Essentials of Understanding Psychology 10th Edition Feldman Test Bank

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Essentials of Understanding Psychology 10th Edition Feldman Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078035258

ISBN-10: 0078035252



Essentials of Understanding Psychology 10th Edition Feldman Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078035258

ISBN-10: 0078035252




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Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. _____ psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of higher mental processes,
including thinking, language, memory, problem solving, knowing, reasoning, and judging.


A.  Clinical
B.  Developmental
C.  Cognitive
D.  Evolutionary

2. Which of the following is true about mental images?


A.  They refer only to visual representations.
B.  They have only a few of the properties of the actual stimuli they represent.
C.  They are representations in the mind of an object or event.
D.  They cannot be rotated.

3. Which of the following statements best expresses the nature of mental images?


A.  They are binary in format.
B.  They are always auditory in format.
C.  They may be produced by any sensory modality.
D.  They are linguistic.

4. Dr. Randazza shows participants a stylized map of a fictitious city. The map includes landmarks, such
as a post office, a library, a shopping mall, a bus depot, and an airport. Some of the landmarks are close
together, such as the library and the post office. Others are far apart, such as the airport and the shopping
mall. Dr. Randazza removes the map. Participants are asked to imagine walking from one landmark to
another, either a nearby one or a more distant one. Participants press a key when they’ve reached the
destination in their minds. Based on your text’s discussion of mental imagery, what do you think Dr.
Randazza should find? What would such a result say about mental imagery?


Participants should take the same amount of time to travel mentally between distant as between close
landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions we perform with
respect to real objects.
Participants should take the same amount of time to travel mentally between distant as between close
landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery does not reflect the actual actions we perform
with respect to real objects.
Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant than between close landmarks. This
result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions we perform with respect to real
Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant than between close landmarks. This
result would suggest that mental imagery does not reflect the actual actions we perform with respect to
real objects.

5. Clint is mentally rehearsing his golf swing in his mind’s eye. Based on the text’s discussion of mental
imagery, which of the following statements is MOST accurate?


Clint’s mental rehearsal should improve his golf swing. Carrying out the task involves the same network
of brain cells as the network used in mentally rehearsing it.
Clint’s mental rehearsal should do little to improve his golf swing. The brain areas active during Clint’s
mental rehearsal should be the same as those active when Clint actually swings the golf club.
Clint’s mental rehearsal should improve his golf swing. The brain areas active during Clint’s mental
rehearsal should be different than those active when Clint actually swings the golf club.
Clint’s mental rehearsal should do little to improve his golf swing. The brain areas active during Clint’s
mental rehearsal should be different than those active when Clint actually swings the golf club.

6. Mental representations of objects are called _____; mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people
are called _____.


A.  images; concepts
B.  images; images as well
C.  concepts; concepts as well
D.  concepts; images

7. Which of the following is most nearly synonymous with the term concept, as it is used by cognitive


A.  Idea
B.  Relationship
C.  Category
D.  Image

8. Mental groupings of objects, events, or people that share common features are called:


A.  concepts.
B.  ideas.
C.  heuristics.
D.  algorithms.

9. A prototype is:


A.  the most typical or highly representative example of a concept.
B.  the first example of a concept that one encounters.
C.  the most frequent or common example of a concept.
D.  the most unusual or distinctive example of a concept.

10. Which of the following is MOST likely the prototype of the concept “fruit”?


A.  Carrot
B.  Apple
C.  Tomato
D.  Blueberry

11. You check the time on your phone. Your friend should be out of class by now. You call her. She should
answer if she’s out of class. In this example, your thought processes are best seen as exemplifying:


A.  problem solving.
B.  conceptualization.
C.  reasoning.
D.  creativity.

12. A rule that guarantees the solution to a problem when it is correctly applied is termed as a(n):


A.  heuristic.
B.  algorithm.
C.  premise.
D.  syllogism.

13. Which of the following is true of algorithms?


A.  In cases where heuristics are not available we may use algorithms.
B.  Even if it is applied appropriately, an algorithm cannot guarantee a solution to a problem.
C.  Algorithms may sometimes lead to errors.
D.  We can use an algorithm even if we cannot understand why it works.

14. Which of the following is true of heuristics?


A.  In cases where algorithms are not available, we may use heuristics.
B.  If applied appropriately, a heuristic guarantees a solution to a problem.
C.  Heuristics never lead to errors.
D.  Heuristics decrease the likelihood of success in coming to a solution.

15. Which of the following terms best captures the meaning of the term heuristic, as cognitive psychologists
use it?


A.  Principle
B.  Formula
C.  Strategy
D.  Program

16. When you play tic-tac-toe using certain mental shortcuts, you are using cognitive strategies psychologists


A.  algorithms.
B.  mental sets.
C.  heuristics.
D.  syllogistic reasoning.

17. Matt picks up a pamphlet at a counseling center titled How to Succeed at College Course Work. Which
type of problem-solving strategies is MOST LIKELY offered in this pamphlet?


A.  Algorithms
B.  Insights
C.  Heuristics
D.  Syllogisms

18. Which of the following most likely makes use of heuristics?


A.  A chemical equation for the synthesis of sulfuric acid
B.  A recipe for making cookies on the back of a box of cornflakes
C.  An article by a Nobel Prize winner titled “How to Succeed in Science”
D.  A computer program for keeping track of inventory at a department store

19. Which of the following is an advantage of the use of heuristics?


A.  A heuristic will present a clearly defined solution to a problem.
B.  A heuristic is often efficient.
C.  A heuristic is guaranteed to result in a correct response.
D.  A heuristic results in only one possible solution to a problem.

20. Which of the following is TRUE of heuristics?


A.  Heuristics always lead to correct solutions of a problem.
B.  Heuristics are a slower way to solve problems than are other strategies.
C.  Heuristics represent commonly used approaches to the solution of a problem.
D.  Heuristics are used by computers but not by humans as problem-solving tools.

21. Lori and Monica are looking at the cans of coffee on display at a local supermarket. They are trying to
decide which of two different-sized cans is the better buy. Lori attempts to divide the price of each can
by the number of ounces of coffee each _____ contains. Monica suggests that “the larger size is usually a
better buy”. Lori is using a(n); Monica, a(n) _____.


A.  heuristic; algorithm
B.  algorithm; heuristic
C.  prototype; algorithm
D.  heuristic; prototype

22. The _____ is a rule we apply when we judge people by the degree to which they depict a certain category
or group of people.


A.  availability heuristic
B.  representativeness heuristic
C.  confirmation bias
D.  stereotypic bias

23. When you use the representativeness heuristic, you are:


A.  making frequency estimates based on the ease with which things come to mind.
B.  overcoming a mental set.
C.  mistaking visual images and other forms of mental representations for reality.
D.  assuming that something is typical of its class.

24. Suppose you meet a woman who opposes the death penalty. You then decide that, generally, women
are more likely to oppose the death penalty than are men. That is, you assume that the individual case is
depictive of its category. Here you have fallen prey to:


A.  functional fixedness.
B.  the representativeness heuristic.
C.  the availability heuristic.
D.  the confirmation bias.

25. Carl is the one person Craig has ever met from New Zealand. Carl strikes Craig as being quite friendly
and funny. When asked what he would expect to find if he went to New Zealand, Craig says that he
would expect the people to be quite friendly and funny. What might he have used to make this judgment?
A.  The representativeness heuristic
B.  The confirmation bias
C.  Functional fixedness
D.  The availability heuristic

26. The _____ heuristic involves judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can
be recalled from memory.


A.  availability
B.  representativeness
C.  confirmation
D.  frequency

27. According to the _____ heuristic we assume that events we remember easily are likely to have occurred
more frequently in the past—and are more likely to occur in the future—than events that are harder to


A.  availability
B.  representativeness
C.  confirmation
D.  frequency

28. Following the September 11, 2001, Twin Towers attacks, many Americans elected to drive rather than
fly. The media coverage of the hijackings caused Americans to overestimate the danger of flying. As it
was an event they remember easily they assumed it could occur more frequently. This example illustrates


A.  availability heuristic.
B.  representativeness heuristic.
C.  confirmation bias.
D.  stereotypic bias.

29. When people are asked which is more common, death by homicide or death by stroke, they often choose
homicide because they simply hear more about murders than they do about strokes. In this instance,
people are led astray in their judgments by:


A.  the representativeness heuristic.
B.  the stereotypic bias.
C.  the confirmation bias.
D.  the availability heuristic.

30. Last week, Mike heard about five separate airplane crashes on the news. Even though, overall,
motorcycle accidents account for more accidents than plane crashes do, Mike decides to ride his
motorcycle from Washington to Atlanta instead of flying. Which bias is reflected in Mike’s decision?


A.  The availability heuristic
B.  The confirmation bias
C.  The syllogistic error
D.  The representativeness heuristic

31. Joanne will not go out at night because she hears from her local news station about the large number of
muggings and robberies that occur in her city. However, crime in Joanne’s city has actually gone down in
the past few years. To which bias is Joanne falling victim?


