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Essentials of Sociology 10th Edition Henslin Test Bank

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Essentials of Sociology 10th Edition Henslin Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205898473

ISBN-10: 0205898475

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Essentials of Sociology 10th Edition Henslin Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205898473

ISBN-10: 0205898475

 

 

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Chapter 10     Gender and Age

10.1  True/False Questions

  • Gender stratification refers to the unequal access to power, property, and prestige of males and females based on their sex.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 276

Skill: Comprehension

  • Sociologically, “gender” and “sex” are interchangeable terms that have virtually the same meaning.

Answer:         FALSE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 276

Skill: Comprehension

  • The 1985 Vietnam veterans study clearly demonstrated that biology (in this case, testosterone) is the cause of male aggressiveness.

Answer:         FALSE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 279

Skill: Comprehension

  • Sociologically, females are appropriately classified as a minority group.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 279

Skill: Application

  • In hunting and gathering as well as horticultural societies, women contributed the majority of the food supply to their groups.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 282

Skill: Knowledge

  • The major theories on the origin of patriarchy point to the social consequences of human reproduction.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 282

Skill: Knowledge

  • Promotion of feminism and the rights of women in the Least Industrialized Nations has resulted in the practice of honor killing being outlawed throughout the world.

Answer:         FALSE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 284

Skill: Knowledge

  • The fact that women are twice as likely to die after coronary bypass surgery can be traced to unintentional sexual discrimination by medical personnel.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 288

Skill: Application

 

 

  • The ratio of women who work for wages is evenly distributed throughout the United States.

Answer:         FALSE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 292-293

Skill: Knowledge

  • The “testosterone bonus” refers to men’s ability to think quicker and act more decisively than women.

Answer:         FALSE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 293

Skill: Knowledge

  • The Supreme Court has ruled that sexual harassment laws do not apply equally to homosexuals who are harassed by heterosexuals on the job.

Answer:         FALSE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 296

Skill: Knowledge

  • Because age is socially constructed, there is little unified agreement worldwide on the image and treatment of the elderly.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 300

Skill: Application

  • The terms “life span” and “life expectancy” are interchangeable and virtually mean the same thing.

Answer:         FALSE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 300, 302

Skill: Comprehension

  • Citizens of Japan have the longest life expectancy of any industrialized nation.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 301

Skill: Knowledge

  • The number of members in an age cohort determines the size of a “baby boom” or a “baby bust.”

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 304

Skill: Knowledge

  • Elaine Cumming and William Henry discovered that the elderly abruptly shift gears upon retiring, which is the basis of disengagement theory.

Answer:         FALSE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 304-305

Skill: Knowledge

  • Continuity theory and disengagement theory are aligned with the functionalist perspective.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 304-305

Skill: Knowledge

  • Gender age is the relative value that a culture places on men’s and women’s ages, such as gray hair on men interpreted as a sign of being mature and gray hair on women interpreted as a sign of being old.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 305

Skill: Application

  • Historically, television advertisements and other forms of media have portrayed elderly people with negative images.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 305

Skill: Knowledge

  • Because of the high costs of Medicare and Social Security, programs that benefit children are underfunded.

Answer:         FALSE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 308

Skill: Knowledge

  • Social Security and Medicare account for almost two-thirds of the tax dollars spent by the federal government.

Answer:         TRUE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 308

Skill: Knowledge

 

10.2  Multiple Choice Questions

1) Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?

  1. A) It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life.
  2. B) It permits a comparison to superior male qualities.
  3. C) It provides one group to lead, another to follow.
  4. D) It reinforces the teachings of Genesis.

Answer:   A

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Comprehension

2) Which statement is LEAST accurate regarding sex and gender?

  1. A) The world offers unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on one’s sex.
  2. B) Being born male or female carries images and expectations of how one should act.
  3. C) Gender is sociologically significant because it is the way in which society controls its members.
  4. D) The terms “sex” and “gender” are sociologically and biologically interchangeable.

Answer:   D

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Evaluation

3) The term for the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person’s sex is ________.

  1. A) sex typing
  2. B) sexual harassment
  3. C) gender stratification
  4. D) matriarchy

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Knowledge

4) While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.

  1. A) psychological
  2. B) biological
  3. C) philosophical
  4. D) anthropological

Answer:   B

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Analysis

5) Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?

  1. A) increased body hair in men
  2. B) lower voice in men
  3. C) a uterus in women
  4. D) broader hips in women

Answer:   C

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Comprehension

6) What is the normal chromosome configuration for a male?

  1. A) XY
  2. B) XX
  3. C) XYY
  4. D) XXY

Answer:   A

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Knowledge

7) Who proposed the concept that women are better prepared biologically for “mothering” than men, which is overlaid with culture?

  1. A) Cynthia Fuchs Epstein
  2. B) Margaret Mead
  3. C) Alice Rossi
  4. D) Rebecca Ann Wilson

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 279

Skill: Knowledge

8)    Past research appears to have supported the idea that men who have higher levels of testosterone tend to be more aggressive. What is an alternative explanation to the testosterone thesis to explain aggressive behavior in men?

  1. A) the social norms of the society in which men are raised
  2. B) the social structure of a man’s immediate family
  3. C) the social class to which a man belongs
  4. D) the social role of men

Answer:   C

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 279

Skill: Application

9)   What classification or terminology do sociologists apply to women that describe their inability to gain equal access to power, property, and prestige?

  1. A) the glass escalator
  2. B) radical feminism
  3. C) a counterculture
  4. D) minority group

Answer:   D

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 279

Skill: Comprehension

10) Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?

