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Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition Sue Test Bank

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Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition Sue Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1305639997

ISBN-10: 1305639995

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Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition Sue Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1305639997

ISBN-10: 1305639995

 

 

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Chapter 12: Neurocognitive Disorders

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Ali has difficulty speaking. He also experiences memory deficits and issues with making plans and thinking abstractly. Ali suffers from behavioral disturbances that result from damage to the brain, which is technically referred to as a(n) ____.
a. psychosomatic disorder c. mood disorder
b. identity disorder d. neurocognitive disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.1 Explain how we can determine whether someone has a neurocognitive disorder.       KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. In neurocognitive disorders, ____.
a. social and psychological factors play no role
b. brain dysfunctions cause problems with thought processes
c. there may be symptoms of brain pathology, but no organic cause is assumed
d. psychological factors cause the brain to malfunction

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.1 Explain how we can determine whether someone has a neurocognitive disorder.       KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Sanjay was diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder. Which of the following could be the specific diagnosis?
a. schizoaffective disorder c. mood disorder
b. traumatic brain injury d. psychosis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Professor Solomon tells her class, “Neurocognitive disorders are diagnosed through a process of elimination. Neurocognitive disorders may be due to a specific medical condition, a substance-induced condition, or may result from multiple etiologies. The category of neurocognitive disorders is arbitrary because other mental disorders may be associated with neurocognitive disorders and organic involvement. It is always difficult to measure, assess, and determine the causes of neurocognitive disorders.” Which part of Professor Solomon’s statement is accurate?
a. Neurocognitive disorders are diagnosed through a process of elimination.
b. Neurocognitive disorders may be due to a specific medical condition, a substance-induced condition, or may result from multiple etiologies.
c. The category of neurocognitive disorders is arbitrary because other mental disorders may be associated with neurocognitive disorders and organic involvement.
d. The causes of neurocognitive disorders cannot be effectively measured or assessed as of yet.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which of the following is considered a possible cause of neurocognitive disorders?
a. stress c. depression
b. anxiety d. traumatic brain injury

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which condition involves memory impairment and declining cognitive functioning resulting from degenerative brain conditions?
a. delirium
b. amnestic disorder
c. dementia
d. TBI

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. What neuroimaging technique that is used to produce images of metabolic activity in the brain?
a. TBI
b. CTE
c. PET
d. CT

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Tonya is suspected of having a brain tumor. She goes to the hospital, where a detailed image of her brain is produced using a magnetic field and radio frequency pulses. What kind of brain assessment took place?
a. MRI c. CTE
b. TBI d. APOE

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Medical professionals utilize ____, which allow them to noninvasively visualize brain structures and monitor activity within the brain.
a. neuroimaging techniques c. neuropsychological tests
b. psychological tests d. mental status examination

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Pushkin is seeing a new patient whom she suspects has a neurocognitive disorder. Dr. Pushkin wants to assess quickly the patient’s overall cognitive functioning, including the patient’s memory, attentional skills, and orientation to time and place. What instrument will Dr. Pushkin most likely use to conduct this assessment?
a. objective personality testing c. neuroimaging techniques
b. neuropsychological testing d. mental status exam

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders  (p. 326)

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Brenda is undergoing a test that combines X-rays and computer analysis to assess her brain damage. Which test is being used?
a. CTE c. AS
b. CT d. TBI

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.1 Explain how we can determine whether someone has a neurocognitive disorder.       KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. MRIs and other forms structural and functional neurological tests are most properly used to assess ____.
a. intelligence
b. brain function
c. mood disorders
d. psychosis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Richardson, et al. (2014) found four times more residue from ____ in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
a. pesticides c. carbon monoxide
b. alcohol d. chlorine

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Strokes damaging the left side of the brain typically affect ____, as well as physical movement on the right half of the body; whereas strokes occurring within the right hemisphere can ____ in addition to impairing motor movement on the left side of the body.
a. speech and language proficiency; impair judgment and short-term memory
b. impair judgment and short-term memory; speech and language proficiency
c. empathic abilities; increase impulsivity
d. impulsivity; decrease empathic abilities

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The leading causes of traumatic brain injuries are ____.
a. falls and unknown causes c. assault and being struck by an object
b. vehicle accidents and assault d. war and crime

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders (fig 12.2)