A.  The representativeness heuristic
B.  Functional fixedness
C.  The availability heuristic
D.  The confirmation bias

32. “You always clam up when I ask you what’s wrong,” Iris tells her boyfriend. Iris is probably making this
frequency judgment because she can remember a few times that her boyfriend wouldn’t tell her what was
bothering him. Iris is using the _____ heuristic.


A.  representativeness
B.  availability
C.  functional
D.  frequency

33. In a _____ heuristic, known items are seen as superior to those that are unknown.


A.  representativeness
B.  availability
C.  functional
D.  familiarity

34. When you go to the supermarket, you see the brand of cookies you usually buy, and settle for it. Usually
it’s a good rule of thumb, because it saves a lot of time. You do not ponder over every type of cookie
available in the store. This is an example of a(n) _____.


A.  representativeness heuristic
B.  syllogistic reasoning
C.  algorithm
D.  familiarity heuristic

35. _____ intelligence is the field that examines how to use technology to imitate the outcome of human
thinking, problem solving, and creative activities.


A.  Artificial
B.  Bodily-kinesthetic
C.  Spatial
D.  Existential

36. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of the three broad phases of the problem-solving
process, from first to last?


Preparation → judgment → production
Judgment → production → preparation
Preparation → production → judgment
Judgment → preparation → production

37. In _____ problems, the nature of the problem and the information needed to solve it are clear; in _____
problems, either or both the nature of the problem and the information required to solve it are unclear.


A.  well-defined; ill-defined
B.  algorithmic; heuristic
C.  arrangement; inducing structure
D.  transformation; arrangement

38. Which of the following is an ill-defined problem?


A.  Navigating to a museum in a nearby city
B.  Composing a good concerto
C.  Finding out where several well-known authors were born
D.  Playing Scrabble

39. “Convert to a mixed numeral: 18/5,” states one problem in a fifth-grader’s arithmetic text. This is a(n)
_____ problem. It is best solved through the application of _____.


A.  well-defined; algorithms
B.  well-defined; heuristics
C.  ill-defined; algorithms
D.  ill-defined; heuristics

40. Dr. Ireland’s class is attempting to find derivatives; Dr. Jamison’s class is developing campaign strategies
for a local politician. Which of the following statements is MOST likely TRUE?


A.  Dr. Ireland’s class is solving a well-defined problem.
B.  Dr. Jamison’s class is solving a well-defined problem.
C.  Dr. Ireland’s class is using syllogistic reasoning.
D.  Dr. Jamison’s class is using familiarity heuristic.

41. _____ problems require the problem solver to rearrange or recombine elements in a way that will satisfy a
certain criterion.


A.  Arrangement
B.  Inducing structure
C.  Transformation
D.  Prescriptive

42. In problems of _____, a person must identify the existing relationships among the elements presented and
then construct a new relationship among them.


A.  arrangement
B.  inducing structure
C.  transformation
D.  prescriptive

43. _____ problems consist of an initial state, a goal state, and a method for changing the initial state into the
goal state.


A.  Arrangement
B.  Inducing structure
C.  Transformation
D.  Prescriptive

44. Which of the following problem types is CORRECTLY matched with a description?


A.  Arrangement—moving from an initial to a goal state according to a specific method

Inducing structure—identifying relationships among problem elements and constructing new
C.  Transformation—rearranging or recombining elements to satisfy a particular criterion

Transformation— identifying relationships among problem elements and constructing new

45. Janelle is solving anagrams; Kamika is puzzling over verbal analogies; Lamar is playing chess with a
friend. Which alternative below CORRRECTLY matches each individual with the type of problem he or
she is solving?


A.  Janelle—arrangement; Kamika—transformation; Lamar—inducing structure
B.  Janelle—transformation; Kamika—inducing structure; Lamar—arrangement
C.  Janelle—arrangement; Kamika—inducing structure; Lamar—transformation
D.  Janelle—transformation; Kamika—arrangement; Lamar—inducing structure

46. Thomas Edison invented the lightbulb only because he experimented with thousands of different kinds of
materials for a filament before he found one that worked (carbon). This shows that at the most basic level,
we can solve problems through _____.


A.  the availability heuristic
B.  means-ends analysis
C.  insight
D.  trial and error

47. _____ involves repeated tests for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists.


A.  Forming subgoals
B.  Means-ends analysis
C.  Insight
D.  Trial and error

48. According to the text, the most frequently used problem-solving heuristic is:


A.  forming subgoals.
B.  means-ends analysis.
C.  insight.
D.  trial and error.

49. Millie is stumped by a problem in her pre-calculus text. She furtively glances at the answer provided
in the back of the text to get an idea of how the solution should look before she returns to the problem.
Millie’s strategy most closely resembles the problem-solving heuristic of:


A.  forming subgoals.
B.  trial and error.
C.  working backward.
D.  insight.

50. A political science professor attempts to facilitate her students’ completion of a term paper assignment
by requiring to first submit a topic statement, then a list of references, then a draft of the introduction,
then, finally, the completed paper. The professor is encouraging her students to use the problem-solving
strategy of:


A.  forming subgoals.
B.  working backward.
C.  means-ends analysis.
D.  trial and error.

51. Which problem-solving strategy or method is CORRECTLY matched with its definition?


A.  Means-ends analysis – dividing a problem into intermediate steps
B.  Forming subgoals – focusing on a problem’s goal rather than its starting point

Working backward – reducing the apparent difference between the current state of the problem and the
D.  Insight – experiencing a sudden awareness of the relationships among a problem’s components

52. Kent and Kirsten are both trying to reduce their consumer debt. Kent isolates several more concrete
problems he can solve to achieve his goal, such as paying the highest-interest debts first and freezing
credit card spending. Kirsten simply pays her largest debt first, because this would seem to be the fastest
way to move her debt as close to zero as possible. Kent’s plan reflects the problem-solving strategy of
_____. Kirsten’s method illustrates the strategy of _____.


A.  forming subgoals; trial and error
B.  means-end analysis; trial and error
C.  working backward; means-end analysis
D.  forming subgoals; means-end analysis

53. The study of insight is associated with the German psychologist _____; he studied problem solving
among _____.


A.  Kohler; chimpanzees
B.  Kohler; humans
C.  Wundt; cats
D.  Wundt; humans

54. _____ is defined as a sudden awareness of the relationship among problem elements; it is thought to lead
rapidly to the problem’s solution.


A.  Convergent thinking
B.  Divergent thinking
C.  Insight
D.  Creativity

55. The text’s discussion of insight suggests that its key characteristic is its:


A.  brevity.
B.  complexity.
C.  uniqueness.
D.  suddenness.

56. According to the text, the apparent suddenness of insightful problem solutions:


A.  may rest in part on the foundation of trial and error.
B.  may be based on the availability heuristic.
C.  has been affirmed by empirical research.
D.  requires the application of confirmation bias.

57. Which of the following impediments to effective problem solving is INCORRECTLY matched with an
illustrative problem?


A.  Confirmation bias—problem of security in the Middle East
B.  Functional fixedness—water jar problem
C.  Mental set—water jar problem
D.  Functional fixedness—candle problem

58. _____ refers to the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist.


A.  Mental set
B.  Representativeness heuristic
C.  Availability heuristic
D.  Syllogistic frame

59. Zelma is asked to think of all the words she can, beginning with the letters “squ,” such as squeak. She
is then given a fill-in-the-blank task on which one of the items is “s _ _ o n g.” Zelma keeps trying to
make “squong” a word, and has trouble thinking of the common word strong. Zelma’s ability to solve this
problem has been hampered by:


A.  syllogistic reasoning.
B.  a mental set.
C.  the confirmation bias.
D.  the representativeness heuristic.

60. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between mental and functional


A.  Functional fixedness is an example of a broader phenomenon known as mental set.
B.  Mental set is actually a specific instance of functional fixedness.
C.  Functional fixedness and mental set are the same thing.
D.  Functional fixedness and mental set are distinct problem-solving impediments.

61. Making several minor household repairs, Alyssa uses a shoe as a hammer and a butter knife as a
screwdriver. Which of the following statements best characterizes Alyssa’s problem solving?


A.  She is constrained by a powerful mental set.
B.  She has been released from functional fixedness.
C.  She is taking advantage of the representative heuristic.
D.  She is forming subgoals.

62. A jeweler is unable to fix a particular mounting in a ring because she can imagine only the conventional
uses for her tools. This best demonstrates which of the following?


A.  Syllogistic reasoning
B.  Functional fixedness
C.  Algorithmic thinking
D.  Means-end analysis

63. Henry’s dog, Sparky, has been rolling in the mud. Henry must bathe Sparky before the dog gets mud
all over the carpet. However, Henry is unable to find the plug for the tub. Sitting on the counter right
beside the tub is a fifty-cent piece. In his frustration, Henry fails to see that the coin could be used as an
emergency plug for the tub. What happened to Henry?


A.  He took a heuristic approach.
B.  He fell prey to the confirmation bias.
C.  He suffered from mental set.
D.  He employed representational thought.

64. _____ is the tendency to seek out and weight more heavily information that supports one’s initial
hypothesis and to ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions.