  1. A) Women are outnumbered by men in virtually every society.
  2. B) Women are not as physically strong as men.
  3. C) Men perform the most difficult and dangerous work in most societies.
  4. D) There is not a single society known where women-as-a-group have decision-making power over men.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 279

Skill: Application

11) In what society were women and men often considered social equals?

  1. A) industrial
  2. B) pastoral and horticultural
  3. C) agricultural
  4. D) hunting and gathering

Answer:   D

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 282

Skill: Comprehension

12) What is the practice of suttee?

  1. A) permitting only men the right to vote
  2. B) requiring women to cover their faces in public
  3. C) passing legislation that legally makes women inferior to men
  4. D) burning the living widow with the body of her dead husband

Answer:   D

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 284

Skill: Comprehension

13) In Pakistan, Jordan, and Kurdistan, a woman who has brought disgrace to her family is killed by a male relative, usually her brother or husband. This practice is called ________.

  1. A) honor killing
  2. B) domestic manslaughter
  3. C) blood feud
  4. D) infanticide

Answer:   A

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 284

Skill: Comprehension

14) What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with regard to justifying gender stratification?

  1. A) symbolic interactionism
  2. B) exchange theory
  3. C) neo-Marxism
  4. D) feminism

Answer:   D

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 284

Skill: Knowledge

15) The first wave of the women’s movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch. What was the goal of the radical branch of the movement?

  1. A) campaigning to pass an Equal Rights Amendment
  2. B) winning the right to vote for women
  3. C) reforming all the institutions of society
  4. D) changing women’s work roles

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 287

Skill: Knowledge

16) Which wave of feminism was characterized by broad goals ranging from an increase in women’s pay to an antiviolence campaign?

  1. A) the first wave
  2. B) the second wave
  3. C) the third wave
  4. D) the fourth wave

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 287

Skill: Knowledge

17) Which wave of the women’s movement focused on the problems of women in the Least Industrialized Nations?

  1. A) the first wave
  2. B) the second wave
  3. C) the third wave
  4. D) the fourth wave

Answer:   C

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 287

Skill: Application

18) The fact that nearly 80 percent of engineering degrees are awarded to men while 90 percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates the phenomenon of ________.

  1. A) feminization of the workplace
  2. B) gender tracking
  3. C) affirmative action
  4. D) political correctness

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 290-291

Skill: Application

19) In 1890, women made up about  ________ of the U.S. labor force. Today, they represent almost ________.

  1. A) 0; 35
  2. B) 10; 35
  3. C) 15; 40
  4. D) 20; 50

Answer:   D

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 292

Skill: Knowledge

20) When many students graduate from college, they are able to earn an extra $1,465 a month between the ages of 25 and 65. These students manage to earn this bonus by ________.

  1. A) majoring in business
  2. B) being born male
  3. C) joining an influential fraternity/sorority
  4. D) majoring in medicine

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 292

Skill: Knowledge

21) Joan and Jim were both hired to do the same work at the Acme Tool Company, although Jim’s title is slightly different from Joan’s. Jim has received a higher starting salary. What do sociologists call this form of employment discrimination?

  1. A) the testosterone bonus
  2. B) the good ol’ boy network
  3. C) the blue-collar syndrome
  4. D) management by gender

Answer:   A

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 293

Skill: Knowledge

 

22) What is the term for gender discrimination against women who miss the work experience while they care for children at home?

  1. A) the child penalty
  2. B) the devaluation of women
  3. C) the glass ceiling
  4. D) the glass escalator

Answer:   A

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 293-294

Skill: Knowledge

23) Of the nation’s top 500 corporations, referred to as the “Fortune 500,” ________ are headed by women.

  1. A) none
  2. B) twelve
  3. C) twenty-five
  4. D) thirty-seven

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 294

Skill: Knowledge

24) Based the same levels of academic achievement, where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?

  1. A) among high school dropouts
  2. B) among high school graduates
  3. C) among those who earned some college credits but no degree
  4. D) among college graduates

Answer:   D

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 294

Skill: Knowledge

25) Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion MOST likely illustrates ________.

  1. A) the “glass ceiling”
  2. B) the “glass elevator”
  3. C) the “mommy track”
  4. D) sexual harassment

Answer:   A

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 294

Skill: Application

26) Marketing, sales, and production positions are considered _________ that lead(s) to the top of a company.

  1. A) support positions
  2. B) barriers to jobs
  3. C) pipelines
  4. D) “women’s work”

Answer: C

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 294-295

Skill: Application

 

27) By the 1970s, women began to perceive unwanted sexual advances at work and school as part of a _______. problem.

  1. A) gender
  2. B) structural
  3. C) coworker
  4. D) company

Answer:   B

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 295

Skill: Analysis

28) Which of the following statements BEST describes how feminists view sexual harassment?

  1. A) It is a fundamental difference in how men and women think.
  2. B) It is based on the social process that guides society.
  3. C) It is based on the structural problems embedded in society.
  4. D) It is caused by the biological differences between men and women.

Answer:   C

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 295-296

Skill: Comprehension

29) Which of the following is NOT an example of sexual harassment?

  1. A) A male boss using his position of authority to pressure women who work for him to perform sexual favors.
  2. B) A woman making obscene comments to a male homosexual with whom she works.
  3. C) A homosexual male making unwanted advances toward a female college student.
  4. D) A high school boy acting obnoxious around a girl to whom he is attracted.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 295-296

Skill: Application

30) What has the Supreme Court ruled regarding the treatment of homosexuals in the workplace and sexual harassment?

