

  1. What are the two important classes of goals identified by socioemotional selectivity theory? How do they differ across different age periods?

The socioemotional theory suggests that there are two important classes of goals: (1) knowledge-related and (2) emotion-related. This theory emphasizes that the trajectory of motivation for knowledge-related goals starts relatively high in the early years of life, peaking in adolescence and early adulthood, and then declining in middle and late adulthood. The emotion trajectory is high during infancy and early childhood, declines from middle childhood through early adulthood, and increases in middle and late adulthood.

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

  1. 111. Describe the selective optimization with compensation model.

This model proposes that aging is related to three main factors: (a) selection—reduced capacity and loss of functioning require selection in activities to continue; (b) optimization—performance in some areas can be maintained by practice and use of new technologies; (c) compensation—occurs when life tasks require capacity beyond the level of an older adult’s performance potential.

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.1: Discuss four theories of socioemotional development and aging.
Topic: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

 

  1. What are the Big Five personality factors that influence mortality of older adults?

Researchers have found that some personality traits are associated with the mortality of older adults. One study revealed that the Big Five personality factor of conscientiousness predicted higher mortality risk from childhood through late adulthood. Another study found that two of the Big Five factors were linked to older adults’ mortality in one study, with low conscientiousness and high neuroticism predicting earlier death. In a five-year longitudinal study, higher levels of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were related to higher mortality risk.

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Personality

  1. 113. What are the typical effects of ageism?

Social participation by older adults is often discouraged by ageism, which is prejudice against others because of their age, especially prejudice against older adults. They are often perceived as incapable of thinking clearly, learning new things, enjoying sex, contributing to the community, or holding responsible jobs. Because of their age, older adults might not be hired for new jobs or might be eased out of old ones; they might be shunned socially; and they might be edged out of their family life.

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.2: Describe links between personality and mortality, and identify changes in the self and society in late adulthood.
Topic: Stereotyping

 

  1. What is the role of gender in relationships involving older adult parents and their children?

Gender plays an important role in relationships involving older adult parents and their children. Adult daughters rather than adult sons are more likely to be involved in the lives of aging parents. Adult daughters are three times more likely than are adult sons to give parents assistance with daily living activities.

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 16.3: Characterize the social relationships of aging adults.
Topic: Adult Parents and Adult Children

  1. 115. Describe the influence of ethnicity in old age.

Comparative information about African-Americans, Latinos, and whites indicates a possible double jeopardy for elderly ethnic minority individuals. They face problems related to both ageism and racism. Both the wealth and the health of ethnic minority older adults decrease more rapidly than for elderly non-Latino whites. Older ethnic minority individuals are more likely to become ill but less likely to receive treatment. They also are more likely to have a history of less education, unemployment, worse housing conditions, and shorter life expectancies than their older non-Latino white counterparts. And many ethnic minority workers never enjoy the Social Security and Medicare benefits to which their earnings contribute, because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits.

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.4: Summarize how ethnicity, gender, and culture are linked with aging.
Topic: Ethnicity

 

  1. What are some of the problems faced by older adult women? Discuss the triple jeopardy faced by older female ethnic minorities.

A possible double jeopardy faces many women—the burden of both ageism and sexism. The poverty rate for older adult females is almost double that of older adult males.

Not only is it important to be concerned about older women’s double jeopardy of ageism and sexism, but special attention also needs to be devoted to female ethnic minority older adults. They face what could be described as triple jeopardy—ageism, sexism, and racism.

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 16.4: Summarize how ethnicity, gender, and culture are linked with aging.
Topic: Gender

 

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