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Essentials of Sociology 11th Edition Henslin Test Bank

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Essentials of Sociology 11th Edition Henslin Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0133803549

ISBN-10: 0133803546

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Essentials of Sociology 11th Edition Henslin Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0133803549

ISBN-10: 0133803546

 

 

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Chapter 13     Education and Religion

13.1  True/False Questions

1) In Japan, a philosophy based on cooperation and group effort ensures virtually every student qualifies for admission to college.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 406

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

2) A central sociological principle is that a nation’s education system reflects its culture.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 406

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

3) The cultural transmission  of values is a latent function of education.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 408

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

4) Social integration promotes a student’s dedication to a national identity.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 408-409

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

5) Tracking is a form of gatekeeping in which students are sorted by their perceived abilities rather than their achieved abilities.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 409

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

6) Providing childcare is an example of a manifest function of the public school system.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 410

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

7)  Conflict theorists stress that the hidden curriculum in schools perpetuates social inequalities.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 410

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.3 Explain how the educational system reproduces the social class structure.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality

8)   Children who are home schooled become socially challenged when they encounter real world experiences.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 411

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

9)   Home schooling is new to the education scene, becoming popular due to the dissatisfaction of parents over the quality of public education.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 411

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

10) The Rist research demonstrated that social class and not intellectual capability was the basis of how teachers assigned students to reading levels in kindergarten.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 413-414

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

11) George Farkas discovered that girls and Asian American students receive higher grades than their academic equals because they know how to signal their teachers they are better students.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 414

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

12) Sociologists are primarily concerned with verifying the basic principles that guide any religion for their value and validity.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 418, 420

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

13) The word church, as used by Durkheim, is synonymous with the concept of a moral community.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 420

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

14) Members of a religious cult who practice human sacrifice qualify as a moral community as much as any organization that refers to itself as a religion, including Roman Catholics, fundamentalist Christians, Muslims, and Orthodox Jews.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 420

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

15) A dysfunction of religion that included executing suspected witches disappeared during the eighteenth century when religion became more civilized.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 422

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.7 Apply the functionalist perspective to religion: functions and dysfunctions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective

16) The Star of David is to Judaism as the eight-spoked wheel is to the Hindus.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

17) Jews, Christians, and Muslims all share a common ground in their religious beliefs which is called a cosmology.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

18) Religious experiences, such as being born again and being aware of God’s presence in everyday life, are what separate the ideology of a cult and the ideology of a major religion.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

19) Karl Marx was an avowed atheist who characterized religion as “the opium of the people.”

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 426

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.9 Apply the conflict perspective to religion: opium of the people and legitimating social inequalities.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective

20) Conflict theorists see religion as being the means of social change and an instrument to establish a perfect society.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 426

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.9 Apply the conflict perspective to religion: opium of the people and legitimating social inequalities.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective

21) The desire to accumulate capital as a duty and to constantly reinvest it is what Max Weber referred to as the Protestant ethic.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 426-427

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.10 Explain Weber’s analysis of how religion broke tradition and brought capitalism.

Topic/A-head: Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism

22) In state religions, which are also called ecclesia, the government and religion work together to try to shape society.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 430

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.11 Compare cult, sect, church, and ecclesia.

Topic/A-head: Types of Religious Groups

23) As a group, Jews and Jehovah’s Witnesses are status consistent in respect to income, education, and occupational prestige.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 431

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.12 Summarize main features of religion in the United States.

Topic/A-head: Religion in the United States

13.2  Multiple Choice Questions

1)    When employers use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even through the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work, it becomes a ________ society.

  1. A) fiduciary
  2. B) bifurcated
  3. C) credential
  4. D) bureaucratic

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 403

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

2)    Who was the sociologist who observed that industrialized nations are becoming credential societies?

  1. A) Randall Collins
  2. B) Michael Burawoy
  3. C) Robert Merton
  4. D) Pitirim Sorokin

Answer:   A

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 403

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

3)    What is the central sociological principle of education as it relates to a nation’s needs?

  1. A) It is a reflection of the nation’s culture and economy.
  2. B) It creates a system of labeling individuals to facilitate occupation and role.
  3. C) It is a formal system necessary for international recognition.
  4. D) It is the basis of developing a sense of national pride.

Answer:   A

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 406

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

4)    What is a core value reflected by the education system in Japan?

  1. A) individual competition and achievement
  2. B) competence in mastering knowledge
  3. C) a group-centered approach that stresses uniformity
  4. D) memorization and critical thinking

Answer:   C

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 406

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

5)   Although cooperation is a core value in Japan, Japanese students are admitted to college only on the basis of intense competition. This is an example of a ________.

  1. A) cultural contradiction
  2. B) value conflict
  3. C) status inconsistency
  4. D) role ambiguity

Answer:   A

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 406

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

6)   What event was responsible for the change in the Russian education system in 1917?

  1. A) World War I
  2. B) the Russian Revolution
  3. C) the emergence of the Stalin regime
  4. D) the establishment of the Communist party

Answer:   B

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 406-407

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

7)   From a functionalist perspective, what is the teaching of knowledge and skills which reinforces positive consequences in students?

