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Essentials of Sociology 8th Edition Brinkerhoff White Ortega Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0495812951

ISBN-10: 0495812951

 

 

 

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CHAPTER 13: POLITICS AND THE ECONOMY

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The ability to get others to do something against their wishes is called:
a. power. c. politics.
b. influence. d. conflict.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   313                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. The exercise of power through force or the threat of force is called:
a. conflict. c. authority.
b. coercion. d. influence.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   313                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. An employer tells his employees that he will fire them if they sign a gay rights petition that is coming up before the city council.  This is an example of:
a. rational-legal authority. c. charismatic authority.
b. influence. d. coercion.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   313                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. Power supported by norms and values that legitimate its use is termed:
a. authority. c. influence.
b. coercion. d. tradition.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   313                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. A distinction between authority and coercion is that authority:
a. rests is supported by norms and values. c. is less stable.
b. requires no power. d. involves greater inequality of power.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   313                OBJ:   13.1               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Decision-making power based on the sanctity of time-honored routines is called:
a. charismatic authority. c. traditional authority.
b. rational-legal authority. d. moral authority.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. Which of these three is NOT one of the bases of authority noted by Weber?
a. exchange c. law
b. tradition d. charisma

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. Decision-making power based on an individual’s perceived extraordinary personal characteristics is called:
a. charismatic authority. c. rational-legal authority.
b. personal authority. d. influence.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. Professor Smith’s syllabus for introductory sociology states that part of the course grade is based on essay assignments. The students in the class write several essays. Students follow the requirements because they are based on:
a. social influence. c. rational-legal authority.
b. charismatic authority. d. traditional authority.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. American government is based on:
a. traditional authority. c. democratic authority.
b. charismatic authority. d. rational-legal authority.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. When Justin does not want to mow the lawn his father tells him he must. Justin asks why, and his father says, “because I’m the father and I say so.” His father is exercising:
a. persuasion. c. charismatic authority.
b. traditional authority. d. rational-legal authority.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Carol tells her mother that it is her sister’s turn to mow the lawn because she mowed it last week and the family agreed that each person would take turns at chores.  Which type of authority is this an example?
a. rational-legal authority c. charismatic authority
b. coercion d. traditional authority

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. Rational-legal authority is best described as:
a. authority based on extraordinary personal characteristics.
b. authority based on the sanctity of time honored routines.
c. authority based on submission to a set of reasonably established rules.
d. exercise of power through force or threat of force.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. The successful exercise of authority typically involves:
a. rational-legal authority.
b. charismatic authority.
c. traditional authority.
d. a combination of two or more forms of authority.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. All types of authority depend upon:
a. how charismatic the leader is.
b. the agreement of the subordinates.
c. the distribution of power.
d. unanimous acceptance of the subordinates.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. The most prominent political institution is the:
a. family. c. military.
b. state. d. legal system.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   315                OBJ:   13.2

 

  1. The social structure that claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of coercion and physical force within a territory is called:
a. the state. c. the military.
b. the economy. d. a political party.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   315                OBJ:   13.2               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The state is distinguished from other political institutions by which two characteristics?
a. coercion and regulation of conflict
b. authority and mediation of conflict
c. breadth of legitimate jurisdiction and control of the use of coercion
d. legitimacy and breadth of jurisdiction

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   315                OBJ:   13.2

 

  1. All the institutions concerned with the social structure of power, combined, are called:
a. states. c. repressive organizations.
b. jurisdictions. d. politics.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   315                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. Your text concludes that as society becomes larger and more complex, the jurisdiction of the state.
a. becomes more coercive. c. is growing.
b. is increasingly traditional. d. has become illegitimate.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   315                OBJ:   13.2

 

  1. To say that the state claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of coercion means that:
a. all coercion by the state is legitimate.
b. the state determines who can use coercion legitimately.
c. all state power is coercive.
d. the state is the only institution that uses coercion.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   316                OBJ:   13.2

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a type of coercion that is typically used by the state?
a. taxation or other means of taking money
b. the arrest, imprisonment, and even killing of citizens under certain conditions
c. dictating the amount and types of spiritual beliefs permitted
d. negotiating or engaging in armed conflict with other countries

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   316                OBJ:   13.2               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which is true about government?
a. There is only one form of democracy.
b. Most people in most times have lived under authoritarian systems.
c. Authoritarian governments are very uniform in the extent to which they control peoples’ lives.
d. No authoritarian governments have ever been based on traditional authority.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   317                OBJ:   13.3

 