  1. A) Homosexuals can only file claims of sexual harassment if the aggressor was also a homosexual.
  2. B) Sexual desire is a fundamental requirement for a sexual harassment charge to be valid.
  3. C) Sexual harassment laws apply to homosexuals who are harassed by heterosexuals or other homosexuals on the job.
  4. D) Homosexuals are not a protected class and, therefore, are not covered by sexual harassment laws.

Answer:   C

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 296

Skill: Application

31) Which group of men do women fear the MOST as potential rapists?

  1. A) coworkers
  2. B) strangers
  3. C) family members outside the home
  4. D) family members in the home

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 296

Skill: Knowledge

32) The age range of women MOST likely to be victims of rape is ________.

  1. A) 12 to 15
  2. B) 16 to 19
  3. C) 20 to 24
  4. D) 25 to 34

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 296

Skill: Knowledge

33) Which statement BEST summarizes the relationship between killers and their victims?

  1. A) Women and men are equally represented as victims of homicide.
  2. B) Women and men are equally represented as perpetrators of homicide.
  3. C) More women than men are victims of homicide.
  4. D) Men outnumber women as both victims and killers.

Answer:   D

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 297

Skill: Evaluation

34) In politics, what distinction does Carol Moseley-Braun hold?

  1. A) She was the first African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate.
  2. B) She was the first woman ever elected state governor.
  3. C) She was the first woman nominated for vice president of the United States by a major party.
  4. D) She was the first African American woman to hold a presidential cabinet post.

Answer:   A

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 297-298

Skill: Knowledge

35) What does it mean when sociologists say that age is “socially constructed”?

  1. A) Age is based on sociobiological concepts.
  2. B) Age is related to heredity and genes.
  3. C) Age is perceived in a similar manner all over the world.
  4. D) Age is based on cultural attitudes that are rooted in a society.

Answer:   D

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 300

Skill: Comprehension

36) Which of the following nations has the lowest percentage of population age 65 or older?

  1. A) Afghanistan
  2. B) Uganda
  3. C) Poland
  4. D) Hungary

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 300

Skill: Knowledge

37) The life span for humans is recorded as ________, based on the well-documented records of a French woman who died in 1977.

  1. A) 109
  2. B) 115
  3. C) 122
  4. D) 128

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 302

Skill: Knowledge

 

38) What term refers to the maximum length of life that is possible for a species?

  1. A) life expectancy
  2. B) life span
  3. C) life cycle
  4. D) life course

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 302

Skill: Knowledge

39) The term “________” refers to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age, and was coined by the physician ________.

  1. A) gerotranscendence; Lars Tornstam
  2. B) gender age; Francis E. Downey
  3. C) ageism; Robert Butler
  4. D) age cohort; C. Everett Koop

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 302-303

Skill: Knowledge

40) Prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age is called ________.

  1. A) reverse discrimination
  2. B) disengagement
  3. C) ageism
  4. D) age cohort

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 302-303

Skill: Knowledge

41) How do theorists view the relationship between industrialization and the elderly in the United States?

  1. A) The social value of the elderly increased with industrialization.
  2. B) The social value of the elderly decreased with industrialization.
  3. C) The elderly were recognized for their knowledge and skills as a result of industrialization.
  4. D) The elderly were identified as having reached an honorable distinction as a result of industrialization.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 303

Skill: Application

42) In colonial America, reaching an older age was viewed ________.

  1. A) as a significant accomplishment
  2. B) as an unusual and repulsive process
  3. C) as something to be avoided
  4. D) with indifference

Answer:   A

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 303

Skill: Comprehension

43) What sociological perspective stresses that age has no inherent meaning and that each culture shapes the way that its citizens perceive the elderly?

  1. A) symbolic interactionism
  2. B) functionalism
  3. C) the conflict perspective
  4. D) the feminist perspective

Answer:   A

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 303

Skill: Application

44) Which theory, developed by Swedish sociologist Lars Tornstam, describes the transformation of the elderly to feel more at one with the universe and to gain more understanding in their perception of social issues?

  1. A) continuity theory
  2. B) gerotranscendence
  3. C) activity theory
  4. D) disengagement theory

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 304

Skill: Application

45) As the “baby boom” generation reaches retirement age, what can be expected of its effect on the economy?

  1. A) Many jobs will open at roughly the same time.
  2. B) Fewer jobs will be made available.
  3. C) The labor market will become more male-dominated.
  4. D) The Gross National Product (GNP) will rise.

Answer:   A

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 304

Skill: Application

46) Which theory posits the notion that retirement is a mutually beneficial agreement between two parts of society, the old and the young?

  1. A) activity theory
  2. B) exchange theory
  3. C) disengagement theory
  4. D) conflict theory

Answer:   C

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 305

Skill: Comprehension

47) Because the first of the baby boom generation has now turned 60, we are likely to see a shift to more positive images of the elderly. What is the major reason for this?

  1. A) They recognize that there is a certain distinction in being elderly.
  2. B) Their vast numbers translate into economic clout and political power.
  3. C) They tend to be much more productive in the labor market than younger workers.
  4. D) They represent a storehouse of occupational knowledge and work skills.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 305

Skill: Application

48) What flaw did Jerrome and Manheimer see in disengagement theory?

  1. A) It is applicable only to Western cultures and customs.
  2. B) It is a myth that society takes care of the elderly when they retire.
  3. C) It fails to take into account people from the inner city, rural America, and other poor areas.
  4. D) It contains an implicit bias against older people, claiming that they abandon socially productive roles.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 305

Skill: Application

49) How have television advertisements and other forms of cultural media typically portrayed the elderly?