  1. A) required prerequisites
  2. B) latent functions
  3. C) manifest functions
  4. D) social imperative

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 408

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

8)   What is the process by which schools pass a society’s core values from one generation to the next?

  1. A) cultural transmission of values
  2. B) social integration of education
  3. C) multiculturalism of society
  4. D) social pluralism of culture

Answer:   A

Diff:2             Page Ref: 408

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

9)   One of the functions performed by schools is to promote a sense of national identity and stabilize the political system. This function is referred to as ________.

  1. A) gatekeeping
  2. B) social integration
  3. C) mainstreaming
  4. D) tracking

Answer:   B

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 408-409

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

10) What is the most popular way to accomplish gatekeeping?

  1. A) creating a two-tier level of schools
  2. B) charging tuition for students to attend the better schools
  3. C) tracking or sorting students into different education programs
  4. D) opening programs to all students

Answer:   C

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 409-410

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

11) Edinboro University of Pennsylvania is one of the largest “wheelchair” universities in the United States, providing access of all programs to all students and establishing special wheelchair programs in sports competition. This is an example of ________.

  1. A) mainstreaming
  2. B) acculturation
  3. C) social integration
  4. D) leveling

Answer:   A

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 409

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

12) Determining which people will enter what occupation is a function of education referred to as ________.

  1. A) mainstreaming
  2. B) multicultural representation
  3. C) telescoping
  4. D) gatekeeping

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 409

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

13) Schools determining which people will enter what occupation based on their capabilities is referred to as ________.

  1. A) mainstreaming
  2. B) multicultural representation
  3. C) telescoping
  4. D) social placement

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 409

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

14) The three functionalists who advocated gatekeeping as a means to support people on the basis of merit and advocated social placement were ________, ________, and ________.

  1. A) Robert Merton; Talcott Parsons; Pitirim Sorokin
  2. B) Kingsley Davis; Edwin Sutherland; Herbert Spencer
  3. C) Talcott Parsons; Kingsley Davis; Wilbert Moore
  4. D) Wilbert Moore; Michael Burawoy; John B. Watson

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 409

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

15) What is the concept that some jobs require few skills and can be performed by people of less intelligence?

  1. A) multicultural representation
  2. B) personal growth
  3. C) social placement
  4. D) dedicated workers

Answer:   C

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 409

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

16) What do studies demonstrate in regard to the level of social skills home schooled students develop?

  1. A) Home-schooled students are functionally illiterate when it comes to social skills.
  2. B) Home-schooled students have significant behavioral problems.
  3. C) Home-schooled students are shy and timid when encountering new social situations.
  4. D) Home-schooled students are equal or do better than conventional schooled students.

Answer:   D

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 411

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

17) What do conflict theorists believe is the purpose of the hidden curriculum?

  1. A) It encourages the mainstreaming of students.
  2. B) It promotes individual change.
  3. C) It maintains the power of teachers.
  4. D) It promotes social inequalities.

Answer:   D

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 410

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.3 Explain how the educational system reproduces the social class structure.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality

18) You are taking an IQ test which will be used to determine your intelligence level. The first question asks you to identify all of the equipment you will need to play the game of shoeball. The second question asks the rules of the game. Finally, the third question asks you to explain how shoeball is scored and the number of points you need to win the game. Based on this question, what does the test demonstrate?

  1. A) It accurately measures intelligence.
  2. B) The test should be called a vocational aptitude test.
  3. C) The test is totally unreliable.
  4. D) It has a cultural bias in measuring intelligence.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 412

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.3 Explain how the educational system reproduces the social class structure.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality

19) IQ tests measure not only intelligence but also ________.

  1. A) social integration
  2. B) skills
  3. C) is acquired knowledge
  4. D) higher math

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 412

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.3 Explain how the educational system reproduces the social class structure.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality

20) What social worker suggested the dice question for IQ tests?

  1. A) Adrian Dove
  2. B) Talcott Parsons
  3. C) Michael Burawoy
  4. D) Travis Henry

Answer:   A

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 412

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.3 Explain how the educational system reproduces the social class structure.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality

21) How are public schools primarily funded?

  1. A) federal grants
  2. B) state grants
  3. C) state and federal grants
  4. D) local property taxes

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 412

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.3 Explain how the educational system reproduces the social class structure.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality

22) The most significant predictor of whether a student will attend college is his/her ________.

  1. A) test scores
  2. B) motivation
  3. C) family background
  4. D) personality

Answer:   C

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 412

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.3 Explain how the educational system reproduces the social class structure.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality

23) When Ray Rist conducted a participant observation study in an African American grade school, what did he conclude was the underlying basis for assigning children to different worktables in kindergarten?

  1. A) students’ preference
  2. B) students’ personality
  3. C) sex of the student
  4. D) social class

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 413-414

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

24) A sociologist who studied face-to-face interactions in the classroom between teachers and students would be emphasizing which sociological perspective?