A.  Functional fixedness
B.  A mental set
C.  Confirmation bias
D.  Representativeness heuristic

65. Which of the following impediments to effective problem solving is CORRECTLY matched with its


A.  Functional fixedness—the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist
B.  Mental set—the tendency to think of an object only in terms of its customary use

Confirmation bias—the tendency to favor existing hypotheses and to ignore evidence favoring
Representative heuristic—involves judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the
event can be recalled from memory.

66. Nigel often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports; he appears to
ignore editorials critical of the candidate. Nigel appears prone to:


A.  functional fixedness.
B.  mental set.
C.  the confirmation bias.
D.  the representativeness heuristic.

67. Sandy, a true believer in astrology, reads in her horoscope that today is her lucky day. She gets so excited
that she spills coffee all over herself, necessitating a change of clothes. As a result, she is late for work
and for a very important meeting, which in turn gets her into serious trouble with her boss. That evening,
her brother is taken to the emergency room. On her way to visit him, Sandy finds a dime in the hospital
parking lot. What does research on the confirmation bias suggest that Sandy will do?



Sandy will renounce astrology as completely wrong because of all the horrible things that happened on
her “lucky day.”

Sandy will begin to question her belief in astrology because of all the horrible things that happened on
her “lucky day.”
C.  Sandy will seize on the dime she found as evidence of astrology’s accuracy.
D. Confirmation bias has little or no relevance to how Sandy will think about astrology in the future.

68. The ability to generate original ideas or develop novel solutions to problems is known as:


A.  convergent thinking.
B.  insight.
C.  creativity.
D.  syllogistic reasoning.

69. Which of the following statements accurately expresses one failing of cognitive psychologists’ study of
problem solving?


A.  Cognitive psychologists have failed to identify the strategies people use in solving problems.

Cognitive psychologists have failed to explain why some people generate better solutions than others
C.  Cognitive psychologists have failed to specify how people represent problems in their minds.

Cognitive psychologists have failed to identify the barriers to effective problem solving that people

70. Someone relying on convergent thinking would answer _____ to the query “What can you do with a


A.  “You brush your teeth with it”
B.  “You use it for painting”
C.  “You use it for cleaning tools”
D.  “You use it to make toys”

71. Someone relying on divergent thinking would answer _____ to the query “What can you do with a


A.  “You write with it”
B.  “You use it for sketching”
C.  “You use it when you can’t find a pen”
D.  “You use it to make toys”

72. As compared to less creative individuals, creative persons:


A.  prefer more complex stimuli.
B.  are more dependent.
C.  are more interested in concrete problems.
D.  have a narrower range of interests.

73. Which of the following is true of creativity?


A.  One factor that is closely related to creativity is intelligence.
B.  Traditional tests are a good way to gauge an individual’s creativity.
C.  Highly creative individuals show signs of convergent thinking.
D.  Cognitive complexity is an important aspect of creativity.

74. Which of the following factors is NOT closely related to creativity?


A.  Cognitive complexity
B.  Abstract problems
C.  Range of interests
D.  Intelligence

75. Traditional intelligence tests tend to assess _____ thinking; tests of creativity tap into _____.


A.  divergent; convergent thinking
B.  divergent; divergent thinking as well
C.  convergent; divergent thinking
D.  convergent; convergent thinking as well

76. According to the text, critical or creative thinking may be enhanced by each of the following strategies


A.  using analogies.
B.  considering opposites.
C.  avoiding heuristics.
D.  experimenting with solutions.

77. Phonology is the study of:


A.  combination of words.
B.  speech sounds.
C.  word order.
D.  meaning.

78. Linguists have identified more than _____ different phonemes among all the world’s languages.


A.  26
B.  more than 800
C.  52
D.  an infinite number

79. Approximately how many phonemes are found in English?


A.  26
B.  more than 800
C.  52
D.  an infinite number

80. Dr. Salim is a linguist, studying the rules guiding the order of words and phrases in several of the world’s
languages. Dr. Salim is a(n):


A.  syntactician.
B.  semanticist.
C.  phonologist.
D.  translator.

81. In written language, letters most closely represent _____, whereas sentences may be said to reflect


A.  syntax; semantics
B.  syntax; phonemes
C.  phonemes; syntax
D.  phonemes; semantics

82. Which of the following language acquisition stages or phenomena is CORRECTLY matched with an
illustrative example?


A.  Babbling—”Goo goo, ga ga.”
B.  Telegraphic speech—”I ran from the library to the bus stop.”
C.  Overgeneralization—”Daddy has come home.”
D.  Overgeneralization—”Drawing house”

83. What is meant by the notion of a critical period for language acquisition?


A.  It is the period of transition between one-word and two-word utterances.

It is the time in one’s childhood in which a child is particularly sensitive to language cues and most
easily acquires language.
C.  It is the period isolated children spend by themselves before someone teaches them language.
It is the period between six and ten years of age in which certain complex aspects of syntax are


84. The text reports the case of a girl named Genie, who was exposed to virtually no language from the age
of 20 months until the age of 13. In what way does Genie’s case offer support for the notion of a critical
period in language acquisition?


With intensive instruction, Genie acquired a sizeable vocabulary after the age of 13; moreover, she
eventually mastered the rules of syntax.
Even with intensive instruction, Genie acquired only a very small vocabulary after the age of 13;
furthermore, she never mastered the complexities of language.
Once she was no longer isolated, Genie acquired a sizeable vocabulary and eventually mastered the
rules of syntax, even without intensive formal instruction.
D.  Genie’s case is irrelevant to the notion of a critical period.

85. Tina is 6 months old, Vincenzo is 2 years and 7 months old, and Wayne is 3.5 years old. Which
alternative below CORRECTLY pairs each child with the appropriate language acquisition stage or


A.  Tina—overgeneralization; Vincenzo—babbling; Wayne—telegraphic speech
B.  Tina—babbling; Vincenzo—telegraphic speech; Wayne—overgeneralization
C.  Tina—telegraphic speech; Vincenzo—babbling; Wayne—overgeneralization
D.  Tina—babbling; Vincenzo—overgeneralization; Wayne—telegraphic speech

86. Dorian is 2 years old; Constance is 2.5. Dorian’s vocabulary probably contains around _____ words;
Constance’s, _____ words.


A.  about 100; several hundred
B.  about 50; about 100
C.  about 50; several hundred
D.  several hundred; about 1000

87. “All gone milk,” says two-year-old Wesley, placing the empty glass on the table. Wesley’s remark
exemplifies the language acquisition phenomenon termed:


A.  babbling.
B.  telegraphic speech.
C.  holographic speech.
D.  agrammatism.

88. Ricky tells his grandmother, “Momma holded the rabbit.” According to your text, Ricky’s statement


A.  idiomatic speech.
B.  telegraphic speech.
C.  babbling.
D.  overgeneralization.

89. Connie is telling her mother a story about a scary dog she encountered in a neighbor’s yard. “Then I
runned away,” Connie concludes. Which language acquisition phenomenon is Connie demonstrating?
About how old is Connie?


A.  Connie is babbling. She is probably about 2 years old.
B.  Connie is overgeneralizing. She is probably 3-4 years old.
C.  Connie is babbling. She is probably about 4 years old.
D.  Connie is overgeneralizing. She is probably 5-6 years old.

90. The theory that language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioning is known as
the _____ approach.


A.  learning-theory
B.  nativist
C.  interactionist
D.  prescriptive

91. The theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development is known as
the _____ approach.


A.  learning-theory
B.  nativist
C.  interactionist
D.  prescriptive

92. The nativist approach to language acquisition is associated with:


A.  B. F. Skinner.
B.  Benjamin Whorf.
C.  Noam Chomsky.
D.  Wolfgang Kohler.

93. The view that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined
predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language is known as the _____


A.  learning-theory
B.  nativist
C.  interactionist
D.  prescriptive

94. Theorists taking an interactionist approach to language acquisition:


A.  reject both the learning theory and nativist approaches.
B.  agree that the brain is hardwired to acquire language.
C.  downplay the role of the environment in language acquisition.
D.  remain unconvinced by the idea of a language-acquisition device.

95. The notion that language shapes and may determine the way people in a particular culture perceive and
understand the world is known as the _____ hypothesis.


A.  output
B.  interaction
C.  linguistic-relativity
D.  monitor

96. The _____ hypothesis suggests language leads to thought.


A.  output
B.  interaction
C.  linguistic-relativity
D.  monitor

97. Which figure best approximates the number of Americans for whom English is a second language?


A.  13 million
B.  25 million
C.  47 million
D.  100 million

98. In _____, students are educated in their native language and in English simultaneously; in _____, they are
educated only in English.


A.  immersion programs; bilingual education
B.  bilingual education; immersion programs
C.  an alternation approach; immersion programs
D.  immersion programs; alternation programs

99. In the introduction to its discussion of intelligence, your text suggests that conceptions of intelligence
vary cross-culturally. To the Trukese of the South Pacific, for example, intelligence may mean the ability
to navigate on the open water without technological assistance; to an American high schooler, it may
mean the ability to score well on standardized tests of academic achievement and aptitude. Nevertheless,
one element of the understanding of intelligence that is consistent across culture is:


A.  the ability to use the resources provided by one’s environment.
B.  the ability to understand and relate to others.
C.  to think rationally; that is, with one’s head rather than one’s heart.
D.  to solve abstract, complex problems.