  1. A) as wise and knowing
  2. B) as overprotective and nurturing
  3. C) as accomplished and affluent
  4. D) as unimportant and stereotyped

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 305

Skill: Application

50) What did the research by anthropologist Dorothy Jerrome show regarding the ways in which the elderly actually retire?

  1. A) They abruptly disengage from their productive roles.
  2. B) They exchange one set of roles for another set of roles.
  3. C) They prefer to be supported by their former employer rather than the government.
  4. D) They retire only when under duress or when forced to do so.

Answer:   B

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 305

Skill: Comprehension

51) ________ was the physician who started a movement in 1930 to levy a 2 percent national sales tax to support the elderly.

  1. A) Alan Scarsdale
  2. B) Jonas Salk
  3. C) Everett Koop
  4. D) Francis Townsend

Answer:   D

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 307

Skill: Knowledge

52) Who proposed the Social Security plan that was finally adopted by Congress in 1934?

  1. A) Franklin D. Roosevelt
  2. B) Francis Townsend
  3. C) Robert Butler
  4. D) Lyndon Johnson

Answer:   A

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 307

Skill: Knowledge

53) Which sociological perspective is MOST closely aligned with the explanation that Social Security benefits came about as the result of a struggle between competing interest groups?

  1. A) the conflict perspective
  2. B) functionalism
  3. C) the feminist perspective
  4. D) symbolic interactionism

Answer:   A

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 308

Skill: Comprehension

 

10.3  Short Answer Questions

1) What is the difference between sex and gender?

Answer:   Sex refers to biological characteristics that distinguish males from females. Gender refers to specific behaviors and attitudes that a society considers as proper for males or for females.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Analysis

2) Define primary and secondary sex characteristics, and give specific examples of each.

Answer:   Primary sex characteristics are organs related to reproduction (penis, vagina, uterus, etc.). Secondary sex characteristics are physical distinctions between males and females that are not directly connected with reproduction (muscle development in men, lower voice and facial hair in men, and breast development and widened hips in women, etc.).

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Analysis

3) If the chromosome set is XY the resulting sex is __________.

Answer:   male

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Knowledge

4) What was the final outcome in the life of “Brenda,” the identical male twin whose penis was accidentally destroyed during circumcision, and who converted to a female (Brenda) and later converted back to a male (David)?

Answer:   Although David married and adopted children, he later committed suicide

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 278

Skill: Knowledge

5) What conclusion was reached after examining the medical records and behavior of more than 4,400 combat veterans in the 1985 Vietnam veterans study?

Answer:   High levels of testosterone are not necessarily responsible for aggressive behavior by men. Social factors —including classRemember,cialization, life goals, and self-definitions—also play a role in determining aggressiveness.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 279

Skill: Comprehension

6)  What is feminism?

Answer:   the view that biology is not destiny, and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be strongly opposed by both men and women

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 284

Skill: Knowledge

7)    How do feminists characterize female circumcision?

Answer:   as a form of ritual torture to control female sexuality

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 285

Skill: Application

8)    What is the “testosterone bonus”?

Answer:   the tendency for men to earn more money for doing the same work as women

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 293

Skill: Knowledge

9)    What is sexual harassment?

Answer:   Sexual harassment is the abuse of one’s position of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone, including unwelcome sexual attention at work or at school, which was not recognized as social a problem until the 1970s.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 293

Skill: Knowledge

10) How do women rate as both killers and victims of killers, as compared to men?

Answer:   Women account for 11 percent of the killers and 23 percent of the victims, while men account for 89 percent of the killers and 77 percent of the victims.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 297

Skill: Knowledge

11) What three factors are believed to account for the long life of the Abkhasians?

Answer:   (1) their diet, which contains little meat;
(2) their amount of physical activity, which includes lifelong work;
(3) their highly developed sense of community.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 300

Skill: Knowledge

12) By 2000, the median age in the United States population was approximately 35. What does this mean, and how is it calculated?

Answer:   at age 35 there are as many Americans older as there are younger—calculated by considering all ages from the youngest to the oldest and determining the age exactly in the middle

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 302

Skill: Analysis

13) Based on the symbolic interactionist perspective, why do people in Western cultures have a difficult time applying the label “old” to themselves?

Answer:   because changes are gradual, are unnoticeable on a daily basis, and reflect the same shifts seen in others who are aging along with us

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 303

Skill: Application

14) Provide several examples of gender age using Hollywood celebrities.

Answer:   There are many examples. Among them are Sean Connery, who looks more regal and intellectual as the father of Indiana Jones than he did as 007 in Dr. No; Alex Trebek, who has hosted Jeopardy for years, looks smarter as he has grown older; Dick Clark, the never-aging teenager, appeared more and more mature as he grew older. On the other hand, actresses who have lost their edge as box office attractions due to aging include Goldie Hawn, Demi Moore, and Jane Fonda.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 303

Skill: Comprehension

15) What is the major criticism of disengagement theory as an explanation for the ways in which the elderly adjust to retirement?

Answer:   that it is biased against older people, assuming they leave productive social roles and just sink into oblivion, while in reality they often exchange one set of roles for another set

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 305

Skill: Analysis

16) What is the basic premise of activity theory?

Answer:   what makes life satisfying for one person doesn’t work for another

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 306

Skill: Comprehension

17) What is the major criticism of continuity theory as an explanation of how the elderly adjust to retirement?

Answer:   that it is too broad in applying to people of all ages and not just retirees, and that it is merely a collection of loosely connected ideas

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 306

Skill: Analysis

18) What was the Townsend Plan?