  1. A) symbolic interactionism
  2. B) structural functionalism
  3. C) the conflict perspective
  4. D) the neo-conflict perspective

Answer:   A

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 413

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

25) According to Ray Rist’s research, how long did it take for teachers to determine a child’s potential success in school?

  1. A) by the end of the first two weeks of kindergarten
  2. B) the mid-year of kindergarten
  3. C) the end of kindergarten
  4. D) the end of first grade

Answer:   A

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 413-414

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

26) Based on the research of sociologist George Farkas, which two groups of students were most successful in signaling their teachers they were good students?

  1. A) boys and African Americans
  2. B) boys and Latina girls
  3. C) girls and Asian Americans
  4. D) girls and Latino Americans

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 414

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

27) In a study of teacher expectationsRemember,ciologist George Farkas found that females and Asian Americans averaged higher course grades even though the scores on course work were the same for all students no matter the race/ethnicity or gender. What did Farkas conclude was the reason for this finding?

  1. A) They knew how to signal teachers by being more eager and cooperative.
  2. B) They did more extra credit work than other students.
  3. C) They asked more questions about the work they were doing.
  4. D) They stayed after school and helped the teacher clean the room.

Answer:   A

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 414

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

28) Who developed the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy that explains why originally false assumptions become true because the outcome was predicted?

  1. A) Talcott Parsons
  2. B) Edwin Sutherland
  3. C) Robert Merton
  4. D) Donald Cressey

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 414

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

 

29) Using exceptionally simple questions on an exam and “dummying down” grading scales so everyone passes are examples of a growing problem in education called ________.

  1. A) mediocrity
  2. B) mainstreaming
  3. C) gatekeeping
  4. D) telescoping

Answer:   A

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 415

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

30) What do less rigorous teaching, dummied down s and less reading have in common with watching television, and playing video and computer games?

  1. A) All are related to low math scores on the SAT tests.
  2. B) All are related to low verbal scores on the SAT tests.
  3. C) They all contribute to poor testing on standardized tests.
  4. D) They all contribute to poor academic skills among high school students.

Answer:   B

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 415-416

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

31) At Harvard University 90 percent of the students graduate with honors. The faculty recommend to counter this honors inflation limiting the percentage of students who could graduate with honors in any one class. This is an example of __________.

  1. A) raising standards
  2. B) honor curriculum
  3. C) an equal playing field
  4. D) academic distinction

Answer:   A

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 416

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

32) In the United States today nearly half of all entering college freshmen have an overall high school grade-point average of 4.0, twice what it was in 1970. What is the reason for this increase in students with high grades?

  1. A) Students are learning more.
  2. B) Teachers have inflated grades.
  3. C) Students now retain more information than before.
  4. D) Most students can read at a higher grade level.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 416

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

33) Renee has difficulty in reading and writing. However, despite her problem with reading and writing, she has been passed into the next grade every year. This is an example of ________.

  1. A) tracking
  2. B) functional literacy
  3. C) social promotion
  4. D) mainstreaming

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 416

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

34) Jed is 31 and qualifies as being functionally illiterate. Which of the following statements would best describe Jed’s situation?

  1. A) Jed has an IQ below the dull normal range.
  2. B) Jed is suffering from attention deficit disorder.
  3. C) Jed has difficulty reading and writing.
  4. D) Jed has no social skills and has an antisocial personality.

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 416

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

35) Higher grades given for the same work or a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning is known as __________.

  1. A) grade reward
  2. B) education promotion
  3. C) curriculum enhancement
  4. D) grade inflation

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 416

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

36) In order to recruit a sufficient number of teachers in California, the competency level of teachers to be hired was lowered to a tenth grade level. Other states have made similar adjustments. How did the author of the text describe this change?

  1. A) He called it “a necessary adjustment in American education.”
  2. B) He compared it to the Great Depression.
  3. C) He blamed the universities for not doing a better job preparing teachers.
  4. D) He called it “a national disgrace.”

Answer:   D

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 416

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

37) What is the primary reason sociologists study religion?

  1. A) to verify or disprove the principles of specific faiths
  2. B) to evaluate the truth of a religious teaching
  3. C) to prove which religion is superior in doctrine and practice
  4. D) to study the role that religion plays in people’s lives

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 420

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

38) What was the influential book on religion published in 1912 by Emile Durkheim?

  1. A) The Communist Manifesto
  2. B) The Catechism of the Catholic Church
  3. C) The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life
  4. D) The Last Temptation of Christ

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 420

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

39) Why can’t sociologists empirically study religion?

  1. A) Religion is not a social institution.
  2. B) Religion is a matter of faith that is beyond objective evaluation.
  3. C) Sociologists are not priests, rabbis, ministers, or nuns.
  4. D) Sociologists do not believe in the metaphysical as a valid research topic.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 420

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

40) What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?

  1. A) sanctified
  2. B) profane
  3. C) sacred
  4. D) civil

Answer:   B

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 420

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

41) What are the three elements of religion based on the writings of Emile Durkheim?