100.Psychologists define _____ as the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources


A.  cognition
B.  intelligence
C.  sensation
D.  perception

101.Ashley, a psychology major, remarks that she has become interested in the study of intelligence. In other
words, Ashley is interested in:


A.  the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively.
B.  how behavior changes as a result of experience.
C.  the factors directing behavior toward a goal.
D.  the ability to generate novel solutions to problems.

102.The g-factor is:


A.  the factor that helps us reason abstractly.
B.  a broad factor that supports every aspect of intelligence.
C.  one of several components of intelligence.
D.  the same thing as crystallized intelligence.

103._____ is the single factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intelligence in some early theories of


A.  G-factor
B.  P-factor
C.  I-factor
D.  M-factor

104.Laverne’s scores on different parts of an IQ test are very different from one another. Laverne’s profile of
scores on the test:


A.  contradicts the view of intelligence offered by early theorists such as Spearman.
B.  supports the view of intelligence offered by early theorists such as Spearman.
C.  contradicts the view of intelligence offered by contemporary theorists such as Gardner.
D.  supports the g-factory theory of mental ability.

105.Early theorists such as Spearman argued that g represented general intelligence. According to these
theorists, individuals high in g:


A.  have an advantage in every intellectual endeavor.
B.  excel at numerical but not verbal tasks.
C.  excel at visual but not verbal tasks.
D.  excel at verbal and numerical tasks, but not visual ones.

106.Early theorists inferred the existence of a general intelligence g factor from:


A.  the high reliability coefficients for the results of individual tests.
B.  the low correlations among tests of different intellectual skills.
C.  the negative correlations among tests of different intellectual skills.
D.  the positive correlations among tests of different intellectual skills.

107.In what way do current theories of intelligence differ from those offered earlier in psychology’s history?

Contemporary theories propose that there may be many multiple forms of intelligence, rather than just
Contemporary theories propose that there may be a single broad factor underlying every aspect of
intelligence; earlier theories proposed that there are probably multiple forms of intelligence.

Contemporary theories tend to dismiss the notion that cultural differences are important to a definition
of intelligence.

Contemporary theories claim that people who did poorly on one test tended to do poorly on others as

108.Intelligence that reflects the ability to reason abstractly is termed _____ intelligence.


A.  fluid
B.  reflexive
C.  spatial
D.  crystallized

109.Janet has a knack for figuring things out. When faced with puzzles and problems she has never seen
before, Janet always manages to find a solution. Janet is high in _____ intelligence.


A.  spatial
B.  flexible
C.  fluid
D.  crystallized

110._____ intelligence is the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned
through experience.


A.  Fluid
B.  Reflexive
C.  Spatial
D.  Crystallized

111.In contrast to _____, _____ is more a reflection of the culture in which a person is raised.


A.  existential intelligence; fluid intelligence
B.  crystallized intelligence; existential intelligence
C.  fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence
D.  existential intelligence; kinesthetic intelligence

112.Which of the following is MOST likely to draw on fluid intelligence?


A.  Solving a new kind of puzzle
B.  Answering trivia questions
C.  Figuring out how to fix a familiar appliance
D.  Participating in a discussion about the solution to the causes of poverty

113.Jody is completing a test in which she has to name as many state capitals as she can in one minute;
Alex is trying to complete analogies between pairs of abstract diagrams. Jody is taking a test of _____
intelligence; Alex, a test of _____.


A.  fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence
B.  fluid intelligence; fluid intelligence as well
C.  crystallized intelligence; crystallized intelligence as well
D.  crystallized intelligence; fluid intelligence

114.Bonnie studied car mechanics in high school and spent a lot of time helping out at her dad’s garage. Her
ability to replace a blown gasket relies primarily on her _____ intelligence.


A.  fluid
B.  flexible
C.  kinesthetic
D.  crystallized

115.Studies of changes in intelligence as a function of aging suggest that:


A.  crystallized intelligence tend to decline with age in adults.
B.  crystallized intelligence tends to increase with age in adults.
C.  fluid intelligence tends to decline with age in adults.
D.  fluid intelligence tends to increase with age in adults.

116._____ is Gardner’s intelligence theory that proposes that there are eight distinct spheres of


A.  Triarchic theory of intelligence
B.  Theory of primary mental abilities
C.  Theory of multiple intelligences
D.  Theory of general intelligence

117._____ involves identifying and thinking about the fundamental questions of human continuance.


A.  Emotional intelligence
B.  Analytical intelligence
C.  Crystallized intelligence
D.  Existential intelligence

118.According to the text, a positive feature of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences is:


A.  the empirical support it has received.
B.  the intuitive appeal of the underlying concept.
C.  that it has led to the development of intelligence tests that allow test takers to be creative.
D.  its focus on cases of brain damage, as well as of mental retardation and giftedness.

119.Which of the following is one of Gardner’s forms of intelligence?


A.  General intelligence
B.  Analytical intelligence
C.  Crystallized intelligence
D.  Musical intelligence

120.Gardner’s theory includes each of the following types of intelligence EXCEPT:


A.  tacit intelligence.
B.  musical intelligence.
C.  bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.
D.  interpersonal intelligence.

121.Bodily kinesthetic intelligence refers to skills:


A.  in problem solving and scientific thinking.

in using the whole anatomy or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the construction
of products or displays.
C.  involving spatial configurations.
D.  involved in the production and use of language.

122.Dancers, athletes, actors, and surgeons display:


A.  bodily kinesthetic intelligence.
B.  naturalist intelligence.
C.  intrapersonal intelligence.
D.  spatial intelligence.

123.Which of the following professionals would most likely display spatial intelligence?


A.  Dancer
B.  Actor
C.  Social worker
D.  Architect

124.Logical-mathematical intelligence refers to skills:


A.  in problem solving and scientific thinking.

in using the whole anatomy or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the construction
of products or displays.
C.  involved in the ability to identify patterns in nature.
D.  involved in the production and use of language.

125.Knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself is termed as _____.


A.  naturalistic intelligence
B.  interpersonal intelligence
C.  intrapersonal intelligence
D.  spatial intelligence

126._____ refers to skills involved in the production and use of language.


A.  Naturalistic intelligence
B.  Linguistic intelligence
C.  Intrapersonal intelligence
D.  Spatial intelligence

127.Kyana is an excellent salesperson because she can always find a way of connecting with a potential
client. Based on this information, in which kind of intelligence would Gardner expect Kyana to be high?
A.  Analytic
B.  Bodily kinesthetic
C.  Interpersonal
D.  Spatial

128.Collectivist cultures, such as Taiwan’s, place a high priority on how individuals relate to each other. It
might be reasonable to hypothesize that Taiwanese adults might outscore American adults on a test of
Gardner’s _____ intelligence.


A.  naturalistic
B.  intrapersonal
C.  practical
D.  interpersonal

129.Which of the following alternatives does NOT correctly use Gardner’s terminology to identify the type of
intelligence with the characteristic of a well-known individual?


A.  Babe Ruth – athletic
B.  Barbara McClintock – numerical
C.  T. S. Eliot – linguistic
D.  Virginia Wolf – naturalistic

130.Etta is taking an intelligence test based on Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory. How is Etta’s
performance likely to be scored?


A.  She will receive a score for each of eight types of intelligence.
B.  She will receive a score for each of three types of intelligence.
C.  She will be classified as having one of eight types of intelligence.
D.  She will receive an overall intelligence score, like an IQ.

131.According to Sternberg, intelligence related to overall success in living is known as _____


A.  practical
B.  crystallized
C.  emotional
D.  creative

132.The notion of practical intelligence is associated with:


A.  Gardner.
B.  Sternberg.
C.  Weschler.
D.  Spearman.

133.Traditional tests were designed to relate to _____.


A.  academic success
B.  career success
C.  spiritual success
D.  familial success

134.People who are high in _____ intelligence are able to learn general norms and principles and apply them


A.  practical
B.  crystallized
C.  emotional
D.  linguistic

135.Which of the following is true of academic success and career success?



Academic success and career success both rely on the sort of intelligence assessed by traditional
intelligence tests.
B.  Academic success and career success are based on two different types of intelligence.

Traditional tests were designed to relate to career success while, contemporary tests are designed to
relate to academic success.
D.  Both academic and career success relate to practical intelligence.

136.The three types of intelligence proposed by Sternberg include each of the following except _____


A.  analytical
B.  practical
C.  logical
D.  creative

137._____ intelligence is the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and
regulation of one’s mental state.


A.  Emotional
B.  Practical
C.  Fluid
D.  Crystallized

138.Which of the major intelligence concepts described in your text is CORRECTLY matched with a


A.  Practical intelligence – intelligence attuned to the feelings and needs of oneself or others
B.  Crystallized intelligence – information, skills, and strategies learned through experience
C. Gardner’s theory – intelligence relates to reasoning, memory, and information-processing capabilities
D.  Information-processing approach – eight independent forms of intelligence

139.The first intelligence tests were developed by:


A.  Galton.
B.  Binet.
C.  Spearman.
D.  Weschler.

140.The practical problem Alfred Binet was trying to solve when he developed his intelligence test was:


A.  devising a culturally fair measure of intelligence.
B.  devising an uncontaminated measure of intelligence.
C.  identifying gifted children for accelerated programs.
D.  identifying slow learners for remedial aid.