Answer:   a retirement system proposed by Dr. Francis Townsend in 1930 that would have paid all Americans over age 65 a $200 a month allowance, to be funded with a national 2 percent sales tax

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 307

Skill: Comprehension

10.4  Essay Questions

1) What is gender stratification? Generally speaking, what are the consequences of gender stratification?

Answer:   Gender stratification refers to the ranking of people based on their biological sex. This ranking results in males and females having unequal access to power, prestige, and property, which either enhances or limits a person’s access to a society’s resources.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 276

Skill: Application

2) What is the dominant position in sociology as it relates to the relationship between sex and behavior? What proof can sociologists offer to support their position on this issue?

Answer:   The dominant sociological position is that social factors, not biological factors, are the reasons that people behave the way they do. Our visible differences based on sex do not come with meanings built into them. Rather, each human group makes its own interpretation of these physical differences, and on this basis, it assigns males and females to separate groups. There, people learn what is expected of them and are given access, or denied access, to their society’s privileges. Most sociologists support the compelling argument that if biology were the principal factor in human behavior, all around the world we would find women to be one sort of person and men to be another. In fact, ideas about gender vary greatly from one culture to another, and as a resultRemember, do male-female behaviors within each culture.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 278

Skill: Comprehension

3) Why do sociologists classify women as a minority group?

Answer:   Women are classified as a minority group because on a historical and global scale, they have had unequal access to power, property, and prestige on the basis of sex.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 279, 282

Skill: Comprehension

4) What is the major theory of the origin of patriarchy?

Answer:   Male domination in society points to the social consequences of human reproduction, with women being compromised by the need to conceive and nurse children.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 282

Skill: Knowledge

5) Briefly outline the thoughts of sociological theorists in explaining how women became a minority group.

Answer:   Some theorists point to the social consequences of the biology of reproduction to explain gender inequality. They suggest that the physical limitations imposed on women because of childbirth led to men assuming tasks that allowed them to become dominant. They did so by gaining control of weapons, accumulating material possessions and new knowledge, and acquiring prestige.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 282-283

Skill: Application

6)    What is “feminism”? Describe how it has evolved in the United States.

Answer:   Feminism is a philosophy that maintains that women and men should be equal politically, economically, and socially. The women’s movement in the U.S. actually has had three phases. (1) In the first phase, two branches of feminism existed—a radical branch that advocated the reform of all the society’s institutions, and a conservative branch that concentrated on winning the vote for women. During this first phase, the conservative branch dominated. After the vote was won in 1920, the movement basically dissolved.
(2) The second phase of the women’s movement began in the 1960s as larger numbers of women began to work outside the home on a more permanent basis and began to compare their working conditions with those of men. They protested and struggled against gender inequalities. The goals of this second movement (which continues today) are broad, ranging from changing work roles to reforming policies that deal with violence against women.
(3) A third phase of feminism has emerged, largely focusing on women in Least Industrialized Nations, values that dominate work and society, and impediments to women’s sexuality and sexual pleasure.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 284-287

Skill: Knowledge

7)    Describe the patterns of gender inequality that currently exist in education.

Answer:   More women than men are currently enrolled in universities and colleges (56 percent), and more women earn bachelor’s degrees (57 percent) and master’s degrees (60 percent). However, women are still generally “tracked” into degree programs that have been traditionally defined as feminine. In graduate school, the gender gap increases. Men tend to outnumber women in most science doctorates, are more likely to be promoted to full professor than women, and earn more money than women.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 290

Skill: Knowledge

8)    Describe how gender inequality exists in the workplace.

Answer:   Two primary ways in which gender inequality exists in the workplace are the existence of a gender gap in earnings and the existence of a “glass ceiling.” Regardless of the level of education, women’s wages average about 70 percent of men’s. About one-half of this gender gap in earnings is due to gender discrimination. Women often encounter what has been termed the “glass ceiling,” an invisible barrier that keeps them from being promoted to the executive positions in a company. Women are often restricted to jobs that are less likely to lead to these top positions because men stereotype women as supportive assistants rather than potential leaders. In addition, women often lack mentors who will teach them the ropes.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 292-295

Skill: Knowledge

9)    How does sex discrimination enter into the concept of the glass ceiling?

Answer:   The glass ceiling is the invisible barrier that keeps women from reaching top levels in the workplace. Women are stereotyped as being less capable of leadership than men but stronger in “support” positions such as public relations and human resources. Women are also less likely to have mentors who assist them in developing skills that open the doors to executive positions. Conversely, men who work in traditionally “female” jobs as nurses, elementary school teachers, librarians, or social workers find themselves promoted and being given high-level positions, better work assignments, and higher pay than women with equal training and experience. The ongoing stereotype dictates that someone who is a male is more capable, regardless of the field or the job.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 294-295

Skill: Application

10) Discuss gender violence and its effect on women.

Answer:   Women have been the object of collective violence by men throughout history. There are many reasons for this, one being the superior strength and size of men as compared to women. Domestic violence, forcible rape, acquaintance rape, and homicide are just a few of the areas in which women have been violently victimized. Women fear strangers as potential assailants, though research indicates that most rape victims know their attacker. Some sexually assaulted women are reluctant to report the crime, especially if the assault was carried out by an acquaintance. Regarding murder, women account for 23 percent of the nation’s homicide victims and 11 percent of the killers. This implies women are much more often killed by men, and are much less often the killers of men.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 296-297

Skill: Analysis

11) List and discuss the reasons why the citizens of Abkhasians who live in the mountainous regions of the former Soviet republic of Georgia have extended life expectancies. How would these conditions account for an increased life expectancy?