  1. A) sacrifice, obligation, repentance
  2. B) beliefs, practices, moral community
  3. C) practices, sacrifice, obligation
  4. D) a moral community, repentance, communion

Answer:   B

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 420

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

42) From Durkheim’s perspective, what do Buddhists bowing before a shrine, Hindus dipping into the Ganges River and Aztecs sacrificing virgins all have in common?

  1. A) They all qualify as moral communities.
  2. B) They all qualify as ecclesia.
  3. C) They all qualify as denominations.
  4. D) They all qualify as sects.

Answer:   A

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 420

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

43) Which sociological perspective is aligned with the belief that religion attaches meaning to our lives, provides emotional comfort during times of sorrow, creates a sense of solidarity with others and provides guidelines with which to direct our lives?

  1. A) the feminist perspective
  2. B) functionalism
  3. C) symbolic interactionism
  4. D) the conflict perspective

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 421

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.7 Apply the functionalist perspective to religion: functions and dysfunctions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective

44) What does incorporating religious teachings into criminal law, such as prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages before noon on Sunday, illustrate about religion?

  1. A) It provides emotional comfort.
  2. B) It is a means of social solidarity.
  3. C) It is a means of adaptation.
  4. D) It is a means of social control.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 422

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.7 Apply the functionalist perspective to religion: functions and dysfunctions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective

45) What are the two dysfunctions of religion addressed in the ?

  1. A) contributing significant funding to the church; sexism in religion
  2. B) social control; religious persecution
  3. C) sexism in religion; social control
  4. D) religious persecution; war and terrorism

Answer:   D

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 422

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.7 Apply the functionalist perspective to religion: functions and dysfunctions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective

46) From a symbolic interactionist perspective, what does wearing a cross signify for Christians?

  1. A) The cross is viewed as protection from evil spirits.
  2. B) It is a condensed way for the wearer to say, “I am a follower of Jesus Christ.”
  3. C) The cross is considered appropriate jewelry only for Christians.
  4. D) The cross acts as a badge of courage for fundamentalists.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

47) Jews, Christians and Muslims all believe in one God who, as creator of the universe, is concerned about our actions and will hold us accountable for them. In this sense, Jews, Christians and Muslims all share the same ________.

  1. A) cosmology
  2. B) religion
  3. C) mythology
  4. D) rituals

Answer:   A

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

48) What is the term that refers to a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God?

  1. A) cosmology
  2. B) functional equivalent of religion
  3. C) religious experience
  4. D) animism

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

49) The Star of David is to the Jews as the ________ is to the Hindus.

  1. A) eight-spoked wheel
  2. B) crescent moon
  3. C) cow
  4. D) turtle dove

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

50) Marx’s notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.

  1. A) “If people believe the situation is real, it is real in the consequences.”
  2. B) “The sum of the whole is no greater than the sum of the parts.”
  3. C) “Religion is … the opium of the people.”
  4. D) “You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make him drink.”

Answer:   C

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 426

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.9 Apply the conflict perspective to religion: opium of the people and legitimating social inequalities.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective

51) What does the spirit of capitalism refer to, as proposed by Max Weber?

  1. A) It is a doctrine emphasizing conspicuous consumption and individual success.
  2. B) It is a new approach to work and money that emphasizes investment to make profit.
  3. C) It is a doctrine legitimating the social order and the inequalities that accompany it.
  4. D) It is a way of thinking about the supernatural and its part in religion.

Answer:   B

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 426

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.10 Explain Weber’s analysis of how religion broke tradition and brought capitalism.

Topic/A-head: Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism

52) This theologian proposed that God has predestined some people to go to heaven and others to hell at the time of their birth.

  1. A) John Calvin
  2. B) Martin Luther
  3. C) Thomas Malthus
  4. D) Oral Roberts

Answer:   A

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 427

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.10 Explain Weber’s analysis of how religion broke tradition and brought capitalism.

Topic/A-head: Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism

53) What was Weber’s term to describe the ideal of a self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality?

  1. A) the spirit of capitalism
  2. B) the modernization doctrine
  3. C) the Protestant ethic
  4. D) the predestination theology

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 427

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.10 Explain Weber’s analysis of how religion broke tradition and brought capitalism.

Topic/A-head: Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism

54) Sociologically, how would a cult be defined?

  1. A) a bizarre group with bizarre rituals
  2. B) a new or different religion at odds with dominant culture and religion
  3. C) a subdivision of a dominant religion
  4. D) a group of people dedicated to their own needs

Answer:   B

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 428

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.11 Compare cult, sect, church, and ecclesia.

Topic/A-head: Types of Religious Groups

55) Someone with an outstanding gift or exceptional quality that draws others to them and their message is said to possess  ________.

  1. A) holiness
  2. B) charisma
  3. C) evangelism
  4. D) communion

Answer:   B

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 428

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.11 Compare cult, sect, church, and ecclesia.

Topic/A-head: Types of Religious Groups

56) The Reverend Hamilton Barnesworth Jones has established a new religious order he calls “The People’s Temple of Love and Divinity.” More likely than not, what is the future of Reverend Jones’ new order?