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The three major categories of neurocognitive disorders listed in the DSM-5 are ____.
a. mild neurocognitive disorder, major neurocognitive disorder, and delirium
b. minor neurocognitive disorder, major neurocognitive disorder, and dementia
c. Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease
d. neurocognitive disorder, neurodegenerative disorder, and stroke

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. In order to receive a DSM-5 diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorder, individuals must demonstrate significant decline in ____.
a. one or more cognitive domains affecting independence
b. reality testing and in coping with stressors
c. physical health and in psychological health
d. visual-perceptual ability and in social cognition

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Late on Saturday night, Dennie is taken to the hospital after drinking twenty beers. His confusion, rambling, and incoherent speech stop as soon as the alcohol is out of his system. This incident illustrates ____.
a. an amnestic disorder
b. dementia
c. delirium
d. a neurocognitive disorder not otherwise specified

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which elderly person is at highest risk for developing some type of dementia?
a. Paige, a 89 year old female c. Patty, a 65 year old depressed female
b. Paul, a 60 year old male d. Preston, a 70 year old depressed male

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Forgetting names of significant others and displaying difficulties with impulse control are examples ofsymptoms commonly associated with ____.
a. dementia c. depression
b. dysthymia d. anxiety

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder is ____.
a. stroke c. vascular dementia
b. multi-infarct dementia d. Alzheimer’s disease

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Rozee is 91years old. Her doctor suspects that she may have Parkinson’s disease because she ____.
a. has hand and face tremors
b. was recently in a vehicle accident
c. has become very impulsive
d. is experiencing seizures

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. The estimated number of individuals with AD in the U.S. is ____.
a. 5 million c. 18
b. 11 million d. 20

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Who has the lowest risk for developing dementia in the next year?
a. Arlene, an 85-year-old woman recovering from a hip fracture
b. Bonnie, a 70-year-old woman who recently had a stroke
c. Cora, a 20-year-old woman who injured her head in a bicycle fall
d. Dora, a 35-year-old women who is being treated for alcohol dependence

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. The primary distinction between major and minor neurocognitive disorder is ____.
a. the severity of cognitive decline and related decline in independent functioning
b. the extent of the brain damage and neurochemical abnormalities
c. the ability of the individual to use compensatory strategies
d. there is no distinction, they are the same disorder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which of the following can cause a neurocognitive disorder?
a. ischemic stoke c. stress
b. depression d. anxiety

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A characteristic that distinguishes delirium from mild and major neurocognitive disorder is the ____.
a. acute onset of symptoms c. decline in functioning
b. gradual onset of symptoms d. severity of symptoms

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. When a neurocognitive disorder is characterized by significant memory impairment and cognitive disturbances, or significant disturbances in planning and abstracting in thought processes, it is considered to be ____.
a. a long-duration delirium
b. a major neurocognitive disorder
c. a mild neurocognitive disorder
d. a neurocognitive disorder, not otherwise specified

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Jed, age 80, was hospitalized for a hip surgery. He is now exhibiting confusion about the time of day or day of week. He is unable to focus on anything. These symptoms started after his surgery. What is a likely diagnosis?
a. delirium c. Alzheimer’s
b. dementia d. Parkinson’s

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Marcus is 83 takes a long time to think about and say what he is thinking. Simple thoughts take a lot of effort, and he needs help with his finances. He developed this condition very suddenly and has experienced a steady cognitive decline since it began. Marcus was diagnosed with mild neurocognitive disorder. What aspect of his case is unusual?
a. It is unusual for mild neurocognitive disorder to show a steady cognitive decline.
b. It is unusual for mild neurocognitive disorder to occur in someone over 80.
c. It is unusual for mild neurocognitive disorder to involve speech aphasia.
d. It is unusual for mild neurocognitive disorder to have a sudden onset.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Rose, 89 years old, has had a gradual loss of memory affecting skills such as remembering people’s names and phone numbers. However, in her Bible study class, she makes insightful comments and understands the topic of discussion. This would suggest that Rose is experiencing ____.
a. normal aging c. early signs of dementia
b. early signs of Alzheimer’s disease d. a minor neurocognitive disorder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which statement about dementia is accurate?
a. Between 20 and 40 percent of people over age 65 have some form of dementia.
b. Dementia never involves hallucinations or delusions.
c. The prevalence of dementia decreases after age 65.
d. Dementia is associated with a wide range of disorders.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Dr. Berkins told her gerontology students that there are three major neurocognitive disorder categories listed in the DSM-5. These include major neurocognitive disorder, delirium, and ____.
a. mild neurocognitive disorder c. brain pathology
b. dementia d. learning disabilities