Answer:   The three reasons believed to be responsible for the Abkhasians’ extended life span are diet, physical activity, and community.
(1) Their diet includes little meat and a great amount of fruits and vegetables. This would be lower in cholesterol, fats, calories, and other elements that a Western diet of fatty meat and processed food provides.
(2) Lifelong physical activity keeps the body in shape and the mind alert while burning calories.
(3) A sense of community gives purpose and meaning to life, surrounding the elderly with family and friends. In many cultures, it is not uncommon for a person to die less than a year after a spouse. In this culture, a heightened sense of community provides an incentive to live longer.

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 300

Skill: Evaluation

12) Define the term “graying of America,” and describe the consequences of this social transformation.

Answer:   The term refers to the increasing proportion of older people in the U.S. population. In the United States today, there are fewer teenagers than there are older people. As the number of people who reach old age increases, more resources are needed from the younger people to provide for their needs. In the United States, these needs include payments of Social Security and health care benefits.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 301-302

Skill: Knowledge

13) Briefly describe how the meaning of “old age” has changed over time in the United States.

Answer:   Some analysts have suggested the following:
(1) In early U.S. society, growing old was seen as an accomplishment; younger people listened to the advice of the elderly about how to live to be old. The elderly continued to work, and because work was relatively unaffected by changes in technology (i.e., the pace of work and mechanization was slower), the elderly were viewed as teachers of the work skills needed.
(2) With industrialization, however, more people reached old ageRemember, it was no longer seen as a major accomplishment. Mass production coupled with mass education meant that the unique knowledge gained through long experience no longer needed to be shared with the young. The need to respect the elderly was eliminated, and society began to view the elderly as useless liabilities rather than strong assets.
(3) The meaning of “old age” is once again shifting due to the increasing wealth of the United States. Because of the large numbers of “baby boomers” and the power of their economic clout, we are likely to see a shift to a more positive image of the elderly.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 303-305

Skill: Analysis

14) What are some of the ramifications of the “baby boom” generation, those born from 1945 to 1964, as its members enter retirement age?

Answer:   There will be a job boom (increased vacancies) as these aging Americans retire. The elderly will become a more powerful political and economic force. The increased costs of Medicare and Social Security will place increased tax burdens on younger workers. Government bureaucrats, candidates for office, and  industry leaders will need to change their priorities and patterns of thinking to accommodate the aging population.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 305, 307-308

Skill: Analysis

15) Describe the three functionalist theories of disengagement, activity, and continuity. Note how each focuses on the adjustments that occur between elderly people and others in society.

Answer:   Functionalists focus on why retirement is beneficial for society and how individuals adjust to retirement.
(1) Disengagement theory explains retirement as a mechanism for ensuring that the society’s positions of responsibility are passed smoothly from one generation to the next. The individual starts to disengage during middle age by beginning to reassign priorities to goals and tasks, and continuing this process as time goes on.
(2) A study of retired people in France found that some people are happier when they are more active, but others prefer less involvement (Keith 1982). Similarly, most people find informal, intimate activities, such as spending time with friends, to be more satisfying than formal activities. But not everyone does.
(3) Continuity theory stresses that in retirement, people adjust to old age by continuing ties with their past. When they retire, people take up new roles similar to the ones they gave up. Research shows that people who are used to handling multiple roles and those who are more financially prepared adjust better to retirement.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 304-306

Skill: Analysis

16) What proposal preceded the Social Security plan that we know today? How did the Social Security system come into existence, and with what sociological perspective is it MOST aligned?

Answer:   (1) The first federal plan for retirement was proposed by Dr. Francis Townsend in 1930. Under the Townsend Plan, every American over 65 would receive $200 a month, supported by a 2 percent national sales tax. When the plan came before Congress, there was concern that it was too lavish and would encourage people to stop saving for the future.
(2) As an alternative, the more modest Social Security plan was proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt and was passed the Congress in 1934.
(3) The Social Security plan is most aligned with the conflict perspective because it came about as a struggle between competing interest groups.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 307-308

Skill: Comprehension

10.5  Open Book Questions

1) In the opening passage, the author describes the structure and social control that Amsterdam authorities have over prostitutes, as well as their medical checkups, certificates of operation, set prices, and retirement benefits. If such a structure were applied to prostitution in the U.S. with added features such as brothels only allowed in certain sections of certain cities, do you think it would find acceptance among the American people? Why or why not?

Answer:   Answers will vary, but it is likely that many students will argue that Americans would continue to reject legalized prostitution. Reasons include the following:
(1) a strong rebuttal by feminists that prostitution degrades women;
(2) the inability for lawmakers to introduce legislation to legalize prostitution without ruining their political careers;
(3) strong Judeo-Christian mores;
(4) cultural tradition that associates prostitution with that which is undesirable.

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 275

Skill: Synthesis

2) After reading Cultural Diversity around the World, “Female Circumcision,” provide reasons for the lack of success by the feminist movement to convince those practicing this technique to abandon it.

Answer     Reasons include the following:
(1) The nations that practice female mutilation are not prone to changing it simply because of the influence of Western culture.
(2) The nations practicing it are dominated by illiteracy and tradition. Science, medicine, and compassion toward women do not fare well in such an environment.
(3) Westerners are looked upon with suspicion and contempt. Who are they to criticize a technique practiced for centuries?
(4) In the minds of those who engage in the practice, it is an effective means of achieving the desired end.
(5) Even where this practice is declared illegal by a government, enforcement is difficult, if not impossible.