141.The age for which a given level of performance is average or typical is known as _____.


A.  mental age
B.  societal age
C.  chronological age
D.  behavioral age

142.Imagine that overall, 6-year-olds can complete a particular block design puzzle in 5 minutes. It takes
Bailey almost 8 minutes to complete the task. In Binet’s terms, Bailey’s _____ age is _____ than 6.


A.  chronological; higher
B.  chronological; lower
C.  mental; higher
D.  mental; lower

143.The formula for the intelligence quotient as Binet defined it is:


A.  CA/MA x 100.
B.  MA/CA x 100.
C.  CA/(MA x 100).
D.  MA/(CA x 100).

144.Laura is 8; her performance on a series of tasks is equivalent to that of the average 10-year-old. Her
intelligence quotient is:


A.  125.
B.  80.
C.  110.
D.  150.

145.If we were to plot the IQ scores of every person living in the United States on a graph, we would end up


A.  a downward sloping curve.
B.  a vertical line.
C.  a uniform distribution—that is, a straight horizontal line.
D.  a bell-shaped curve.

146.Coral’s IQ score is 104. She is in good company: nearly _____ out of 10 people have IQ scores between
85 and 115.


A.  3
B.  7
C.  5
D.  9

147.Approximately _____ of the population have an IQ score between 85 and 115.


A.  52%
B.  68%
C.  77%
D.  85%

148.Below are several statements about the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Which statement is
CORRECTLY identified as false?


A.  The test is administered orally – False
B.  The test includes verbal and nonverbal assessments – False
C.  The same items are used for test-takers of different ages – False
D.  The test can be scored on 20 different subtests. – False

149.Which of the following statements best describes the fate of Binet’s intelligence test within psychology?
A.  It really has had little lasting influence on contemporary intelligence testing.
B.  It is still used, and it is in virtually the same form as Binet’s original test.
C.  It was used for a number of decades, but was then abandoned.
D.  It is still used, but in a heavily revised form.

150.The most commonly used IQ test in the United States is the:


A.  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
B.  Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.
C.  Spearman G Scale.
D.  Terman Intelligence Batter.

151.Which of the following best expresses the distinction between the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV?


A.  The WAIS-IV is for use on males only, whereas the WISC-IV is used on females only.
B. The WAIS-IV is a test of verbal intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is a test of nonverbal intelligence.

The WAIS-IV is used to test adult intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is used to test children’s
D.  The WAIS-IV is the current successor to the WISC-IV, an older test of intelligence.

152.Contemporary tests of intelligence are in widespread use in the United States EXCEPT the:


C.  Spearman G Scale.
D.  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.

153.Which of the following is NOT among the disadvantages of group IQ tests?


A.  Group IQ tests offer fewer types of questions than do individually administered tests.

People may be less motivated to do their best work on a group-administered than on an individually
administered test.
C.  It is not always possible to test people in groups.
D.  They are difficult to administer and score on a large-scale basis.

154.The property by which tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure is known as _____.


A.  specificity
B.  validity
C.  reliability
D.  sensitivity

155.A psychological test is reliable when it:


A.  measures what it is actually supposed to measure.
B.  has been normed using samples representative of those for whom the test has been designed.
C.  yields consistent measurements.
D.  measures the positives in the test.

156.A psychological test is valid when it:


A.  actually measures what it is supposed to measure.
B.  has been normed using samples representative of those for whom the test has been designed.
C.  yields consistent measurements.
D.  measures the positives in the test.

157.Which of the following is true about tests?


A.  Even if a test is unreliable, it cannot be valid.
B.  Test validity and reliability are prerequisites for accurate assessment of intelligence.
C.  Test reliability and validity are highly desirable for an accurate assessment of intelligence.
D.  Knowing that a test is reliable guarantees that it is also valid.

158.An online intelligence test yields a different IQ each time you take it. The test is:


A.  possibly reliable, but definitely not valid.
B.  not reliable, and probably not valid either.
C.  not reliable, but still possibly valid.
D.  possibly reliable, and potentially valid.

159.Sir Francis Galton assumed that skull size is related to intelligence, this was _____ measure of


A.  a reliable, but not a valid
B.  a valid, but not a reliable
C.  both a reliable and a valid
D.  neither a reliable nor a valid

160.A researcher develops a questionnaire to assess the personality trait of impulsivity among adults. In a
journal article, she presents evidence that college students tend to get essentially the same score if they
take the test twice, two months apart. She also presents the average score, the highest score, and the
lowest score obtained by two large samples: one of 2,000 college students, and one of 750 communitydwelling




A.  reliability
B.  validity
C.  sensitivity
D.  reliability and the validity

161.Dr. Cavanaugh examines the relationship between the personality trait of resilience and senior citizens’
compliance with medication regimes; however, the resilience measure he used was normed only on
college students. Based on this information, which of the following is the most apparent weakness of Dr.
Cavanaugh’s study?


A.  The simplicity of the resilience measure
B.  The standardization of the resilience measure
C.  The specificity of the resilience measure
D.  The operationalization of compliance

162.Which of the following statements does not reflect a valid or empirically supported point in favor of or
against adaptive or computerized testing?


A.  It is faster than traditional testing.
B.  It requires careful calibration of large number of items based on their difficulty.
C. Some groups of test-takers may become more anxious than others during computerized test taking.
Test-takers are forced to spend a great deal of time answering questions that are either much easier or
much harder than they can handle.

163.Regarding standardized testing, which piece of advice is least likely to be right?


A.  Check your answers if you can.
B.  Time yourself carefully.
C.  Guess if you don’t know.
D.  Practice makes perfect.

164.Based on the text’s discussion, which of the following alternatives best captures the difference, if any,
between the terms mental retardation and intellectual disability?


A.  The terms are used interchangeably and equally.
B. Intellectual disability is becoming the preferred term, while mental retardation is the traditional term.
C.  The term intellectual disability has replaced the term mental retardation.
D.  The terms refer to different types of deficits in functioning.

165.Of those who are mentally retarded, what percentage are classified as mildly retarded?


A.  90%
B.  75%
C.  65%
D.  50%

166.Peyton has an IQ score of 60. Although her development was typically slower than that of her peers, she
is now able to hold a job and will soon start a family of her own. Peyton is most probably:


A.  mildly retarded.
B.  moderately retarded.
C.  severely retarded.
D.  profoundly retarded.

167.People whose IQ score ranges from 40-54 are most probably:


A.  mildly retarded.
B.  moderately retarded.
C.  severely retarded.
D.  profoundly retarded.

168.People who are _____ have deficits in their language and motor skills. Although these individuals can
hold simple jobs, they need to have a certain degree of supervision throughout their lives.


A.  mildly retarded
B.  moderately retarded
C.  severely retarded
D.  profoundly retarded

169.Anita is mildly retarded; Brady is moderately retarded; Candace is severely retarded; and Denny is
profoundly retarded. Which of these individuals can probably hold a job? Which of these individuals is
probably unable to care for himself or herself?


A.  Anita; Denny
B.  Anita; Brady
C.  Candace; Anita
D.  Candace; Denny

170.People with severe retardation have an IQ:


A.  of 40 to 54.
B.  of 25 to 39.
C.  of 55 to 69.
D.  below 25.

171.Which of the following alternatives correctly identifies the range of IQ scores encompassed by the terms
profound, severe, moderate, and mild retardation, respectively?


A.  0-29; 30-49; 50-64; 65-79
B.  0-19; 20-39; 40-59; 60-79
C.  0-24; 25-39; 40-54; 55-69
D.  0-19; 20-34; 35-49; 50-69

172.In approximately _____ of the cases of mental retardation there is an identifiable biological cause; the
most common of these is _____.


A.  one-third; fetal alcohol syndrome
B.  one-third; Down syndrome
C.  one-quarter; fetal alcohol syndrome
D.  one-quarter; Down syndrome

173.Which of the following alternatives offers the most accurate assessment of the origin of familial
retardation in nature on the one hand, or nurture on the other?


A.  Familial retardation is almost always genetic in origin, thereby reflecting nature.
B.  About 1/3 of the cases of familial retardation have a known basis in biology, or nature.
C.  Familial retardation is most often environmental in origin; that is, it reflects nurture.
D.  We do not know the extent to which familial retardation reflects nature and nurture.

174.Intellectual disability in which no apparent biological defect exists but there is a history of it in the kin is
known as _____ retardation.


A.  syndromic
B.  cultural
C.  familial
D.  non-syndromic

175.The inclusive philosophy behind the educational mainstreaming of mentally retarded individuals reflects
federal laws passed in the:


A.  late 1960s.
B.  mid-1970s.
C.  late 1970s.
D.  early 1980s.

176.Regarding the integration of mentally retarded students into regular classrooms, which of the following
statements is true?