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Among elderly individuals, episodes of delirium are often associated with ____.
a. medical illnesses or surgical procedures
b. particularly efficient immune responses
c. decreased skeletal calcium
d. well-controlled high blood pressure

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Ian suddenly became incoherent at 3 a.m. yesterday. He was agitated and unable to focus his attention and did not know where he was when taken to the hospital. After two days, the cocaine was out of his system and his cognitive functioning returned to normal. What form of neurocognitive disorder did he display?
a. none; he was experiencing withdrawal c. delirium
b. minor neurocognitive disorder d. traumatic brain injury

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Because of high blood pressure, lack of physical exercise, and heavy smoking, Donald is at risk for having ____.
a. ischemic stroke c. Huntington’s disease
b. traumatic brain injury d. frontotemporal lobar degeneration

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. The core feature of Alzheimer’s disease is ____.
a. memory impairment c. disorientation in place and time
b. hallucinations and delusions d. acute onset of symptoms

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. What is most important to survival and recovery from a traumatic brain injury?
a. immediate medical intervention c. social support
b. psychological testing d. optimism

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Hazel was not wearing her helmet when she had an accident on her bicycle. As she fell, her brain was punctured by a broken spoke from the wheel of her bike, causing a rupture of her brain and hemorrhaging. Hazel experiences which type of head injury?
a. concussion c. contusion
b. cerebral laceration d. anoxia

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. “A physical wound or internal injury to the brain” defines a(n) ____.
a. infarction c. traumatic brain injury
b. diaschisis d. cerebrovascular accident or stroke

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Harold was involved in a fight and received several kicks to the head. A CT scan revealed bruising of his cortex. Harold’s symptoms suggest ____.
a. that he suffered a cerbral contusion c. that he suffered a stroke
b. apraxia and agnosia d. that a cerebral laceration occurred

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Sophie is playing volleyball. As she is about to spike the ball over the net, another player on her team accidentally collides with her, and Sophie hits her head against one of the metal poles that holds up the net. Sophie loses consciousness for a few seconds and, in a daze, she walks to the bench to sit down. Although she has a headache for a couple of weeks, she suffers no other effects from the blow. Sophie has experienced what type of brain injury?
a. a contusion c. a laceration
b. a concussion d. a cerebrovascular accident

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Priscilla is in an auto accident that causes her head to crash against the windshield. Her brain is pressed against the skull and bruised by the impact. She loses consciousness for three days, but none of the brain tissue is torn. Priscilla experienced a ____.
a. cerebral laceration c. stroke
b. cerebrovascular accident d. cerebral contusion

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Hilary was involved in a shooting that left her with traumatic brain injury. She spent several weeks in a coma. Afterward, she experienced headaches, disorientation, confusion, and irritability, as well as depression. She was then diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. What, if any, aspect of Hilary’s case is unusual?
a. It is unusual for people with a single traumatic brain injury to have a chronic traumatic encephalopathy diagnosis.
b. It is unusual for people with traumatic brain injury to be in a coma for weeks.
c. It is unusual for people with traumatic brain injury to feel depressed.
d. It is unusual for people with traumatic brain injury to experience headaches, disorientation, confusion, and irritability.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Andre has been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, which is causing problems with voluntary motor movement. What experimental treatment might help his brain resume producing dopamine?
a. gene therapy c. psychotherapy
b. antidepressant d. frontal cortex lobotomy

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Treatment Considerations with Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.4 Describe the current treatments for neurocognitive disorders.                       KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which of the following is a common outcome of severe brain trauma?
a. complete recovery without intellectual or emotional difficulties
b. complete intellectual recovery but continuing emotional problems
c. complete emotional recovery but cognitive difficulties
d. continuing cognitive difficulties and emotional disturbances

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Vascular neurocognitive disorders can result from ____ and ____.
a. stroke; ongoing disruptions to the cardiovascular system
b. Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease
c. psychosis; affective disturbances
d. traumatic brain injury; hypertension

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A clogging of the arteries resulting from a build-up of plaque composed of fat, cholesterol, and other substances is called ____.
a. atherosclerosis c. hypertension
b. aphasia d. agnosia

