Sale!

Experience Psychology 2nd Edition King Test Bank

$80.00 $12.99

Experience Psychology 2nd Edition King Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078035340

ISBN-10: 0078035341

 

Description

Experience Psychology 2nd Edition King Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078035340

ISBN-10: 0078035341

 

 

 

Be the best nurse you can be:

Nursing test banks are legit and very helpful. This test bank on this page can be downloaded immediately after you checkout today.

Here is the definition of nursing

Its true that you will receive the entire legit test bank for this book and it can happen today regardless if its day or night. We have made the process automatic for you so that you don’t have to wait.

We encourage you to purchase from only a trustworthy provider:

Our site is one of the most confidential websites on the internet. We maintain no logs and guarantee it. Our website is also encrypted with an SSL on the entire website which will show on your browser with a lock symbol. This means not a single person can view any information.

, if you prefer a digital instead of a hardcover.

Have any comments or suggestions?

When you get your file today you will be able to open it on your device and start studying for your class right now.

Free Nursing Test Questions:

Chapter 08

Human Development

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 279)Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and _____ changes throughout the human life cycle.
    A. cross-sectional
    B. socioemotional
    C. genetic
    D. embryonic

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Introduction

  1. (p. 279)_____ refers to the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life.
    A. Development
    B. Nurture
    C. Status quo
    D. Inertia

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

 

  1. (p. 280)Developmental psychologists use the term _____ to refer to a person’s genes or biological inheritance.
    A. accommodation
    B. nurture
    C. assimilation
    D. nature

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

  1. (p. 280)_____ refers to the individual’s environmental and social experiences.
    A. Nature
    B. Nurture
    C. Genetics
    D. Genealogy

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

  1. (p. 280)Which of the following is true with regard to development?
    A. Development requires that we take into account the contributions of a person’s biological inheritance without considering the environment.
    B. Development is the product of nature, nurture, and the complex interaction of the two.
    C. All development involves growth, not decline.
    D. Understanding development requires that we take into account the contributions of the environment alone.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

 

  1. (p. 281)_____ refers to a person’s ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times.
    A. Rigidity
    B. Assimilation
    C. Resilience
    D. Innatism

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

  1. (p. 281)Which of the following situations indicates resilience that characterizes development in adulthood?
    A. Jonathan, who did not get good grades in middle school, studies hard in high school and gets a scholarship at an Ivy League university
    B. Joshua gets low SAT scores after his parents file for a divorce
    C. Ryle, whose parents fund his university education to Cornell, fails in his end-term examinations
    D. Cathy is not allowed to write the examinations because she misses school to take care of her mother, who is not well

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

  1. (p. 283)Leonard, a 30 year-old Princeton University graduate, gives up his corporate job to teach children and seniors of Lubango village. He has decided that all his future endeavors will be focused on eradication of illiteracy in Lubango. In his efforts to experience life in optimal ways, Leonard has developed _____.
    A. a socioemotional process
    B. assimilation
    C. resilience
    D. a life theme

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

 

  1. (p. 283)Which of the following is an example of a cognitive process?
    A. Amy, an 11 year old girl, whose height and weight increase during adolescence
    B. Cindy, a 20 year old student, who imagines herself as the Governor of Florida
    C. Kevin, an infant, who smiles in response to his mother’s touch
    D. Jacob, a 22 year old athlete, who is aggressive while playing any sport

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

  1. (p. 283)In the _____ week, the neural tube, which eventually becomes the spinal cord, starts to take shape.
    A. first
    B. third
    C. sixth
    D. ninth

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 284)By the end of the _____ period, the heart begins to beat, the arms and legs become more differentiated, the face starts to form, and the intestinal tract appears in human beings.
    A. germinal
    B. fetal
    C. conception
    D. embryonic

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

 

  1. (p. 284)Which of the following is the correct sequence of the stages of prenatal development?
    A. Conception, zygote, embryonic period, fetal period
    B. Conception, embryonic period, zygote, fetal period
    C. Conception, fetal period, embryonic period, zygote
    D. Conception, fetal period, zygote, embryonic period

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 285)A(n) _____ is any agent that causes a birth defect.
    A. androgen
    B. teratogen
    C. proestrogen
    D. estrogen