  1. Authoritarian governments:
a. have virtually disappeared throughout the world.
b. rest exclusively on coercion.
c. may govern through traditional authority.
d. rely solely on terror and fear.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   316                OBJ:   13.3

 

  1. A government such as that of Afghanistan under the Taliban or Cuba under Castro is best characterized as:
a. authoritarian. c. fascist.
b. democratic. d. charismatic.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   317                OBJ:   13.3

 

  1. Which of the following is typical of societies with democracy?
a. A lack of competing interest groups.
b. A homogeneous society.
c. A history of monarchy.
d. A large and relatively affluent middle class.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   317                OBJ:   13.3

 

  1. Democracies are most likely in societies with:
a. a large middle class.
b. many competing interest groups.
c. few fundamental value differences.
d. All of these are characteristic of most democracies.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   317                OBJ:   13.3

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a political system that provides regular opportunities for a change in leadership according to the will of the majority.
a. state c. democracy
b. authoritarian system d. republic

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   317                OBJ:   13.3

 

  1. In a democratic contest, competing groups are most likely to abide by rules and decisions when:
a. they are coerced.
b. they fear reprisals for noncompliance.
c. they share basic values and interests.
d. the society is small and completely homogeneous.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   318                OBJ:   13.3               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What has been the result of globalization?
a. The power of the nation state has increased.
b. The power of the nation state has decreased.
c. Multinational corporations have diminished in importance.
d. Nation states have grown increasingly isolated.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   318                OBJ:   13.3               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Which of these statements concerning globalization is FALSE?
a. Globalization only began to occur during the twentieth century.
b. Many economic and legal situations are addressed by globalization.
c. Within globalization, in some cases multinational corporations have as much influence as nation states.
d. Economic downturns have caused some nations to withdraw support for agreements fostering globalization.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   318                OBJ:   13.3               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. According to the _____, a system of checks and balances, and competition and cooperation among governmental and nongovernmental groups prevents any single group from being able to force its will on the others.
a. power elite model c. state autonomy model
b. conflict/dialectic model d. pluralist model

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   319                OBJ:   13.4

 

  1. The pluralist model of political power is most associated with:
a. conflict theory. c. symbolic interactionism.
b. structural-functionalism. d. feminist theory.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   319                OBJ:   13.4               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. From the perspective of structural-functionalism, pluralism in the U.S.:
a. is not possible.
b. works because different groups have power in different areas, and no group is able to force their will on the others.
c. only works because it has the coercive power of the state behind it.
d. supports the interests of the elite.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   319                OBJ:   13.4               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. A minority group wishes to increase its power.  Its strategy is to win elective office and line up political allies in the legislative branch.  This strategy assumes the:
a. power elite model. c. conflict/dialectic model.
b. pluralist model. d. state autonomy model.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   319                OBJ:   13.4

 

  1. C. Wright Mills is a central figure in the development of the:
a. pluralist model of American democracy. c. power elite model.
b. conflict/dialectic model of pluralism. d. state autonomy model.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.4

 

  1. According to Mills, the power elite are those who:
a. own the means of production.
b. have prestige and honor.
c. occupy the top positions in the military, industry, and the executive branch of government.
d. have great traditional authority.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.4

 

  1. The three bureaucracies that Mills identified as being vital to controlling U.S. decision-making are:
a. military, religion, and government. c. industry, education, and military.
b. government, industry, and military. d. government, industry, and education.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.4

 

  1. A minority group wishes to increase its power.  The strategy it takes is to become major stockholders in military industries, send its children to the Harvard School of Business and to summer in Kennebunkport.  This strategy assumes the:
a. power elite model. c. conflict/dialectic model.
b. pluralist model. d. state autonomy model.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.4

 

  1. According to the model of the power elite, the non-elite are most likely to gain power if:
a. they attempt a military coup.
b. they run for political office.
c. they organize into unions and social movements.
d. None of these; the non-elite cannot achieve power according to the power elite model.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.4               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. According to the text, how has the power elite within the U.S. changed over time?
a. Today, the military has much more power than ever before.
b. The power elite has become smaller and more homogeneous than ever.
c. A new cultural elite, made up of celebrities and religious leaders, has grown.
d. All of these are fairly recent changes in the composition of the power elite.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.4               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In the U.S., what percentage of the voting-age population IS registered to vote?
a. one-fourth c. two-thirds
b. one-third d. three-fourths

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.5               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In the U.S., about _____ of the population typically does NOT vote in local elections.
a. 10 percent c. 50 percent
b. 25 percent d. 75 percent