  1. A) It will appeal only to the homeless and forgotten of society.
  2. B) It will develop into a major religion.
  3. C) It will transform into a sect within a few years.
  4. D) It will probably fail and fade into obscurity.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 429

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.11 Compare cult, sect, church, and ecclesia.

Topic/A-head: Types of Religious Groups

57) A state religion is referred to as a(n) ________ when the government and religion work together to try to shape society.

  1. A) cult
  2. B) sect
  3. C) ecclesia
  4. D) church

Answer:   C

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 430

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.11 Compare cult, sect, church, and ecclesia.

Topic/A-head: Types of Religious Groups

58) Which of the following religious groups experiences the highest family incomes, percent of members with college degrees, and occupations prestige?

  1. A) Mormon
  2. B) Jewish
  3. C) Roman Catholic
  4. D) Lutheran

Answer:   B

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 431

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.12 Summarize main features of religion in the United States.

Topic/A-head: Religion in the United States

59) Why is it believed that the Internet will have a significant effect on our religious lives and alter the face of religion?

  1. A) People will not affiliate with any specific religious organization.
  2. B) The Internet provides opportunity for vast religious reformation.
  3. C) Religion will become even more secularized.
  4. D) People will not help finance religious activities.

Answer:   B

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 434

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.13 Discuss the likely future of religion.

Topic/A-head: The Future of Religion

13.3  Short Answer Questions

1) Why is the United States becoming more and more of a credential society?

Answer:   Employers use diplomas and degrees as sorting devices for job qualification rather than a more objective measure of whether or not the applicant can actually perform the work demanded by the job. This trend is increasing in all aspects of the job market.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 403-404

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

2) If admission to college in Japan is highly competitive and based exclusively on national test scores, why are the students of wealthy families more likely to be admitted to college?

Answer:   In some circumstances, richer families can provide tutors for their children who help the student prepare for the national exam as well as other resources the poorer families cannot afford.

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 406

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

3) What was the purpose of social placement as proposed by Parsons, Davis, and Moore?

Answer:   Social placement is the belief that people who pursue jobs requiring greater intellect, greater sacrifice, years of vigorous training, and a postponing of gratification should receive greater rewards of higher income and prestige.

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 409-410

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

4) What are some of the family functions that educational systems have greatly affected and even replaced in American society?

Answer:   Child care, sex education, dispensing birth control devices, and preparing a child for a vocation are some of the family functions school has taken over, in whole or in part.

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 410

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

5)  Provide reasons why home-schooled children score as highly as they do on a standardized test?

Answer:   intensive one-on-one education by the student’s parent(s) and a curriculum designed around the student’s interests

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 411

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

6)   What two qualities do IQ tests measure?

Answer:   intelligence and acquired knowledge

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 412

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.3 Explain how the educational system reproduces the social class structure.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality

7)   In the Ray Rist study, what was the basis of selection used by the kindergarten teacher to assign students to their respective reading groups?

Answer:   The teacher used social class as the underlying reason to make the reading ability placements.

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 413-414

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

8)   According to the research of George Farkas, which students were most successful at signaling teachers that they were better students and deserved better grades?

Answer:   Female students and Asian American students were given better grades than other students, even though they had the same raw scores.

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 414

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

9)   Name two major problems facing education today.

Answer:   answers may include mediocrityRemember,cial promotion, functional illiteracy, cheating by administrators

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 415-418

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

10) How has grade inflation changed since the 1980s?

Answer:   It has increased sharply. High school teachers now give more As than Cs. Almost 50 percent of college freshmen have an “A” average.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 416

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

11) If school shootings are actually on the decrease, why is school violence considered as such a serious problem?

Answer:   Anytime a student is subjected to violence it is a tragedy. The trend of school violence, however, is on the decrease, not the increase. The reason for the greater concern is because of media hype and headlines that sell newspapers.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 419

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

12) What was Durkheim’s influential book published in 1912 that identified the elements common to religion?

Answer:   The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 420

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

13) How does religion provide a means of social control?

Answer:   Religions establish norms that apply to their members, and at times, to all members of society when they are incorporated into criminal law. For example, blasphemy and adultery were once state crimes and there were laws against the sale of alcohol before noon.

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 422

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.7 Apply the functionalist perspective to religion: functions and dysfunctions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective

14) What is meant by the term born again?

Answer:   Being born again is a life transforming experience in which people say they have come to the realization they have sinned, that Jesus died for their sins, and that God wants them to live a new life.

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

15) What are the basic ideologies shared by Christians, Jews, and Muslims as it relates to their common cosmology?

Answer:   There is only one God, God created the universe and God will hold humans accountable.

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

16) Identify at least three major religions and the symbol that represents each of them.

Answer:   Christianity is represented by the cross. Islam is represented by the crescent moon and star. Judaism is represented by the Star of David. Hinduism is represented by the cow. Buddhism is represented by the eight-spoked wheel.

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 423

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

17) How did Karl Marx view religion?

Answer:   Marx was an avowed atheist who believed the existence of God was impossible. He characterized religion as being “…the sigh of the oppressed creature…the opium of the people.”