In full inclusion programs, mentally retarded students are integrated into regular classroom activities to
a greater extent than in the case of mainstreaming.
In full inclusion programs, mentally retarded students are integrated into regular classroom activities to
a somewhat lesser extent than in the case of mainstreaming.
C.  Full inclusion is widely applied today.
D.  Schools with full inclusion have separate special education classes.

177.The IQ of intellectually gifted individuals is _____.


A.  between 100-110
B.  75
C.  130 or above
D.  90 or below

178.Terman’s long-term study of the intellectually gifted found that they tend to be:


A.  social misfits.
B.  physically gifted.
C.  awkward.
D.  outgoing.

179.As compared to more typical individuals, the intellectually gifted are characterized by being all of the
following EXCEPT:


A.  outgoing.
B.  well-adjusted.
C.  awkward.
D.  healthy.

180.Which of the following is true of people with high intelligence or intellectually gifted individuals?


A.  High intelligence is a homogeneous quality.
B.  A person with a high overall IQ is gifted in every academic subject.
C.  Intellectually gifted individuals account for 2%-4% of the population.
D.  A high IQ is a universal guarantee of success.

181.The study of the intellectually gifted is associated with Terman, who began studying high-IQ children in


A.  1920s.
B.  1930s.
C.  1940s.
D.  1950s.

182.A test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group is termed as a _____


A.  culture-neutral
B.  culture-fair
C.  culture-free
D.  culture-liberated

183.Imagine that American children and African children are asked to memorize the locations of objects on
a chessboard. In one condition, the objects are rocks; in the other, they are household objects common in
the West. What might you predict regarding the children’s performance?


A. The performance of the American children will exceed that of the African children in both conditions.
B. The performance of the African children will exceed that of the American children in both conditions.

The performance of the African children will be equivalent to that of the American children in both
The performance of the African children will exceed that of the American children when the objects are
rocks but not when they are Western household objects.

184.In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray argued that:


A.  intelligence is a product of nurture alone.
B.  intelligence is a product of nature alone.
C.  the IQ gap between Caucasian and African Americans reflects genetics.
D. both nature and nurture have no role in the IQ gap between Caucasian and African Americans.

185.The term _____ refers to a measure of the degree to which a characteristic can be attributed to genetic


A.  heritability
B.  specificity
C.  concordance rate
D.  cohort effect

186.Which of the following findings support the position Herrnstein and Murray outlined in The Bell Curve?
A.  Middle- and upper-SES blacks score the same as middle- and upper-SES whites
B.  The black-white IQ gap remains, even when socioeconomic status is controlled.
C.  Lower-SES blacks score higher on average than lower-SES whites

Whites score 35 points higher than blacks on traditional IQ tests even when socioeconomic status
(SES) is taken into account.

187.Which of the following statements is true about Herrnstein and Murray’s arguments in The Bell Curve?

Whites score lower than blacks on traditional IQ tests when socioeconomic status (SES) is taken into
An analysis of IQ differences between whites and blacks demonstrated that there were basic genetic
differences between the two races.
C.  Middle- and upper-SES blacks score higher than middle- and upper-SES whites.

Intelligence differences between blacks and whites can be attributed to environmental differences

188.Estelle is playing with images and concepts in her mind. Her cognitive psychology professor would say
that she is _____.



189._____ are representations in the mind of an object or event.



190.A researcher finds that her participants think most readily of a carrot when prompted with the
category “vegetable.” On this basis, the researcher might argue that a carrot is the _____ vegetable.



191.A high school physics teacher reassures his class that no matter how confusing this week’s word problems
appear, they all may be solved quite handily through the use of the formula F = MA. The teacher has
offered his students a(n) _____.



192.Sometimes we are prone to judge an individual based on our notion of the category of people he or she
most closely resembles; that is, we fall prey to the _____ heuristic.



193.A calculus problem has one correct answer and contains all the information necessary for its solution;
thus, it is a(n) _____ problem.



194.Because they involve rules for moving from an initial to a goal state, many board games may be seen as
examples of _____ problems.



195.Renee has an idea of how her living room ought to look. She’s moving furniture, paintings, and
accessories to get closer and closer to that picture in her head. Renee is using the problem-solving
technique of _____.



196.”Eureka! I’ve got it!” That sudden awareness of the path toward a problem’s solution is termed _____.



197.Functional fixedness may be seen as a particular example of _____.



198.People seek and remember evidence in support of their existing hypotheses; they ignore or discount
contradictory evidence. In other words, people are prone to the _____.



199.”How many uses can you think of for a brick?” asks the examiner. You are taking a test of _____



200.One synonym for forming subgoals is _____.



201.The rules indicating how words and phrases may be combined to form legitimate sentences are referred to
as _____.



202.If children are not exposed to language during a(n) _____ period early in life, they may never acquire



203.”Sophie kitty,” Tara says, when her aunt asks her whether the stuffed animal belongs to her or to her
sister. Tara’s reply exemplifies _____ speech.



204.With respect to language acquisition, Skinner is to learning theory what _____ is to nativism.



205.Chomsky suggested that the human brain has an inherited neural system that lets us understand the
structure language provides. This is known as _____.



206.According to the _____, language provides us with categories that we use to construct our view of people
and events in the world around us.



207.In _____, students are immediately plunged into English instruction in all subjects.



208.Jesse is very resourceful in the face of adversity; psychologists view this characteristic as one component
of _____.



209.Early psychologists believed that a single, overarching factor called the _____ factor influenced every
aspect of intelligence.



210.Holly is attempting to put together a 3D puzzle. Holly is completing a test of _____ intelligence.



211.Fernando is attempting to recall all of the capitols of each state in the union. Fernando is completing a test
of _____ intelligence.



212.As compared to crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence is _____ likely to decline with advancing



213._____ is associated with a theory of intelligence proposing eight or more distinct forms of



214.Gardner’s _____ proposes that there are eight distinct spheres of intelligence.



215.Mavis has advanced rapidly in the corporate world, despite her middling scores on such tests as the
WAIS-IV, the SAT, and the GRE. Sternberg would suspect Mavis of high _____ intelligence.



216._____ intelligence is the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and
regulation of feelings.



217.Using Binet’s formula, the IQ of a 6-year-child with a mental age of 8 is _____.



218.A plot of the IQ scores of the entire population would yield a(n) _____ distribution.



219.”Every time I take it, it tells me something different!” complains your friend, turning away from the
online personality quiz she just completed. Your friend is complaining about the test’s _____.



220.”That’s so not true! This test can’t have anything to do with my ability to attract women!” Ignacio
protests. Ignacio is disputing the test’s _____.



221.Psychologists are beginning to favor the term _____ in place of the term mental retardation.



222._____ are standards of test performance that permit the comparison of one person’s score on a test to the
scores of others who have taken the same test.



223.Individuals who have IQ scores ranging from 55 to 69 are classified as having _____.



224.Tests for which norms have been developed are known as _____ tests.



225._____ is a process by which individuals with intellectual disabilities are integrated into regular
classrooms as much as possible.



226.The IQ of an intellectually gifted person is greater than or equal to _____.



227.Psychologists continue to seek _____ IQ tests that do not discriminate against the members of minority



228.As recently as the mid-1990s, Herrnstein and Murray argued in their book _____ that race differences in
IQ are a matter of genetics and not the environment alone.



229.The degree to which a characteristic can be attributed to genetic factors is known as _____.



230.Describe in as much detail as you can the mental representation of objects and categories. Provide
illustrative examples where appropriate.




231.Distinguish between an algorithm and a heuristic. Provide an example of each.




232.Can computers think? Provide as thoughtful an answer as you can, considering the ability of current
computers to solve complex problems and to demonstrate creativity.




233.Distinguish between well-defined and ill-defined problems. Provide an example of each.




234.Identify and describe three different problem-solving strategies described in your text. Suggest how each
strategy might be fruitfully applied in one or more college courses.




235.How do psychologists define creativity? Identify some of the cognitive processes and personality
characteristics that appear to be associated with creativity. How might you describe the relationship
between creativity and intelligence? To what extent does this relationship reflect the traditional
assessment of intelligence?




236.Your friend asks you, “So, what did you get up to last night?” Write two or three sentences in response to
your friend; use your sentences to illustrate the three components of language described in your text.




237.Describe babbling, telegraphic speech, and overgeneralization. Provide an example of each. At which
ages might you expect children to demonstrate each of these language development phenomena?




238.Contrast learning-theory and nativist theory of language development. Point out the strengths and
weaknesses of each approach.




239.Distinguish between crystallized and fluid intelligence. Provide an example of (a) an intellectual task that
mainly reflects crystallized intelligence and (b) an intellectual task that mainly reflects fluid intelligence.
How do crystallized and fluid intelligence change with age in later adulthood?




240.Outline Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Make sure to list and describe each of the types
Gardner argues for and provide an example to illustrate the construct.




241.Outline Sternberg’s theory of intelligence.




242.Define (a) practical and (b) emotional intelligence. To what extent are these types of intelligence related
to the sort of intelligence that is traditionally assessed by standardized tests?




243.Identify the levels of mental retardation described in the text. Associate a range of IQ scores with each
level. Review what is known about the causes of mental retardation.