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.5               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Research indicates that the factor MOST strongly related to whether or not a person is likely to vote is:
a. age. c. race.
b. social class. d. sex.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.5               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Patterns of political participation by social class show that:
a. the working class is most likely to vote.
b. the higher the social class, the higher the rate of participation.
c. the lower the social class, the higher the rate of participation.
d. class no longer affects voting participation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   321                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. According to your text, people with higher incomes are _____ likely to vote and people with higher educational attainment are _____ likely to vote.
a. more, more c. less, more
b. more, less d. less, less

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   321                OBJ:   13.5               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Political participation is:
a. highest among the young. c. high for all groups over 30.
b. highest among those in their 30s and 40s. d. increasingly likely with age.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   321                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. Which of these combinations of characteristics describes the person MOST likely to vote in a U.S. election?
a. African American, middle-class, high school graduate
b. African American, upper-class, college graduate
c. Hispanic, middle-class, age 18-24
d. White, middle-age, middle-class, college graduate

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   321                OBJ:   13.5               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Members of which of these racial-ethnic groups are LEAST likely to vote:
a. non-Hispanic white c. African American
b. Hispanic d. All of these are equally likely to vote.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   322                OBJ:   13.5               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The youngest voters are more likely to be affiliated with the _____ Party.
a. Communist c. Democrat
b. Socialist d. Republican

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   323                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. Women are more likely to identify themselves as a _____ and those with less than a high school degree are likely to identify themselves as a _____.
a. Republican; Democrat c. Democrat; Democrat
b. Democrat; Republican d. Republican; Republican

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   323                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. Increasingly, a growing number of voters:
a. align themselves with the Democrats.
b. align themselves with the Republicans.
c. align themselves with neither party.
d. align themselves with neither party and declare an intention to vote on the basis of issues rather than on party lines.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   323                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. The proportion of U.S. voters who call themselves independents is now approximately:
a. 5 percent of all voters. c. 45 percent of all voters.
b. 10 percent of all voters. d. 60 percent of all voters.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   323                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. U.S. citizens are _____ to vote compared to citizens of other Western nations.
a. much more likely c. as likely
b. slightly more likely d. about half as likely

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   323                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. As income and education levels in the U.S. have increased over the past century, voting rates have:
a. also increased. c. remained the same.
b. decreased. d. no longer been tracked.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   323                OBJ:   13.5               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Passage of the National Voter Registration Act resulted in:
a. lower rates of voter registration.
b. increased voter registration rates.
c. the removal of all barriers to voting.
d. the removal of all barriers to voting and increased voter registration rates.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   323                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. Why do so few U.S. citizens vote?
a. It is difficult in the United States to vote in many states.
b. There have been few attempts to involve marginalized groups by the political parties.
c. Many people believe that the political process is so corrupt that it doesn’t matter whether they vote or note.
d. All of these have been suggested as reasons for low voter turnout in U.S. elections.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   323                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. What is the effect of felon disenfranchisement on election results?
a. Those who favor helping the poor are more likely to get elected.
b. Those who favor helping the poor are less likely to get elected.
c. There is no effect on election results.
d. Democrats are more likely to get elected.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   324                OBJ:   13.6               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The loss of voting privileges suffered by those who have been convicted of a felony is called:
a. lifetime disenfranchisement. c. felon power restriction.
b. the felon no-vote. d. felon disenfranchisement.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   324                OBJ:   13.6

 

  1. Economic institutions are defined as social structures concerned with:
a. jobs and surplus. c. the production and distribution of goods.
b. the organization of work and productivity. d. budgets and deficits.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   325                OBJ:   13.7

 

  1. Which of these is an issue of production?
a. Whether or not to produce weapons.
b. Who should support those who cannot work.
c. How many new homes a community will build.
d. Whether to encourage more industry or smaller businesses.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   325                OBJ:   13.7               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Distribution would include all of these EXCEPT:
a. How many new homes a community needs to build.
b. How profits from business should be divided between owners and workers.
c. Who should support those who cannot work.
d. What factors income should be based on.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   325                OBJ:   13.7               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The economic system based on private ownership of property used by the owners for their own gain is called:
a. capitalism. c. democracy.
b. state socialism. d. socialism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   325                OBJ:   13.8

 