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Metzner is the director of a large nursing home. He and his staff are likely treating which of the following among the stroke patients?
a. independent functioning c. adjustment disorder
b. schizophrenia d. post-traumatic stress disorder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which statement about strokes is accurate?
a. Survivors can never recover.
b. Survivors generally require short-term care.
c. Strokes are a significant cause of disability.
d. Most strokes occur in individuals younger than 50 years of age.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Mr. Pappadopolis has a neurocognitive disorder that has caused an interesting symptom: He no longer acknowledges the left side of his body. For example, he does not shave the left side of his face or button his left shirt cuff. This is a sign that he ____.
a. has Parkinson’s disease
b. suffered a stroke
c. has Huntington’s disease
d. has aphasia and agnosia

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Vascular cognitive impairment, and atherosclerosis are terms associated with ____.
a. Alzheimer’s disease c. strokes
b. cerebral tumors d. meningitis and encephalitis

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Logan has suffered a deterioration of some of his intellectual and physical abilities that has occurred over the course of a long period of time. Logan is experiencing the death of brain cells. Which condition is occurring?
a. delirium c. atherosclerosis
b. neurodegeneration d. presenile dementia

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Age-related decreases in cognitive function ____.
a. occur in 35 to 45 percent of those over age 65
b. usually begin in a person’s early 40s and 50s
c. may be delayed by engaging in mentally stimulating exercises
d. rarely can be stopped because they are genetically programmed

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Treatment Considerations with Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.4 Describe the current treatments for neurocognitive disorders.                       KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Wilma is 76 years old and has noticed that her memory is not as sharp as it was earlier in her life. This memory loss might be due to which of the following?
a. epilepsy
b. Alzheimer’s disease
c. playing computer games
d. exposure to cognitively challenging tasks

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. An individual with age-associated cognitive decline is likely to ____.
a. require assistance with normal day-to-day activities
b. misplace things but find them after searching
c. be unaware of memory and cognitive difficulties
d. experience drastic shifts in mood

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Research conducted by Hankey (2011) has found that factors such as hypertension, smoking, abdominal obesity, limited physical activity, and stress account for ____ of the risk of stroke.
a. 40 percent c. 75 percent
b. 60 percent d. 90 percent

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A series of small strokes or a temporary blockage in blood flow leading to the brain is a condition known as ____.
a. CTE c. spatial-visual neglect
b. transient ischemic attack d. cerebral laceration

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The senior center in a large town is interested in the cognitive problems that its clients are likely to have. Research suggests that normally-aging clients are most likely to experience ____.
a. increasing disorientation and confusion
b. impairment of skills across all cognitive domains
c. a general slowing in the completion of cognitive tasks
d. profound apathy about memory difficulties

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. What is the strongest risk factor for dementia?
a. lifestyle c. age
b. drug use d. genetics

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.2 Discuss the different types of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. At age 64, Mrs. Willis began a long mental decline. She first showed memory loss and irritability, then delusionsRemember,cial withdrawal and dementia. She died at age 68 and autopsy showed neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques in her brain. Mrs. Willis most likely had ____.
a. Alzheimer’s disease c. epilepsy
b. aphasia d. ischemic stroke

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A handout on Alzheimer’s disease says, “Alzheimer’s is the third leading cause of dementia in older persons. It only affects the elderly, it causes marked deterioration in mental functioning without emotional disturbances, and it has no cure.” Which portion of this statement is accurate?
a. It is accurate to say that Alzheimer’s only affects the elderly.
b. It is accurate to say that Alzheimer’s has no cure.
c. It is accurate to say that Alzheimer’s is the third leading cause of dementia.
d. It is accurate to say that Alzheimer’s does not cause emotional disturbances.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Neurofibrillary tangles, memory loss, and beta-amyloid plaques are most related to ____.
a. Huntington’s disease c. Parkinson’s disease
b. epilepsy d. Alzheimer’s disease

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The cause of Alzheimer’s disease is ____.
a. believed to include hereditary and environmental factors
b. excessive drinking leading to encephalopathy
c. the natural aging process
d. excessive blood flow in the brain

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Current research suggests that genetic factors ____.
a. cause nearly all cases of Alzheimer’s
b. have no appreciable impact on Alzheimer’s risk
c. are associated with early-onset Alzheimer’s
d. function as protective factors not risk factors