244.”Nerds.” “Geeks.” Briefly describe Terman’s pioneering study of the intellectually gifted and suggest how
its results contradict popular stereotypes of the intellectually gifted.




245.”The discrepancy in IQ scores between whites and blacks in the United States has nothing to do with
race.” Support this reference using empirical data.





ch07 Key

1. (p. 240) C

2. (p. 241) C

3. (p. 241) C

4. (p. 241) C

5. (p. 241) A

6. (p. 241-242) A

7. (p. 242) C

8. (p. 242) A

9. (p. 243) A

10. (p. 243) B

11. (p. 243) C

12. (p. 243) B

13. (p. 243) D

14. (p. 243) A

15. (p. 243) C

16. (p. 243) C

17. (p. 243) C

18. (p. 243) C

19. (p. 243) B

20. (p. 243) C

21. (p. 243) B

22. (p. 243) B

23. (p. 243) D

24. (p. 243) B

25. (p. 243) A

26. (p. 244) A

27. (p. 244) A

28. (p. 244) A

29. (p. 244) D

30. (p. 244) A

31. (p. 244) C

32. (p. 244) B

33. (p. 244) D

34. (p. 244) D

35. (p. 244) A

36. (p. 246) C

37. (p. 246) A

38. (p. 246) B

39. (p. 246, 243) A

40. (p. 246) A

41. (p. 246) A

42. (p. 246) B

43. (p. 246) B

44. (p. 246) B

45. (p. 246) C

46. (p. 248) D

47. (p. 249) B

48. (p. 249) B

49. (p. 249-250) C

50. (p. 250) A

51. (p. 250) D

52. (p. 250) D

53. (p. 250) A

54. (p. 250) C

55. (p. 250) D

56. (p. 250) A

57. (p. 252) B

58. (p. 252) A

59. (p. 252) B

60. (p. 252) A

61. (p. 252) B

62. (p. 252) B

63. (p. 252) C

64. (p. 253) C

65. (p. 253) C

66. (p. 253) C

67. (p. 253) C

68. (p. 253) C

69. (p. 253) B

70. (p. 253) A

71. (p. 253) D

72. (p. 253) A

73. (p. 253) D

74. (p. 254) D

75. (p. 254) C

76. (p. 254) C

77. (p. 257) B

78. (p. 257) B

79. (p. 257) C

80. (p. 257) A

81. (p. 257) C

82. (p. 258) A

83. (p. 259) B

84. (p. 259) B

85. (p. 259-260) B

86. (p. 259) C

87. (p. 259) B

88. (p. 259) D

89. (p. 259) B

90. (p. 259) A

91. (p. 260) B

92. (p. 260) C

93. (p. 261) C

94. (p. 261) B

95. (p. 261) C

96. (p. 261) C

97. (p. 263) C

98. (p. 263) B

99. (p. 267) A

100. (p. 267) B

101. (p. 267) A

102. (p. 267) B

103. (p. 267) A

104. (p. 267) A

105. (p. 267) A

106. (p. 267) D

107. (p. 272) A

108. (p. 273) A

109. (p. 273) C

110. (p. 272) D

111. (p. 272) C

112. (p. 272) A

113. (p. 272) D

114. (p. 272) D

115. (p. 272) C

116. (p. 272) C

117. (p. 268) D

118. (p. 268) C

119. (p. 268) D

120. (p. 268) A

121. (p. 269) B

122. (p. 269) A

123. (p. 269) D

124. (p. 269) A

125. (p. 269) C

126. (p. 269) B

127. (p. 269) C

128. (p. 269) D

129. (p. 269) D

130. (p. 268) A

131. (p. 270) A

132. (p. 270) B

133. (p. 270) A

134. (p. 270) A

135. (p. 270) B

136. (p. 272) C

137. (p. 272) A

138. (p. 272) B

139. (p. 272) B

140. (p. 272) D

141. (p. 272) A

142. (p. 273) D

143. (p. 273) B

144. (p. 273) A

145. (p. 273) D

146. (p. 273) B

147. (p. 274) B

148. (p. 273-274) C

149. (p. 273-274) D

150. (p. 274) B

151. (p. 275) C

152. (p. 275) C

153. (p. 275) D

154. (p. 276) C

155. (p. 276) C

156. (p. 276) A

157. (p. 276) B

158. (p. 276) B

159. (p. 276) A

160. (p. 276) B

161. (p. 277) B

162. (p. 277) D

163. (p. 277) C

164. (p. 277) B

165. (p. 278) A

166. (p. 278) A

167. (p. 278) B

168. (p. 278) B

169. (p. 278) A

170. (p. 278) B

171. (p. 278) C

172. (p. 278) A

173. (p. 278) D

174. (p. 278) C

175. (p. 278) B

176. (p. 278) A

177. (p. 279) C

178. (p. 279) D

179. (p. 278) C

180. (p. 279) C

181. (p. 279) A

182. (p. 280) B

183. (p. 281) D

184. (p. 281) C

185. (p. 281) A

186. (p. 281) B

187. (p. 281) B

188. (p. 241) thinking

189. (p. 241) Mental images

190. (p. 243) prototypical

191. (p. 243) algorithm

192. (p. 243) representativeness

193. (p. 246) well-defined

194. (p. 246) transformation

195. (p. 249) means-ends analysis

196. (p. 250) insight

197. (p. 252) mental set

198. (p. 253) confirmation bias

199. (p. 254) divergent

200. (p. 255) fractionation

201. (p. 257) syntax

202. (p. 258) critical

203. (p. 259) telegraphic

204. (p. 259-260) Chomsky

205. (p. 260) universal grammar

206. (p. 261) linguistic-relativity hypothesis

207. (p. 263) immersion programs

208. (p. 267) intelligence

209. (p. 267) g

210. (p. 267) fluid

211. (p. 268) crystallized

212. (p. 268) more

213. (p. 268) Gardner

214. (p. 268) theory of multiple intelligences

215. (p. 270) practical

216. (p. 270) Emotional

217. (p. 272) 125

218. (p. 273) normal/bell-shaped

219. (p. 276) reliability

220. (p. 276) validity

221. (p. 277) intellectual disability

222. (p. 277) Norms

223. (p. 278) mild retardation

224. (p. 280) standardized

225. (p. 278) Mainstreaming

226. (p. 279) 130

227. (p. 280) culture-fair

228. (p. 281) The Bell Curve

229. (p. 308) heritability

Categories. Categories of objects, events, and people that are similar in some way are represented by concepts. Concepts enable us to respond
appropriately to stimuli in the environment and to identify novel objects. Some concepts, such as geometrical shapes and kinship terms, may be
represented by a unique set of properties or features (e.g., triangle—three sides, interior angles sum to 180 degrees). Most concepts are represented
by a best or most typical example, or prototype. An apple, for example, may be the prototypical fruit. Other objects are categorized as fruits to the
extent that they resemble an apple.
Objects. Objects are represented by mental images. Mental images are not only visual; they can be produced by any of our sensory systems. A
familiar example might be the experience of “hearing” a song in one’s head. Images retain many of the properties of the objects they represent; in
addition, we can often perform the same operations on images that we can on the real objects they represent. For example, it takes longer to scan
an image of a large object than it does to scan an image of a small object, just as it takes longer to scan an actual large object than a small one. We
can also rotate an object’s image in our mind, just as we can rotate objects in the physical world. Mental images have been used to enhance the
practice and performance of athletes and musicians.
The answer should contain the following points:
230. (p. 241) Students’ examples may vary.

Algorithm vs. heuristic. An algorithm is a rule that is guaranteed to produce a solution to a problem if it is applied correctly. An example might be
a formula in physics: If F = MA is appropriately applied to a particular word problem, the solution will result. A heuristic is a cognitive strategy
that may result in the solution to a problem, but it is not guaranteed to do so. Heuristics require less time, expertise, and cognitive effort to apply
than do algorithms. In addition, for certain problems, no algorithm may exist. An example of a heuristic is to assume that one can afford the
mortgage to a house if the house costs 2.5 times one’s salary or less; applying this rule is easier than calculating and projecting mortgages for
houses of different prices.
231. (p. 243-244) Students’ examples may vary.

It is a matter of opinion, though, as to whether mimicking someone else’s creativity is the same as being completely original on one’s own.
Computers can solve complex problems. For example, computer programs can evaluate potential chess moves and ignore unimportant
possibilities. Computers can also create new compositions in the style of such masters as Bach, complete with the full scope and emotional appeal
of actual Bach works.
The following text information is relevant to the answer:
232. (p. 245) Students’ answers may vary.

Well-defined vs. ill-defined problems. In well-defined problems, the nature of the problem is clear, as is the information needed to solve it. An
example might be an algebra word problem. In ill-defined problems, either or both the nature of the problem or the information needed to solve it
is unclear. Determining how to get along with a prickly supervisor may be one example.
The answer should contain the following elements:
233. (p. 246) Students’ examples may vary.