  1. The values central to a capitalist system include:
a. technical innovation and attention to consumer demand.
b. equitable distribution.
c. societal resources for the benefit of the entire society.
d. greater concern for distribution than production.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   325                OBJ:   13.8               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Socialism is defined as an economic structure in which:
a. there is job rotation.
b. there is equal income for all workers.
c. the means of production are owned by the group.
d. there is heavy industry, but few consumer goods.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   326                OBJ:   13.8

 

  1. The inclusion of socialism within many Western societies is due to:
a. idealism.
b. the need to ensure vital but unprofitable services.
c. a desire to negotiate more directly with Communist countries.
d. a strong belief in “from each according to their ability to each according to their needs.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   326                OBJ:   13.8

 

  1. Although there has been a trend toward socialism throughout the western nations, _____ has done the least to move toward creating a mixed economy.
a. Canada c. Germany
b. France d. the United States

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   326                OBJ:   13.8

 

  1. Many Western European countries combine democracy and socialism.  What sociological term is this an example of?
a. political economy c. authoritarian state
b. nation-state d. government

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   327                OBJ:   13.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. _____ is the process through which government services are farmed out to private, capitalistic firms.
a. Transnationalism c. Globalization
b. Welfare capitalism d. Privatization

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   327                OBJ:   13.9

 

  1. The primary criticism of privatization is:
a. it is not fair for the government to give business to some companies and not others.
b. the system is too efficient thereby reducing the number of jobs available.
c. that provision of some services should be based on what is best for society, not profitability.
d. not enough systems are being privatized.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   327                OBJ:   13.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In Sweden, people pay very high taxes. The majority of Swedes:
a. resent this.
b. have immigrated to other countries to avoid paying such high taxes.
c. have voted to pay the high taxes and receive the benefits.
d. are communists.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   328                OBJ:   13.9               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Maintaining the system that they have in Sweden is proving to be more and more difficult because:
a. so many people are against the high taxes.
b. the benefits that are currently provided to the Swedish people are not really beneficial to most of the population.
c. it is becoming increasingly more difficult to control Sweden’s transnational corporations and keep them from exporting the jobs.
d. the younger generation doesn’t support the system.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   328                OBJ:   13.9

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be an example of primary production?
a. hunting c. teaching
b. mining d. farming

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   329                OBJ:   13.10

 

  1. _____ production involves the processing of raw materials.
a. Primary c. Tertiary
b. Secondary d. Postindustrial

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   329                OBJ:   13.10

 

  1. Which of the following workers is NOT engaged in tertiary production?
a. physician c. TV repairperson
b. auto worker at GM d. barber

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   329                OBJ:   13.10

 

  1. Postindustrial society is characterized by the growth of:
a. secondary production. c. blue-collar jobs.
b. a service industry d. increasing inequality.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   329                OBJ:   13.10

 

  1. _____ production involves the production of services.
a. Primary c. Tertiary
b. Secondary d. Postindustrial

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   329                OBJ:   13.10             KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Over the last fifty years, the fastest growing production sector is the _____ production sector.
a. primary c. tertiary
b. secondary d. corporate

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   329                OBJ:   13.10

 

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE for postindustrial societies?
a. Primary production is no longer important.
b. A large service sector depends on productive primary and secondary sectors.
c. Secondary production is no longer important.
d. The proportion of workers employed in primary, secondary, and tertiary production is about even.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   330                OBJ:   13.10

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
a. The political power of large firms and the capitalist class has decreased in recent years.
b. Both corporate and individual tax rates have been declining over the last forty years.
c. The relationship between large firms is becoming far more competitive and far less cooperative.
d. As individual income tax rates have increased over the past forty years, corporate tax rates have decreased.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   330                OBJ:   13.11

 

  1. A _____ is a corporation that holds so large a market share for a given good or service that it could drive any company out of business then set any prices it wants.
a. corporation c. corporate interlocking directorate
b. monopoly d. dynasty

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   331                OBJ:   13.11

 

  1. In the “Wal-Mart Economy”:
a. suppliers to Wal-Mart have to sell at prices determined by Wal-Mart.
b. the prices of goods manufactured by Wal-Mart competitors are set by Wal-Mart.
c. wages for Wal-Mart employees, and employees of competitors, are set by Wal-Mart.
d. All of these are true; Wal-Mart not only sets its own prices and wages, but also those of its suppliers and competitors.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   332                OBJ:   13.11             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. A _____ is an occupation that demands specialized skills and creative freedom.
a. blue-collar job c. profession
b. white-collar job d. skilled labor job

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   333                OBJ:   13.13

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a profession?
a. machinist c. physician
b. receptionist d. drill press operator

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   334                OBJ:   13.13

 