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 285)Andrea is a preterm infant who was born 37 weeks after conception. Which of the following characteristics will decrease the probability of Andrea experiencing developmental problems?
    A. Andrea is from a very low-income family.
    B. Andrea’s parents are chain smokers.
    C. Andrea’s mother is an alcoholic.
    D. Andrea’s parents massage her at least 3-4 times per day.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

 

  1. (p. 286)Research shows that during infancy, motor skills and perceptual skills _____.
    A. are independent of one another
    B. are coupled and depend on each other
    C. undergo very little change
    D. are influenced almost entirely by biological maturation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 287)What is the biggest challenge faced by psychologists who study infant perception?
    A. Infants are already studied by pediatriciansRemember, it isn’t considered appropriate for psychologists to also study them.
    B. Infant perception is a topic that is of little theoretical interest to psychologists.
    C. Because infants can’t speak, psychologists who study infants rely on what infants can do to understand what they know.
    D. Infants spend too much time eating and sleeping to be good research subjects.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 287)What infant perception research technique involves giving an infant a choice at what to look at and then looking for a reliable preference for one stimulus over the other?
    A. Habituation
    B. Preferential looking
    C. Aphasia
    D. Object permanence

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

 

  1. (p. 287)Four-month-old baby Oscar is a participant in a preferential looking experiment. Researchers show Oscar two photos, one of which is of his mother’s face, and the other which is of a female stranger’s face. The photos are presented repeatedly in differing locations, and the amount of time Oscar spends looking at the photos is recorded. What will researchers conclude if Oscar shows a reliable preference for his mother’s face over the stranger’s face?
    A. Oscar can discriminate his mother’s face from a stranger’s face.
    B. Oscar is afraid of strangers.
    C. Oscar likes strangers as much as his mothers.
    D. Oscar can’t see very well.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 287)Nathan is a happy and healthy 3-month-old baby. Based on preferential looking and habituation research, what can you predict about Nathan’s perceptual abilities?
    A. Nathan will not be able to distinguish between scrambled faces and real faces.
    B. Nathan will prefer a stranger’s face to his mother’s face.
    C. Nathan will prefer real faces to scrambled faces and he will also prefer his mother’s face to a stranger’s face.
    D. Nathan will prefer real to scrambled faces but will not be able to distinguish his mother’s face from a stranger’s face.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 288)Which of the following statements about brain development is false?
    A. At birth, the infant brain has about 100 billion neurons, but only minimal neural connections.
    B. During the first two years of life, the dendrites of the neurons branch out and the neurons become far more interconnected.
    C. Aside from growing larger, the brain does not undergo any anatomical change after birth.
    D. Synaptic connections increase dramatically during childhood. Connections that are made become stronger and will survive. Unused synaptic connections will be pruned (replaced or eliminated).

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

 

  1. (p. 289)Which of the following refers to a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence?
    A. Sensorimotor stage
    B. Preoperational stage
    C. Puberty
    D. Menopause

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 289)Which of the following characterizes pubertal change in adolescents?
    A. Hormones are alone responsible for adolescent behavior.
    B. Estradiol, an estrogen, is associated in boys with the development of genitals, an increase in height, and voice change.
    C. There is no dramatic change in the concentration of certain hormones because they decrease gradually during puberty.
    D. The peak of pubertal change occurs at an average age of 11½ for girls and 13½ for boys.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 312)In a female embryo, what allows for the development of female sex organs?
    A. High levels of testosterone
    B. Low levels of androgens
    C. The presence of teratogens
    D. The absence of teratogens

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

 

  1. (p. 289)Research on adolescent brain development has shown that the _____ is involved with emotional reactions, whereas the _____ is involved with reasoning and decision making.
    A. prefrontal cortex/amygdala
    B. amygdala/prefrontal cortex
    C. hippocampus/amygdala
    D. brain stem/amygdala

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 289)Adolescents often have difficulty controlling their emotions and making sound decisions about risky behavior. Brain research suggests that this is due to the fact that during adolescence _____.
    A. the amygdala is developed earlier than the prefrontal cortex
    B. the prefrontal cortex is developed earlier than the amygdala
    C. growth in the hippocampus is halted
    D. the corpus callosum becomes severed

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 290)Most adults reach their peak physical development during their _____.
    A. 20s
    B. 30s
    C. 40s
    D. 50s

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

 