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Skip undergoes a surgical procedure in which electrodes are implanted in his brain to reduce his tremors and other motor disturbances. Which disorder is most likely being treated?
a. Huntington’s disease c. Parkinson’s disease
b. Cerebral vascular disorder d. Alzheimer’s disease

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A physician says, “Most people know that AIDS leaves people open to deadly infections, but few are aware that cognitive impairment may be the first sign of HIV infection or AIDS. In serious cases, a diagnosis of AIDS delirium complex (ADC) is made. Prevalence of ADC among persons with HIV infection is between 30 to 40 percent in Western countries. Recently, medications have proven to improve symptoms of ADC once they develop.” What about the physician’s comments is correct?
a. Cognitive impairment may be the first sign of HIV infection or AIDS.
b. In serious cases, a diagnosis of AIDS delirium complex (ADC) is made.
c. Medications have proven to improve symptoms of ADC.
d. Prevalence of ADC among persons with HIV infection is between 30 to 40 percent.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Why might having AIDS produce dementia?
a. Most people with AIDS have a history of Alzheimer’s disease.
b. Most people with AIDS are over age 65.
c. The AIDS virus narrows the capillary walls and produces infarctions.
d. The AIDS virus invades the brain and affects mental processes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Dr. Wayne says during a case conference, “We know that the patient’s cognitive disorder is caused by an infectious agent. That automatically rules out ____ as a primary cause.”
a. syphilis c. AIDS dementia
b. encephalitis d. Huntington’s disease

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. It is a rare, genetically transmitted disorder that involves twitching movements, dementia, and death. Its symptoms begin to appear in childhood to late in life, and onset most typically occurs during midlife. What is it?
a. Huntington’s disease c. Parkinson’s disease
b. Alzheimer’s disease d. Meningitis

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which of the following organic brain disorders are incurable and always fatal?
a. Alzheimer’s disease and meningitis
b. Huntington’s disease and stroke
c. stroke and meningitis
d. Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

 

  1. Sybil becomes somewhat dazed as she hits her head against an open cabinet door. She has experienced the mildest form of head injury, known as a ____.
a. cerebral laceration c. concussion
b. contusion d. stroke

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

  1. What is the fourth leading cause of dementia caused by degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, and characterized by progressive decline in language and behavior?
a. frontotemporal lobar degeneration c. Huntington’s disease
b. Parkinson’s disease d. encephalitis

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which medications are sometimes prescribed to alleviate the depression associated with stroke?
a. B vitamins c. benzodiazepine
b. fluoxetine d. lithium carbonate

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Treatment Considerations with Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.4 Describe the current treatments for neurocognitive disorders.                       KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. According to the Rand Corporation (2010) ____ of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan report experiencing probable traumatic brain injury (TBI).
a. 10 percent c. 30 percent
b. 20 percent d. 40 percent

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which statement about strokes is correct?
a. They rarely happen in people under age 65.
b. They are the leading cause of dementia.
c. They are the fourth leading cause of death in the United States.
d. They are caused by an expansion of blood cells.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Approximately 87% of all strokes are the result of ____.
a. reduced blood flow
b. blood vessels bursting
c. leakage of blood into the brain
d. vascular cognitive impairment

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Rozee suffered a stroke when blood leaked into the brain after a blood vessel burst. This type of stroke is called a(n) ____ stroke.
a. atherosclerotic c. blockage
b. hemorrhagic d. traumatic

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. As we age, neurons are gradually lost, the brain becomes smaller, and information is processed more slowing. For some, this brain atrophy leads to ____.
a. enlarged ventricles
b. depression
c. anxiety
d. declining memory

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Normal age changes in the brain and occasional lapses in memory ____.
a. are common in healthy adults
b. are uncommon in healthy adults
c. warrant a minor neurocognitive disorder diagnosis
d. produce insignificant changes

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Parkinson’s disease is diagnosed ____.
a. more in men than in women c. only in men
b. more in women than in men d. equally across genders

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Among normally aging adults, infection or reactions to prescription drugs can result in ____.
a. memory loss and confusion c. chronic illness
b. Parkinson’s disease d. schizophrenia

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which cognitive disorder is characterized by atrophy of brain tissue?
a. frontotemporal lobar degeneration c. Parkinson’s disease
b. vascular dementia d. epilepsy