  1. The most outstanding reward of professional work is the:
a. high salaries that necessarily accompany the job.
b. bureaucratic structure that defines the role.
c. freedom from supervision.
d. vacation time.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   334                OBJ:   13.13             KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The _____ is the part of the economy that escapes the record keeping and regulation of the state.
a. segmented labor market c. industrial core
b. underground economy d. dual economy

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   334                OBJ:   13.13

 

  1. Which of the following would likely be considered part of the underground economy?
a. A thrift shop.
b. A garage sale.
c. A small Chinese restaurant.
d. A house cleaning service registered with the Better Business Bureau.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   335                OBJ:   13.13

 

  1. U.S. surveys consistently find that an overwhelming majority of workers:
a. are extremely dissatisfied with their job.
b. are satisfied with their job.
c. are planning to change jobs within the next two years.
d. care only about their paycheck.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   336                OBJ:   13.13

 

  1. Alienation refers to a situation where an individual:
a. has to work harder than he/she wants to.
b. does not like his/her boss or foreman.
c. is estranged from their work.
d. must work at a job at which he/she is not competent.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   336                OBJ:   13.13

 

  1. Margie works for a company that builds parts for cars.  She is increasingly dissatisfied with her job, feeling that her supervisor offers her no opportunity to provide input about how to better perform her job.  She believes that the company doesn’t care about her and is just using her.  Margie is experiencing:
a. autonomy. c. deskilling.
b. alienation. d. displacement.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   336                OBJ:   13.13

 

  1. The work of smiling, appearing happy, or in other ways suggesting that one enjoys providing a service is called:
a. segmented labor. c. worker satisfaction.
b. informal labor market. d. emotional labor.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   336                OBJ:   13.13

 

  1. The definition of unemployment used by the federal government to generate statistics:
a. is extremely comprehensive.
b. does not include anyone who is part-time or underemployed.
c. includes anyone who has looked for a job at least once during the past 6 months.
d. probably overestimates the rate of unemployment.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   337                OBJ:   13.12| 13.13   MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The fastest growing occupations today are:
a. service jobs.
b. jobs requiring a college degree or technical training.
c. low-wage, low-skill jobs.
d. The fastest growing occupations are in all of these categories.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   339                OBJ:   13.13             KEY:  WWW

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The biggest losers in the transformation of the labor market are likely to be:
a. computer scientists and engineers.
b. registered nurses.
c. the traditional working class.
d. people in jobs that require almost no skills and pay very little.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   339                OBJ:   13.13| 13.14

 

  1. When a job becomes mechanized or the means of accomplishing the job is pre-determined for the workerRemember,ciologists refer to this as:
a. alienation. c. de-skilling.
b. blue-collar work. d. underemployment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   339                OBJ:   13.14             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the three ill effects of technology on labor?
a. deskilling. c. displacing workers.
b. low productivity. d. greater supervision.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   339                OBJ:   13.14

 

  1. What is the impact of technology on labor?
a. Technology is negative for the workforce because it displaces jobs.
b. Technology is only negative for members of the working class; it does not impact high-status jobs.
c. Technology is neutral; the impact of technology depends on how it is implemented.
d. In the U.S. technology is always the enemy of labor.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   340                OBJ:   13.14             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Tom argues that the way to keep jobs in the U.S. is to reduce government oversight and leave wages and benefits up to market forces even if this means reductions.  His views are consistent with the ___ approach to globalization.
a. conservative c. social investment
b. liberal d. conflict

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   340                OBJ:   13.14

 

  1. The liberal approach to protecting U.S. jobs includes:
a. reducing government oversight.
b. letting the market determine prices and wages.
c. subsidies and surcharges to reduce the market advantages of foreign-made products.
d. All of these are part of the liberal approach.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   341                OBJ:   13.14             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The _____ approach to protecting U.S. jobs is to ensure that American children receive quality education in all areas to enable them for high-wage jobs in technology and science fields
a. conservative c. social investment
b. liberal d. conflict

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   341                OBJ:   13.14             KEY:  WWW

MSC:  NEW

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. All three types of authority are impersonal in nature.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Institutions such as the family, education and religion all involved politics.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   315                OBJ:   13.1               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The dominant political institution is the military.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   315                OBJ:   13.2

 