Working backward. The strategy involves focusing on the goal rather than the current state of the problem, then determining the action that would
most immediately produce the goal. A common example is looking up the answer to a mathematics problem, then figuring out the preceding steps.
Forming subgoals. This strategy involves dividing a problem into a series of intermediate steps, then solving those. A computer program
assignment might offer an example: one might code one section of the program, then another, and so on. A term paper might be divided into
separate introduction, body, conclusion, and reference assignments.
Means-ends analysis. Means-ends analysis involves repeatedly comparing the current state of the problem to the goal state and attempting to
reduce the difference between the two. In an art course, for example, one might have an idea of the piece one would like to create; one might try to
reduce the difference between the current piece and the desired one by shading here, adding a brush stroke there, smoothing this portion of the clay
a little, and so on.
234. (p. 249-251) The answer should mention the strategies described below. Examples may vary.

Creativity is only weakly associated with intelligence, probably because traditional intelligence tests are strongly centered on convergent, rather
than divergent, thinking problems.
Creativity—the ability to generate novel, yet appropriate solutions to problems. Creativity is associated with divergent thinking—considering
multiple, original answers to questions or solutions to problems. It is associated with a preference for cognitive complexity—a preference for
elaborate or intricate stimuli or thought patterns. Creative individuals often have wide-ranging interests and an interest in abstract or philosophical
problems. They tend to be independent and autonomous.
235. (p. 267-268) The answer should mention the following points:

Semantics: the external meaning of language. Taken together, the three sentences in the example allow the listener to construct a mental picture or
model of how the evening went; they take the listener into a meaningful world.
Syntax: rules to order words so that the appropriate meaning is communicated. For example, in the last sentence, “TV watched I” would not
convey the idea that it was I who watched the television set. Similarly, “Met pizza friends I two” would barely get across the idea of what
happened, if at all.
“I met two friends for pizza. We then went to the library for two hours to work on a homework assignment. After that, I watched TV for a while.”

Phonemes: speech sounds. The vowel sound in “I” and the beginning consonant in “met” are examples.
The answer should be similar to the following:
236. (p. 257-258) Students’ answers may vary.

Overgeneralization: Applying grammatical rules even when doing so results in an error. Example: “It costed one dollar.” Overgeneralization is
common among children 3-4 years of age.
Telegraphic speech: Brief sentence-like constructions which omit noncritical words. Example: “Mommy home.” Telegraphic speech is common
around age 2.
Babbling: Speech-like but meaningless sounds, such as “goo goo, ga, ga.” Children babble from about 3 months to approximately 1 year of age.
237. (p. 259) The answer should include definitions and examples similar to the following:

Nativist theory. Associated with Noam Chomsky, the nativist approach to language development suggests that humans have an innate capacity
to acquire language that unfolds as a result of biological maturation. All the world’s languages share a common underlying structure called a
universal grammar. The brain has a neural system called the language-acquisition device that allows us to acquire this universal grammar, as well
as develop strategies for learning our particular language. Neuroscientists have identified brain areas closely involved in language; in addition,
genes have been identified that contribute to language acquisition. Critics of the nativist approach suggest that the ability of nonhuman animals—
e.g., chimpanzees—to acquire language argues against such uniquely human constructs as a universal grammar and a language-acquisition device.
Learning-theory. By this account, language is acquired through reinforcement—parents shape their children’s successive approximations to adult
language. The more that parents speak to their children, the more proficient the children become in their native language. However, in reality,
adults reinforce incorrect language use by their children just as often as they reinforce correct use, calling into question the central role of shaping
in the theory.
238. (p. 259-260) The answer should include the following points:

In later adulthood, scores on measures of fluid intelligence often decline; by contrast, scores on measures of crystallized intelligence hold steady or
even increase.
Fluid intelligence: Fluid intelligence refers to an individual’s basic information processing, memory, and reasoning abilities. A sample fluid
intelligence task is a digit span test.
Crystallized intelligence: Crystallized intelligence refers to the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through
experience. A vocabulary test is an example of a test of crystallized intelligence.
239. (p. 267-268) The answer should contain the following points:

240. (p. 268-269) This theory proposes that there are at least eight distinct forms of intelligence: musical, bodily kinesthetic, logical, mathematical,
linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. There may exist even more types of intelligence, such as existential intelligence. The
types of intelligence are linked to relatively independent brain systems. Each individual possesses each type of intelligence to either a greater or
lesser extent; that is, an individual may have an intelligence “profile” across the eight types. While the types of intelligence may be associated with
different neural systems, most tasks involve the cooperation of multiple forms of intelligence: an architect’s work, for example, may involve both
spatial and mathematical intelligence.

With respect to educational practice, the answer should suggest that classroom activities and the assessment of learning might consider forms of
intelligence other than those that traditionally form the backbone of education—namely, logical, mathematical, linguistic and analytical forms of
intelligence. A greater focus on alternative forms of intelligence might allow a greater proportion of students to realize their true potential.
241. (p. 270-271) Sternberg proposes three forms of intelligence: analytical, the type of intelligence that drives the solution of the sorts of abstract
problems typically found on intelligence; practical, “street smarts”—the intelligence that underlies overall success in life; and creative, the
intelligence that drives the generation of novel ideas and products.

Practical and emotional intelligence are only weakly related to traditional academic intelligence, if at all.
Emotional intelligence—comprises a set of skills underlying the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions.
Underlies the ability to get along with others; the basis of empathy, self-awareness, and social skills. Like practical intelligence, emotional
intelligence may be more strongly related than traditional academic intelligence to life success.
242. (p. 271-272) Practical intelligence—proposed by Sternberg; the sort of intelligence that underlies life and career success. It is developed
through the careful observation of others’ behavior.

Most cases of mental retardation reflect familial retardation. In these instances, there is no apparent biological deficit, but there is history of
retardation in the family.
Causes of mental retardation: There is an identifiable biological or environmental cause in nearly 1/3 of the cases of mental retardation. Among
the most common of these causes are fetal alcohol syndrome and Down syndrome. Fetal alcohol syndrome results from the mother’s use of alcohol
while pregnant. In the U.S., one in every 750 infants is born with fetal alcohol syndrome. Down syndrome occurs when an individual is born with
an extra copy of the 21
Profound: IQ below 25
Severe: IQ 25-39
Moderate: IQ 40-54
Mild: IQ 55-69
Levels of mental retardation:
243. (p. 278) The response should include the following points:

The results showed that from the beginning, the participants were more successful academically and professionally than were their nongifted peers.
More surprisingly, they were better adjusted socially than were their nongifted peers, contradicting the stereotype of the intellectually gifted as
social misfits. Terman’s participants also reported higher life satisfaction than did nongifted individuals.
Beginning in the 1920s, psychologist Lewis Terman began tracking 1,500 children with IQs of 140 or higher. The children were followed for the
rest of their lives.
244. (p. 279) The answer should include the following points:

—IQ tests are still not culture-fair; black respondents may be at an unfair disadvantage from the start when taking the test.
—In other societies, if an IQ gap exists, it is always the economically disadvantaged that come out on the bottom. In a society in which blacks
were an empowered majority and whites a disenfranchised minority, any IQ gap would favor the blacks.
—The environment of black individuals differs in many ways from that of whites, not just in SES; there may be many environmental factors, then,
that could explain an IQ gap.
—The IQ gap attenuates greatly when blacks are in white environments, such as when black children are adopted by white families, or when
blacks attend college.
—There is more variability within racial categories than between them, calling the relevance of the whole race-IQ debate into question. The focus
should be on individuals rather than groups.
245. (p. 279-280) —Although there may be a substantial genetic component to intelligence, racial categories are more socially constructed than
genetically based; twin data and so forth is thus irrelevant to the race-IQ debate


ch07 Summary

# of Questions
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 10.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.3, 2.4, 4.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.3, 3.2, 4.1
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.3, 4.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.4, 4.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.4, 4.2, 4.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.1
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.1, 3.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.1, 3.4, 4.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.1, 3.4, 4.4, 9.2, 9.3
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.1, 4.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.1, 4.2, 5.5, 8.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.1, 4.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.1, 5.5
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.2, 3.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.2, 4.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.3, 4.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.4, 4.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.4, 4.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 4.3
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 4.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 4.4, 4.5
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 4.4, 9.3
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 5.5
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 5.5, 8.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 7.3
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4, 10.3
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4, 9.2, 9.3
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 5.5, 8.2
APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 5.5, 8.2, 8.3
APA Goal Outcome: 1.4, 10.2
APA Goal Outcome: 3.1
APA Goal Outcome: 4.2, 4.3, 5.5
APA Goal Outcome: 4.2, 4.3, 5.5, 8.2, 8.5
APA Goal Outcome: 4.2, 4.4
APA Goal Outcome: 5.5, 8.2
Blooms Taxonomy: Apply
Blooms Taxonomy: Remember
Blooms Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Difficult
Difficulty: Easy
Difficulty: Medium
Feldman – Chapter 07
Learning Outcome: 21-1
Learning Outcome: 21-2
Learning Outcome: 21-3
Learning Outcome: 21-4
Learning Outcome: 22-1
Learning Outcome: 22-2
Learning Outcome: 23-1
Learning Outcome: 23-2
Learning Outcome: 23-3
Learning Outcome: 23-4
Learning Outcome: 23-5
Learning Outcome: 24-3
Learning Outcome: 26-2
Learning Outcome: 27-5



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