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Jensen was discussing “good news” with Rita and her daughter after Rita’s most recent neuropsychological testing. Since Rita has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), what Dr. Jensen most probably means by “good news” is that ____.
a. Rita is well on her way to recovery
b. Rita has regained some of her cognitive functioning
c. Rita’s rate of decline has slowed
d. Rita is unaware of her cognitive decline

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their families most typically consider the most disturbing symptom to be ____.
a. deterioration of memory
b. loss of ability to problem solve
c. loss of ability to think abstractly
d. deterioration of their physical functioning

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Neurofibrillary tangles and beta-amyloid plaques are predictive of development of which condition?
a. Alzheimer’s disease
b. Huntington’s disease
c. epilepsy
d. meningitis

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

 

  1. Dobkin and colleagues (2006) found that ____ is a feasible and effective treatment for depressive symptoms among individuals with Parkinson’s disease.
a. cognitive-behavioral therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. motivational interviewing
d. humanistic therapy

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Treatment Considerations with Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.4 Describe the current treatments for neurocognitive disorders.                       KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Symptoms consistent with mild neurocognitive disorder are common in individuals with ____.
a. current heavy substance use
b. current social drinking
c. even a distant history of alcohol abuse
d. pot use less than once a month

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Etiology of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Obesity ____ within the brain, resulting in cognitive decline and structural and biochemical changes.

 

  1. decreases neurodegeneration
  2. increases glucose
  3. accumulates plaques
  4. accelerates aging processes

 

ANS: D REF: Treatment Considerations with Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.4 Describe the current treatments for neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Alladi et al. found that can delay the age of onset of dementia by up to four years, because it appears to increase the ability of the brain to continue functioning normally despite neurodegeneration?

 

  1. social support
  2. speaking two languages
  3. preventive medication
  4. a healthy weight

 

ANS: B REF: Treatment Considerations with Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.4 Describe the current treatments for neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe the different neurocognitive disorders. Indicate how to differentiate among the different neurocognitive disorders.

 

ANS:

DSM-5 indicates three categories of neurocognitive disorders: major neurocognitive disorder, mild neurocognitive disorder, and delirium. With each disorder the underlying medical circumstances causing the disorder is known. Neurocognitive disorders may be due to a specific medical condition, a substance-induced condition, or may result from multiple etiologies.

 

Major neurocognitive disorder involves deficits in one or more cognitive areas/domains (e.g., complex attention, decision making and judgment, learning and memory, visual perception, or social skills and behavior) and the degree of ability to independently meet the demands of daily living. Observation, interviews, and psychological or neuropsychological testing are utilized to identify skills that are impaired or lower than would be expected based on a person’s age, gender, education, culture, and degree of functioning prior to symptoms.

 

Mild neurocognitive disorder also involves deficits in at least one major cognitive areas/domains, however the degree of severity is lesser than that seen in major neurocognitive disorder. Individuals with this disorder may struggle with familiar tasks or engage in compensatory strategies to function accordingly. Extra effort may be needed to function day to day, however overall independent functioning is not compromised as with major neurocognitive disorder. Overall, the main distinction between major and mild neurocognitive disorder is the severity of cognitive decline and decline in independent functioning. It is common for an individual to be first diagnosed with a mild neurocognitive disorder and as time passes and symptoms intensify an individual could be reassessed and diagnosed with major neurocognitive disorder.

 

The primary distinctions of delirium from major and mild neurocognitive disorders are that it is an acute state of confusion or cognitive impairment as well as its having a fluctuating course. Delirium is also characterized by diminished awareness, disorientation, and impaired attention skills. Delirium often develops rapidly (e.g. hours or days) and symptoms range from mild to severe. These symptoms can include impaired orientation, disorganized patterns of thinking, and psychotic symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations). Delirium is common and treatment for this disorder involves determining the underlying cause of the delirium which could include conditions such as high fever, dehydration, intoxication, or brain changes associated with a neurocognitive disorder. Delirium can present in the context of a minor or major neurocognitive disorder or it can present independently from these disorders.

 

REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.1 Explain how we can determine whether someone has a neurocognitive disorder.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Describe the characteristics of dementia in general and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in particular. What is known about the cause of Alzheimer’s and what appear to be some protective factors that reduce the risk of developing AD?