  1. Democracy occurs primarily in the wealthier nations of the world, especially those with large middle classes.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   317                OBJ:   13.3               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Research suggests that the pluralist model of government is limited; the elite have more power than others in society.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   319                OBJ:   13.4               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The U.S. is symbolic of democracy in large part because such a large percentage of the population is involved in voting and the political system more generally.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.5               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Race is the most powerful predictor of political participation.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   320                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. Socialism and capitalism are equally productive economic systems.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   326                OBJ:   13.7| 13.8       MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Both capitalism and socialism can coexist with either an authoritarian or a democratic political system.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   327                OBJ:   13.8| 13.9       MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The majority of Swedes resent paying high taxes.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   328                OBJ:   13.9

 

  1. Wal-Mart’s low prices benefit everyone within a community in the long run.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   331                OBJ:   13.11             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The text argues that the lesson of the recent economic crisis in the U.S. is that the free-market capitalist system works best when balance by government regulation.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   333                OBJ:   13.12             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. U.S. surveys consistently find that most workers are satisfied with their job.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   336                OBJ:   13.13

 

  1. The government routinely underestimates the amount of unemployment in the U.S.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   337                OBJ:   13.12| 13.13   MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Only factory workers are affected by the loss of American jobs to locations overseas. Professionals are protected by the type of work that they do.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   340                OBJ:   13.14             MSC:  NEW

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What are the three types of authority identified by Weber?

 

ANS:

Traditional, legal-rational, and charismatic.

 

REF:   314                OBJ:   13.1

 

  1. What two characteristics distinguish the state from other political institutions?

 

ANS:

The state has a broader jurisdiction for legitimate decision-making and controls the use of coercion in a society.

 

REF:   315                OBJ:   13.2

 

  1. Under what conditions is democracy most successful?

 

ANS:

Democracy is most often found in wealthier nations with a large middle-class capable of holding the government accountable. In addition, democracy flourishes where there are many competing groups, none of which comprises a majority.

 

REF:   317                OBJ:   13.3               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What is the power elite model?

 

ANS:

The power elite model assumes that the people who occupy the top positions in the three most powerful bureaucracies—the military, industry, and the executive branch of the government—are brought together to run the United States in their own interests and that the rest of the citizens have very little power once these individuals cooperate with one another.

 

REF:   320                OBJ:   13.4

 

  1. What characteristics describe those who are most likely to vote?

 

ANS:

Older, more affluent, more educated, employed, and non-Hispanic

 

REF:   321                OBJ:   13.5

 

  1. What is capitalism?

 

ANS:

Capitalism is the economic system in which most wealth (land, capital, and labor) is private property, to be used by its owners to maximize their own gain.  Capitalism is based upon competition.

 

REF:   325                OBJ:   13.8

 

  1. Give one example of each of the three sectors of production in preindustrial and postindustrial societies.

 

ANS:

Primary—farming, Secondary—building furniture, Tertiary—short-order cook

 

REF:   329                OBJ:   13.10

 

  1. What is the Wal-Mart effect?

 

ANS:

Wal-Mart is a monopoly so large that if manufacturers do not sell their products there, they run the risk of going out of business. Wal-Mart influences the wages and prices of not only its suppliers, but also its competitors.

 

REF:   331                OBJ:   13.11

 

  1. What does the text suggest is the lesson of the crisis in the U.S. economy?

 

ANS:

Free-market capitalism works best when balanced by government regulation.

 

REF:   333                OBJ:   13.12             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What negative outcomes on labor are likely to result from increases in technology?

 

ANS:

Deskilling, displacement, and greater supervision.

 

REF:   339                OBJ:   13.14

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Define the three types of authority identified by Weber and give an example of each within the U.S. educational system.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   314

 

  1. Compare and contrast the pluralist and power elite models of American democracy in terms of source of power and the role of the state.  Which model does research suggest is most accurate? What recent changes have been occurring among the power elite?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   320

 

  1. Explain the various reasons that have been suggested for why so many people in the U.S. do not vote.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   323-324

 

  1. Define ex-felon disenfranchisement and explain its influence within American politics.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   324                MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Define capitalism and socialism, democratic and authoritarian systems.  Identify a nation that exemplifies each of the four possible combinations of political economies.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   325-327

 

  1. Define primary, secondary, and tertiary production.  Give examples of each and describe the current trends in terms of employment in each area.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   329

 

  1. Explain the concept of a “Wal-Mart Economy.” Describe the impact Wal-Mart has on the economy.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   331-332         MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Explain how the federal government measures unemployment and why the official measures are always an underestimate.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   337                MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Explain what the text means by describing the U.S. as moving through a process of reverse development.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   340                MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What are some of the policies that the U.S. could use to protect jobs for Americans from globalization?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   340-341

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