  1. (p. 291)According to _____, as we age our cells become less capable of dividing.
    A. hormonal stress theory
    B. free-radical theory
    C. cellular-clock theory
    D. Erikson’s theory of socioemotional development

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 292)The free-radical theory states that aging is caused by _____.
    A. damage to DNA
    B. the body’s lowered resistance to stress and disease
    C. biological constraints on cell division
    D. nutritional deficiencies

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 292)Which theory of aging has focused on the role of chronic stress in reducing immune system functioning?
    A. Erikson’s theory of socioemotional development
    B. Free-radical theory
    C. Cellular-clock theory
    D. Hormonal stress theory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

 

  1. (p. 293)_____ is the specialization of function in one hemisphere of the brain or the other.
    A. Habituation
    B. Lateralization
    C. Assimilation
    D. Accommodation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 294)According to Piaget, accommodation occurs when individuals _____.
    A. adjust their schemas to new information
    B. incorporate new information into existing schemas
    C. are deprived of parental warmth and sensitivity
    D. are insecurely attached to their caregivers

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 295)According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the first stage of cognitive development that lasts from birth to about 2 years of age is the _____ stage.
    A. preoperational
    B. concrete operational
    C. sensorimotor
    D. formal operational

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 295)You tried to play peek-a-boo with your 6-month-old nephew, but whenever you hid your face, he would cry. You try it again three months later, and now he laughs and enjoys the game, trying to uncover your face with his hands. Your nephew has begun to develop _____.
    A. egocentrism
    B. object permanence
    C. hindsight bias
    D. conservation

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 295)“Out of sight, out of mind” can describe the behavior of a child who lacks the concept of _____.
    A. conservation
    B. separation anxiety
    C. attachment
    D. object permanence

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 296)If children cannot grasp the concept of conservation, they are unable to _____.
    A. accommodate in later life
    B. see things from the point of view of another person
    C. recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape
    D. retain earlier schemas when confronted with new experiences

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 296)Samantha gives both her 3-year-old and her 4-year-old children identically shaped glasses of juice in order to avoid conflict over who has the most. Samantha is showing her awareness of what limitation in her children’s thinking skills?
    A. Problems with equilibrium
    B. Problems with object permanence
    C. Problems with conservation
    D. Problems with symbolism

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 296)Which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is characterized by egocentric thought?
    A. Sensorimotor
    B. Preoperational
    C. Concrete operational
    D. Post-conventional

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 269-297)According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to young children’s _____.
    A. self-centered arrogance
    B. exaggerated interest in pleasure
    C. inability to take another person’s mental state into account
    D. difficulty in realizing that things continue to exist even when they are not visible

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 295)You arrange two rows of pennies so they are equal in length. A child views the rows and states that they have the same amount of pennies. You spread out the pennies in the bottom row so it is longer than the top row. The child now states that the bottom row has more pennies. This child is in which of Piaget’s stages?
    A. Sensorimotor
    B. Preoperational
    C. Formal operations
    D. Concrete operations

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 297)Most children successfully acquire conservation skills during the _____ stage of cognitive development.
    A. sensorimotor
    B. preoperational
    C. concrete operational
    D. formal operational

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 297)Which stage of cognitive development involves replacing intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning?
    A. Sensorimotor
    B. Preoperational
    C. Concrete operational
    D. Egocentric

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 297)Which of the following is true about the concrete operational stage of reasoning?
    A. Adolescents can conceive of hypothetical possibilities in this stage.
    B. This stage denotes ability of an adolescent to systematically deduce, or come to a conclusion about, the best path for solving the problem.
    C. A kind of abstract, logical reasoning occurs in this cognitive stage.
    D. One important skill at this stage of reasoning is the ability to classify or divide things into different sets or subsets and to consider their interrelations.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 297)According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, formal operational thought is _____.
    A. logical, systematic, abstract, and idealistic
    B. simplistic and systematic
    C. intuitive and concrete
    D. based on trial and error

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 297)According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the ability to utilize logical thought to assess abstract social problems and situations is attained during the _____ stage.
    A. preoperational
    B. concrete operational
    C. formal operational
    D. sensorimotor

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 297)An adolescent who hypothesizes and speaks in terms of possibilities may well be functioning in Piaget’s cognitive stage of _____.
    A. formal operational thought
    B. concrete operational thought
    C. moral realistic thought
    D. transductive thought