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 426

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.9 Apply the conflict perspective to religion: opium of the people and legitimating social inequalities.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective

18) What is the primary criticism of Weber’s theory that Calvinism led to capitalism?

Answer:   Scotland, a Calvinist county, did not develop capitalism and England, a non-Calvinist country, is where capitalism began.

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 427

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.10 Explain Weber’s analysis of how religion broke tradition and brought capitalism.

Topic/A-head: Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism

19) What emphasis did Weber place on capitalism in his book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism?

Answer:   Weber said capitalism represented a fundamentally different way of thinking about work and money. It resulted in people believing it was their duty to invest money, make profits, and reinvest money to make more profits, a radical departure from just working enough to meet basic needs.

Diff: 1            Page Ref: 426-427

Skill Level: Know the Facts

LO: 13.10 Explain Weber’s analysis of how religion broke tradition and brought capitalism.

Topic/A-head: Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism

20) How are church members in the United States stratified by social class?

Answer:   Each religious group draws members from all social classes, but some have a greater representation of specific classes. The upper classes are more likely to be Episcopalians and Jews. The lower classes are more likely to be Baptists and Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 431-432

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.12 Summarize main features of religion in the United States.

Topic/A-head: Religion in the United States

13.4  Essay Questions

1) Compare the similarities and differences between education in the most industrialized, industrializing, and least industrialized nations.

Answer:   In all societies, education reflects that society’s culture. And in all societies there is some means of education, even if it is an informal process passed on from fathers to sons and mothers to daughters. In the most industrialized societies, the emphasis is on higher education and technical training that is required in the industrial, postindustrial, and emerging biotechnical society. In the industrializing nations, there is a catch-up process to introduce the necessary skills and training for these nations to compete in the industrialized society. In the least industrialized societies, there is little emphasis on formal schooling because most of the men will become farmers or herders and most of the women will devote their lives to childcare and homemaking. Although there are mandatory school attendance laws, they are seldom enforced in the least industrialized nations.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 404-408

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

2)   Discuss how Japanese education is related to its culture and economy.

Answer:   One of the core values in Japanese society is solidarity with the group; Japanese teachers stress cooperation, rather than competition, in grade schools. Children work as a group and all schools use the same s. College admission procedures were also different until recently. Students were admitted to college on the basis of their test scores on a national test. However, because of a low birth rate, Japanese colleges have begun to compete for students. Students from wealthier families have begun to be more likely to score higher on admissions tests and to attend college, based on socioeconomic factors similar to those in the U.S.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 406

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.1 Understand how education is related to a nation’s culture and economy, compare education in Japan, Russia, and Egypt.

Topic/A-head: Education in Global Perspective

3)    How would the cultural transmission of values in the former Soviet Union and the United States be similar and different?

Answer:   In both the former Soviet Union and the United States, the cultural transmission of values would emphasize and pass on the particular society’s core values from one generation to the next. Both would also stress allegiance to their respective state. In the former Soviet Union, schools would stress socialism and communism. In the United States, they stress capitalism and democracy.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 408

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

4)    According to functionalist theorists, education provides a number of social benefits. Identify four of the manifest functions of education and briefly state how they benefit society.

Answer:   Teaching knowledge and skills: trains the next generation to fulfill the society’s positions. Cultural transmission of values: process of passing on a society’s core values from one generation to the next. Social integration: socializing students into the mainstream culture, promotes a sense of national identity, promotes political integration and stabilizes the political system. Gatekeeping: determines which people will enter what occupation based on real or perceived abilities.

Diff: 3            Page Ref: 408-410

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

5)    The conflict perspective emphasizes that education reproduces the social class structure. Show how the concept of the hidden curriculum perpetuates social inequality.

Answer:   A hidden curriculum is a term used to describe the unwritten rules of behavior and attitudes that are taught in addition to the formal curriculum. In the United States, schools teach obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms. Conflict theorists believe that the hidden curriculum in middle school differs from that taught in lower class schools and this perpetuates social inequality. Teachers in middle class schools stress proper English and good manners to prepare these students for the better paying occupations. In inner-city schools, teachers stress obeying the rules to prepare these students for the closely supervised, low-status jobs for which they are destined. Through such mechanisms, the hidden curriculum helps the elite to maintain social inequality.

Diff: 5            Page Ref: 410

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.3 Explain how the educational system reproduces the social class structure.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality

 6) Explain how a positive stereotype such as “Asian students are smart” can become a self-fulfilling prophecy similar to what Rist viewed in teacher expectations of students based on their social class.

Answer:   Rist observed teachers separating students into groups and labeling them in ways that distinguished their academic ability. They then treated them accordingly, resulting in informal tracking that lasted throughout their education. There are many stereotypes that label individuals in our society. These stereotypes influence the way teachers perceive students. If a teacher perceives their Asian students to be smarter than other students they are likely to treat them differently than others students. For example, they will have higher expectations. Rist’s and other research support the theory that higher teacher expectations can lead to increased performance in students. Therefore, in this case, the Asian students would likely be tracked down a highly achieving academic path that will result in them fulfilling the label originally given to them, thus, the self-fulfilling prophecy.