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 285

Skill: Synthesis

3) What is “feminism?” Describe how it has evolved in the United States.

Answer:   Feminism is a philosophy that maintains that women and men should be equal politically, economically, and socially. The women’s movement in the U.S. actually has had three phases.
(1) In the first phase, two branches of feminism existed—a radical branch that advocated the reform of all the society’s institutions, and a conservative branch that concentrated on winning the vote for women. During this first phase, the conservative branch dominated. After the vote was won in 1920, the movement began to dissolve.
(2) The second phase of the women’s movement began in the 1960s as larger numbers of women began to work on a more permanent basis and began to compare their working conditions with those of men. They protested and struggled against gender inequalities. The goals of this second movement (which continues today) are broader, ranging from changing work roles to reforming policies that deal with violence against women.
(3) A third phase of feminism has emerged, largely focusing on women in Least Industrialized Nations, values that dominate work and society, and impediments to women’s sexuality and sexual pleasure.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 287

Skill: Knowledge

4) How has the perception of sexual harassment evolved in American society? How is this related to symbolic interactionism?

Answer:   Sexual harassment is defined as the abuse of one’s position of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone. This may affect a person’s job or school performance, or it may create a hostile environment. Sexual harassment was not recognized as a social problem until the 1970s. Originally, sexual harassment was based on unwanted physical attraction and a desire for sex. But the concept was later recognized as being a structural problem related to abuse by people in positions of authority. The meaning of sexual harassment is vague, continually evolving and shifting as the courts redefine the term and identify what sexual harassment does and does not include. Because sexual harassment is “in the eye of the beholder,” it is most aligned with symbolic interactionism. Simple and often innocent comments that a young woman looks “beautiful” or that her dress is “pretty” may be misinterpreted by the recipient as a sexual advance or unwanted attention, therefore, potentially qualifying as harassment.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 295-296

Skill: Analysis

5) After reviewing Table 10.2 “Relationship of Victims and Rapists”, explain why women tend to fear being attacked by strangers when most attacks are perpetuated by someone the victim knows.

Answer:   Responses to this question can vary but should make sociological connections to our understandings of the influence of media portrayals of the perpetrators of violence and rape. The explanation might also refer to women’s perception of rape by an acquaintance as not serious enough.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 296-297

Skill: Analysis

6)    How are gender and politics changing?

Answer:   Women are participating more in politics. Specifically, they are taking part in more of the decision-making processes of our social institutions. They are holding political offices that have historically only been held by men. In 2007, Nancy Pelosi was the first woman elected as minority leader of the House of Representatives and five years later became Speaker of the House. This made her the most powerful woman ever in our government. Women are also securing important positions that influence policy. For example, they are becoming lawyers and corporate executives.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 297-298

Skill: Knowledge

7) After reviewing the section on “Industrialization and the Graying of the Globe” as well as Figure 10.10 “The Graying of the Globe,” what conclusions can be drawn about aging, geography, and industrialization?

Answer:   More industrialized countries are found in the Northern Hemisphere, and longer life expectancies are also more common in the Northern Hemisphere. Industrialized countries have higher percentages of elderly citizens, and many have sophisticated social security systems and related tax demands.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 300-302

Skill: Analysis

8)    Develop a plan for nursing homes to become more user-friendly and more successful in meeting the needs of the elderly.

Answer:   The potential for improvement is extensive, based on both the perspective of the evaluator and the needs of the resident. Whereas isolation is a major issue leading to depression, establishing programs that increase and encourage interaction with family and other community members would be beneficial. Eliminating the hospital atmosphere in favor of a more home-like environment would also improve morale. A good activities program that focuses on the residents’ abilities rather than disabilities would increase self-esteem. Simply replacing medical jargon with more family-oriented language will help (for example, those who live in the nursing home are “residents,” not “patients”). Other issues to be addressed might include positive staff training, recruitment of the most qualified workers, and a mission statement that focuses on the respect, dignity, and choice of the residents.

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 307

Skill: Synthesis

9) Develop a new model of aging. Improve on the idea that becoming old means a time closer to death, instead defining it as a time to celebrate new freedoms and unique opportunities.

Answer:   Aging in America today offers more types of activities for the elderly, including the ability to retire from one career but remain employed in other types of work. College campuses across the country offer older adults either free education or free noncredit attendance in courses. Cultural and physical activities have also expanded throughout communities, including a vast number of volunteer programs that encourage the elderly to become involved. Technology, particularly Internet access, has allowed for extensive communication and social interaction among older adults across the globe. Understanding these factors or becoming involved in these opportunities will slowly begin to change the ways in which younger generations perceive aging.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 310

Skill: Application

10.6  Line Art Questions

 

1) Examine Figure 10.2 “Changes in College Enrollment, by Sex.” Provide several possible reasons why the enrollment trends reversed between 1970 and 1980.

Answer:   (1) the rise of feminism and women’s rights opened the door for more women to pursue college educations during this period;
(2) the postindustrial society and its focus on the processing of information was emerging, which further increased the need for women to have college educations rather than to rely on “traditional” roles in the workplace and the home;
(3) family size decreased, freeing more women with families to become nontraditional students, often after their children were older;
(4) the draft ended, which ended the necessity of men to apply for a military deferment in order to enroll in college

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 290

Skill: Evaluation

 

2) Review Figure 10.3 “College Students by Sex and Race-Ethnicity.” Name some reasons why women outnumber men in every category of race-ethnicity.