 

ANS:

Dementia is a term used across the neurocognitive and neurodegenerative disorders to describe the memory impairment and declining cognitive functioning resulting from degenerative brain conditions. Dementia produces such severe memory impairments that social, occupational, and self-care functioning drop significantly from prior levels. Many people with dementia show poor judgment and act impulsively. The onset of dementia is usually gradual; its effects are widespread and chronic, and they involve gradual cognitive deterioration. Age is the best studied and the strongest risk factor for dementia. The longer a person lives, the greater the chance of developing dementia.

 

Alzheimer’s disease is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. The onset of Alzheimer’s disease is insidious and characterized by progressive decline in cognitive, physical, and social functioning. Early signs of the disease are memory loss, irritability, and cognitive impairment, which gradually worsen over time. In addition to intellectual impairments, people with Alzheimer’s gradually become withdrawn, depressed, apathetic, delusional, and neglectful of personal hygiene. Memory loss moves from forgetting appointments and how to get home to forgetting who they and relatives are. There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, those with this diagnosis survive about half as long as those of similar age without dementia, and those with slower rates of cognitive decline are more likely to survive longer than those with sharp decreases in cognitive functioning. Alzheimer’s disease involves the formation of senile plaques (patches of degenerated nerve endings) as well as neurofibrillary tangles (abnormal, tangled mats of brain tissue filaments). It is hypothesized that these plaques cause oxidative injury, inflammation, and alterations in neurotransmitters which in-turn cause neuron death and significant brain atrophy. The etiology of Alzheimer’s disease is believed to be a product of hereditary and environmental factors. Several genes have been associated with the incidence of Alzheimer’s however the exact role of these genes is not known. A gene that increases risk for later-onset of Alzheimer’s disease is the APOE e4 gene, and those with this gene have a 25% increased likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s. Twin studies have identified that the heritability for Alzheimer’s is high, and that environmental influence should be the target of interventions to reduce risk and delay the onset of the disease. Protective factors include a healthy cardiovascular system, physical fitness, eating a healthy diet may help slow the progression and reduce risk of Alzheimer’s and other disorders involving dementia. Use of anti-inflammatory drugs may slow the accumulation of proteins implicated in Alzheimer’s disease.

 

REF:   Types of Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.12.1 Explain how we can determine whether someone has a neurocognitive disorder.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. What are some of the treatments for neurocognitive disorders?

 

ANS:

Treatment approaches vary greatly across neurocognitive disorders as these disorders have many different causes and associated symptoms. The major interventions have been rehabilitative, medical, and psychological. Most treatment programs are comprehensive, and they provide patients with a combination of medication, rehabilitation, therapy, and environmental modifications.

 

Rehabilitation services such as physical, occupational, speech and language therapy help individuals relearn skills or compensate for lost abilities. These interventions focus on strengths and deficits, and a person’s commitment to and participation in rehabilitation plays a key role in recovery. Brain imaging techniques are used to document brain changes achieved thorough rehabilitation.

 

Medications are dispensed according to the disorder being treated to help prevent, control or reduce the symptoms of some neurocognitive disorders. Sometimes medications are used to control emotional problems that accompany cognitive impairment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is used to reduce the frequency or severity of problem behaviors, such as aggression or socially inappropriate conduct, to decrease anxiety or depression, or to improve functional skills. They may also include simplifying complex tasks, such as dressing, eating, or personal hygiene. Dobkin, Allen, and Menza (2006) developed a treatment for people with Parkinson’s disease that involves training in stress management, behavioral modification, getting sound sleep, relaxation techniques, and cognitive restructuring.

 

Lifestyle changes are important for preventing or reducing the effects of cognitive disorders. For example, the risk of stroke is reduced by avoiding smoking, obesity, and hypertension. Mental stimulation is also important in reducing risk for diseases such as Alzheimer’s and in improving cognitive functioning for people who have dementia.

 

Environmental interventions include such things as modifying the environment to increase safety and comfort while decreasing confusion and agitation. Providing a supportive environment for those with neurocognitive and degenerative disorder helps these individuals with declining abilities feel happier, live with more comfort, and live with dignity. Family and friend support and contact enhance the lives of those with dementia as well. It’s also important to provide support for caregivers who often feel overwhelmed, helpless, frustrated, anxious, and angry. Education about the disorders is important and social support and respite care for the caregivers is critical.

 

REF:   Treatment Considerations with Neurocognitive Disorders

OBJ:         UABB.SUES.17.12.3 Explain the causes of neurocognitive disorders.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

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