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 413-414

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

 LO: 13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

7)   Discuss two major problems in U.S. education.

Answer:   Two major problems facing the U.S. education system are mediocrity and violence. Mediocrity results in falling standards, functional illiteracy, and social promotion. Social promotion is the practice of passing students from one grade to the next even though they have not mastered the basic materials. The consequence is functional illiteracy. Some people have difficulty reading and writing even after graduating from high school. The consequences for the individual are significant. Some high school graduates cannot fill out job applications; others cannot figure out how to make change or whether they receive the right change at the store. Although school violence, specifically school deaths, is not on the rise as the media suggests, it is still a major concern to parents and educators. School violence includes aggravated assault, rape, robbery, and other acts of violence that do not necessarily result in death. Children are sent to school to be educated and it is assumed the school authorities will not only nurture them but protect them. Even students not directly involved in school violence are traumatized by it and suffer the inconvenience of the measures schools take to reduce it such as metal detectors, locker searches, and police inspections.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 415-418

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

8) Discuss the major functions of religion.

Answer:   According to the functionalist perspective, religion meets eight basic needs. It answers questions about ultimate meaning, provides emotional comfortRemember,cial solidarity, guidelines for everyday behavior, and social control. Religion also helps people adapt to new environments, helps support the government andRemember,metimes, religion can spearhead social change. Functionalists stress that religion is universal because it meets basic human needs such as these.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 421-422

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.7 Apply the functionalist perspective to religion: functions and dysfunctions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective

9) How do functionalists and conflict theorists differ in their approach to the study of religion?

Answer:   Functionalists tend to look at religion in terms of how it contributes to the stabilization and continuity of society. They stress that religion is a universal feature of all society since it serves universal human needs. In contrast, conflict theorists examine how religious teachings and practices mirror and reinforce the inequalities in society.

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 421, 426

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.7 Apply the functionalist perspective to religion: functions and dysfunctions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective
LO: 13.9 Apply the conflict perspective to religion: opium of the people and legitimating social inequalities.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective

10) How do symbolic interactionists view religion? What are the major aspects of religion that are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective?

Answer:   Symbolic interactionists focus on the meanings that people give their experiences, especially how they use symbols. By doing so, it develops a community of like-minded people. The particular aspects shared by all religions that emphasize the symbolic interactionist perspective are the use of religious symbols, rituals, beliefs, religious experiences, and a sense of community. Symbols are a shorthand method of conveying a message to members of the same religion and to others. Rituals are repetitive practices that help unite people into a moral community. Beliefs include values and a cosmology, or unified picture of the world. Religious experiences are a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming into contact with God. The sense of community establishes a bond among people who share the same beliefs.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 422-423

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

11) How does religion provide a legitimation of social inequality? What characteristics of religion make it so difficult to challenge beliefs that legitimate social inequalities?

Answer:   Religion can be used as a tool to teach the masses that social inequalities of the larger society and existing social arrangements represent what God desires. Examples of this include the divine right of kings during the Middle Age monarchies and in Hinduism which has existed for over 3,000 years. The essential quality of belief supporting the monarchy or caste system is not subject to challenge, either by evidence or by logic. No argument or evidence can prove that a belief is wrong. To challenge the belief would constitute treason and blasphemy, both of which are usually not only capital offenses, but capital offenses that often called for death.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 426

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.9 Apply the conflict perspective to religion: opium of the people and legitimating social inequalities.

Topic/A-head: The Conflict Perspective

12) Sociologists have identified four types of religious groups. Identify, and explain how the four types differ.

Answer:   The four types of religious organizations identified by sociologists are cults, sects, churches, and ecclesia. Cults are new or different religions whose teachings and practices put them at odds with the dominant culture and religion. Sects are larger than a cult, but still fairly small. They are loosely organized and emphasize personal salvation and an emotional expression of one’s relationship with God. Both cults and sects stress evangelism or the active recruitment of new members. Churches are highly bureaucratic and the new members usually come from within the church. Worship is more sedate than in cults or sects. Ecclesia is a religion that is so well-integrated into a culture and allied with the government that the religion and the government work together to try and shape the society. Citizenship in the society automatically makes a person the member of the religion.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 427-430

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.11 Compare cult, sect, church, and ecclesia.

Topic/A-head: Types of Religious Groups

13) Why do cults and sects meet with greater hostility than church and ecclesia?

Answer:   Cults conjure up bizarre images of shaven heads, weird music, pagan rituals, and brainwashing. In addition, they are usually led by a charismatic leader who has failed to earn the respect and acceptance of the public at large. Although sects are larger and have earned some respectability, there is still tension that exists between the views, prevailing beliefs, and values of sects and the broader society. On the other hand, churches are highly bureaucratized, have a track record that extends several generations or even centuries, and are less intense than cults and sects. Because church members assume a low profile in public and their worship is more sedate and formal, churches are less threatening and more acceptable to the public. The sheer differences in the number of followers of the church versus the followers of sects and cults also makes a difference in the acceptance of churches, and suspicion directed at cults and sects. Whereas an ecclesia is a religion closely aligned and supported by the state, for anyone to oppose an ecclesia would be considered unpatriotic. In some societies where religion qualifies as an ecclesia, church membership is a necessity to hold office and to exercise basic rights.