Answer:   (1) The proportions of students for all categories reflect the overall trend of more women than men attending college.
(2) This implies that women are more successful in meeting college admission criteria.
(3) Options other than college are more appealing to men in the 18- to 21-year-old range, such as joining the military, assuming a career or full-time job, gang banging, or criminal pursuits.
(4) Women who previously could not attend college as single mothers are getting more help from campus day care centers and grandparents who assist with childcare duties.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 290-291

Skill: Analysis

 

3) Review Figure 10.8 “The Gender Gap Over Time: What Percentage of Men’s Income Do Women Earn?” What is the likely outcome of the trend if the direction of the lines continues indefinitely?

  1. A) Women will overtake men in earnings within the next 25 years.
  2. B) Women will be equal to men in earnings in the next 25 years.
  3. C) Men will pull away and increase the pay gap considerably by 2050.
  4. D) Women will still make less than men at approximately the same percentage.

Answer:   D

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 293, 295

Skill: Analysis

 

 

 

4) Figure 10.11 “U.S. Life Expectancy by Year of Birth” shows a gradual but steady increase in life expectancy in the United States since 1900. What are some possible reasons why life expectancy hasn’t spiked at certain periods when miracle drugs were invented (such as the polio vaccine) or when major breakthroughs in medical technology were accomplished (such as the artificial heart)?

Answer:   The benefits of these advances were not immediately felt by the entire population. There is also cultural lag to be considered. It usually takes a generation or two for such massive advancements to be recognized and experienced by the masses. If the chart were revised to cover changes every 25 to 30 years, the differences would be more pronounced.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 300-302

Skill: Analysis

 

 

 

5)    After examining Figure 10.15 “Social Security Payments to Beneficiaries,” offer several reasons for the sharp increase in the cost of the program since 1975.

Answer: Several reasons include the following:
(1) More Americans are living longer than at any other time in history, thus increasing the number of people collecting Social Security payments.
(2) The individual Social Security payment has increasedRemember, multiplied by the number of people collecting it, this creates a spike in the overall cost.
(3) Social Security is funding more people today who not retired, but disabled.
(4) The administrative costs of Social Security have increased.

Diff: 4    Page Ref: 308

Skill: Analysis

6) Figure 10.16 “Health Care Costs for the Elderly and Disabled” shows skyrocketing costs for both Medicare (which pays health care costs for the elderly) and Medicaid (which pays health care costs for the poor). Why have both funds seen such an increase in spending?

Answer:   Most health care procedures cost the same (per prescription, treatment, test, surgery) regardless of the age of the recipient. Poorer Americans covered by Medicaid tend to be more likely to have lifestyles that place them at risk, when compared to other Americans. This includes poor nutrition, nicotine and alcohol addictions, illegal drug use, unsafe sex practices, and other personal conditions. They are also subjected to higher rates of crimeRemember,cial unrest, safety concerns, environmental hazards, and pollutants due to living in the nation’s poorer neighborhoods. As a result, the poor are more likely than middle-class and upper-class Americans to contract diseases, become injured, or have accidents.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 308-309

Skill: Analysis

 

10.7 Matching Questions

Skill: Knowledge

  1)  sex

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 276

2)  gender

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 276

3)  primary sex characteristics

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 276

4)  secondary sex characteristics

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 276

5)  patriarchy

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 282

6)  minority group

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 279-280

7)  honor killing

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 284

8)    suttee

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 284

9)    feminism

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 284

10) female circumcision

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 285

11) gender tracking

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 290-291

12) glass ceiling

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 294-295

13) sexual harassment

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 295-296

  A)  the practice of burning the living widow with the body of the deceased husband

B)  physical distinctions between males and females that are not directly connected to reproduction

C)  people who are discriminated against on the basis of physical or cultural characteristics, regardless of their numbers

D)  the abuse of one’s position of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone

E)  behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity or femininity

F)  the tendency for college degrees to follow gender-reinforcing male-female distinctions

G)  a form of violence against females where a woman, thought to have disgraced her family, is killed by a male relative

H)  another term for female genital cutting or clitoral excision

I)  vagina, penis, and other organs related to reproduction

J)  the mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of the workplace

K)  a society or group in which men dominate women; authority vested in males

L)  biological characteristics that distinguish females from males

M) the view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted

 

1) L; 2) E; 3) I; 4) B; 5) K; 6) C; 7) G; 8) A; 9) M; 10) H; 11) F; 12) J; 13) D

Match the term with the definition.

 

 

10.7 Matching Questions

Skill: Knowledge

Match the term with the definition.

  1)  life expectancy

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 300

2)  life span

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 302

3)  gender age

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 305

4)  gerotranscendence

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 304

5)  baby boom

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 304

6)  age cohort

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 304

7)  baby bust

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 304

8)  activity theory

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 306

9)  continuity theory

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 306

10) Townsend Plan

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 307

 

  A) a large number of births within a relatively short span of years, leading to a population of individuals who proceed through the life course together

 

B) the number of years that an average person at any age, including newborns, can expect to live

 

C) one of the first retirement proposals that would have paid older Americans a monthly stipend funded by a national sales tax

 

D) the idea that people adjust to retirement by continuing aspects of their earlier lives

 

E) the maximum length of life of a species; for humans, the longest time that a human can live

 

F) the self-transformation that the elderly experience to feel more at home with the universe

 

G) people born at roughly the same time who pass through the life course together

 

H) a small number of births within a relatively short span of years who proceed through the life course together

 

I)  the relative value placed on men’s and women’s ages

 

J)  what makes life satisfying for one person doesn’t necessarily work for another.

 

1) B; 2) E; 3) I; 4) F; 5) A; 6) G; 7) H; 8) J; 9) D; 10) C

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