Diff: 4            Page Ref: 428-430

Skill Level: Analyze It

LO: 13.11 Compare cult, sect, church, and ecclesia.

Topic/A-head: Types of Religious Groups

14) What are the two variables cited by the author that are related to patterns of religious affiliation in the United States? Briefly describe an affiliation pattern associated with each variable.

Answer: The two variables that are related to the patterns of religious affiliation in the U.S. are social class and race/ethnicity. Persons from higher socioeconomic classes tend to affiliate with Episcopalians and Judaism while those in the lower socioeconomic strata are more likely to be Baptists and Evangelicals. With the exception of Roman Catholics, upwardly mobile groups will change their denominations to those predominant in the newer social class group. Race and ethnicity tend to form clusters with specific religious denominations. Latino, Irish, French, Polish and Italian ethnics tend to be Roman Catholics, African-Americans tend to be Protestants.

Diff: 2            Page Ref: 431

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

LO: 13.12 Summarize main features of religion in the United States.

Topic/A-head: Religion in the United States

15) What are the four main concerns that are typically responded to by religious belief? Is there any evidence to suggest that science could replace religion in its ability to respond to these questions?

Answer:   The existence of God; the purpose of life; morality; or the existence of an afterlife are concerns that are typically responded to by religious teachings. Science has no answer for whether God exists as it has not been able to either isolate God or refute God’s existence. Although science can provide a definition of life and describe the characteristics of living organisms, it has nothing to say about the ultimate purpose of life. In regard to morality, science can demonstrate the consequences of behavior but cannot determine whether one action is morally superior when compared with another action. And, in regard to an afterlife, science can offer us no information as science has no tests that can prove or disprove it. It appears that religion thrives in the most scientifically-advanced nations regardless of their political and economic structures.

Diff: 6            Page Ref: 433

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

LO: 13.13 Discuss the likely future of religion.

Topic/A-head: The Future of Religion

 

 

 

 

13.5     Matching Questions

Skill Level: Know the Facts

Match the term with the definition.

   1)     manifest function

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 493
LO:  13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

2)     latent functions

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 493
LO:  13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

3)     credential society

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 494
LO:  13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

4)     cultural transmission of values

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 494
LO:  13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

5)     gatekeeping

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 495
LO:  13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

6)     tracking

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 495
LO:  13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

7)     social integration

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 494
LO:  13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

8)     credentialing

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 494
LO:  13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

9)          mainstreaming

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 495
LO:  13.2 Explain the functions of education: knowledge and skills, valuesRemember,cial integration, gatekeeping, and replacing family functions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits

10)      self-fulfilling prophecy

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 502
LO:  13.4 Explain the significance of teacher expectations and give examples.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations

11)      grade inflation

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 505
LO:   13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

12)      social promotion

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 505
LO:   13.5 Discuss mediocrity in education, grade inflationRemember,cial promotion, rising standards, cheating by administrators, and violence in schools.

Topic/A-head: Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions

13)      moral community

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 514
LO: 13.6 Explain what Durkheim meant by sacred and profane; discuss the three elements of religion.

Topic/A-head: What Is Religion?

14)   state religion

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 516
LO:  13.7 Apply the functionalist perspective to religion: functions and dysfunctions.

Topic/A-head: The Functionalist Perspective

15)   religious experience

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 520
LO:  13.8 Apply the symbolic interactionist perspective to religion: symbols, rituals, beliefs and religious experience.

Topic/A-head: The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

16)   Protestant ethic

Diff: 1                       Page Ref: 524
LO: 13.10 Explain Weber’s analysis of how religion broke tradition and brought capitalism.

Topic/A-head:  Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism

 

  A)      the promotion of a sense of national identity through practices shared by all members of society

B)      the process by which education opens and closes doors of opportunity

C)      using diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for a job

D)      intended beneficial consequences of people’s actions

E)       in reference to education, the ways in which schools transmit a society’s culture, especially its core values

F)       higher grades given for the same work; a general rise in students’ grades without a corresponding increase in learning

G)      passing students on to the next level even though they have not mastered basic materials

H)      the use of diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work

I)       Robert Merton’s term for an originally false assertion that becomes true simply because it was predicted

J)       the sorting of students into different educational programs on the basis of real or perceived abilities

K)      helping people to become part of the mainstream of society

L)      unintended beneficial consequences of people’s actions

M)      a government sponsored religion, also called ecclesia

N)      a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God

O)      a group of people who are united by their religious practices

P)       Weber’s term to describe the ideal of a self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality

1) D; 2) L; 3) H; 4) E; 5) B; 6) J; 7) A; 8) C; 9) K; 10) I; 11) F; 12) G; 13) O; 14) M; 15) N; 16) P

 

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