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 295)Which of the following represents the correct chronological sequence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
    A. Sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations
    B. Sensorimotor, concrete operations, preoperations, formal operations
    C. Preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor
    D. Concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor, preoperations

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 295)Which of the following statements about Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is false?
    A. Piaget believed that we go through four stages in understanding the world and that each stage involves a qualitatively different way of making sense of the world.
    B. Piaget believed that children do not play an active role in constructing their own understanding of the world but rather are passively reacting to environmental influences.
    C. Piaget believed that children use schemas to make sense of their experience.
    D. Piaget’s theory suggests that over the course of the four developmental stages, a person progresses from sensorimotor cognition to abstract, idealistic, and logical thought.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 297-298)According to the , one of the most important criticisms of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is that _____.
    A. his theory had very little impact on psychologists’ understanding of how children’s minds develop
    B. the popularity of his theory was been very short-lived
    C. his theory was never scientifically tested
    D. many cognitive abilities emerge earlier in children than Piaget thought

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 299)Although _____ did not believe that culture and education play important roles in children’s cognitive development, _____ believed that cognitive development is very much an interpersonal process that happens in a cultural context.
    A. Jean Piaget/Lev Vygotsky
    B. Lev Vygostsky/Jean Piaget
    C. Erik Erikson/Jean Piaget
    D. Lev Vygostsky/Erik Erikson

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 299)Benjamin loves putting together puzzles. He has recently mastered putting together a 10-piece Sesame Street puzzle. His mother claps at his accomplishment but wants to continue challenging Benjamin just beyond his current abilities. The next time they play, she gives Benjamin a 15-piece puzzle and offers some guidance on how to sort the pieces out. According to Vygotsky, Benjamin’s mother provides _____ that allows Benjamin’s cognitive abilities to be built higher and higher.
    A. accommodating
    B. assimilation
    C. scaffolding
    D. conservation

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 299)Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive an Elmo doll for Christmas. This best illustrates Piaget’s concept of _____.
    A. accommodation
    B. object permanence
    C. conservation
    D. egocentrism

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 299)Juliet refuses to go to the dance because she has just developed a pimple on her chin, and she is sure everyone will talk about it behind her back. Her behavior illustrates _____.
    A. preoperational thought
    B. the adolescent identity crisis
    C. peer influence
    D. adolescent egocentrism

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 299)A 13-year-old breaks up with his first girlfriend and he is very upset. No one can console him, because he believes that no one else has ever been hurt as badly as he has. The boy’s beliefs are consistent with _____.
    A. prepubertal romance
    B. adolescent egocentrism
    C. transductive reasoning
    D. separation anxiety

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 299)The sense of _____ is the most dangerous aspect of adolescent egocentrism.
    A. invincibility
    B. underestimation
    C. vulnerability
    D. assimilation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 299)According to the , one of the most important criticisms of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is that _____.
    A. his theory had very little impact on psychologists’ understanding of how children’s minds develop
    B. the popularity of his theory was been very short-lived
    C. his theory was never scientifically tested
    D. recent research suggests his theory has underestimated the abilities of infants and overestimated the abilities of adults

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 300)Which of the following indicates cognition in early adulthood?
    A. Becoming less skeptical
    B. Crystallized intelligence
    C. Being more realistic
    D. Fluid intelligence

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 300)Accumulated information and verbal skills are components of _____, whereas the ability to reason abstractly is a component of _____.
    A. crystallized intelligence/fluid intelligence
    B. fluid intelligence/crystallized intelligence
    C. generativity/wisdom
    D. integrity/generativity

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 279)_____ are differences between individuals that stem not necessarily from their ages but from the historical period and society in which they were born and developed.
    A. Butterfly effects
    B. Longitudinal effects
    C. Cohort effects
    D. Hawthorne effects

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 300)Schaie’s longitudinal study of intellectual abilities showed that _____ is the period when most people reach their peak for many intellectual skills.
    A. adolescence
    B. early adulthood
    C. middle adulthood
    D. late adulthood

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 301)_____ is expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life.
    A. Assimilation
    B. Temperament
    C. Habituation
    D. Wisdom

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 302)The term _____ refers to an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding.
    A. schema
    B. temperament
    C. generativity
    D. assimilation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 302)Chloe is a baby who cries a lot. She does not eat or sleep on a regular schedule and she often has difficulty adapting to new experiences. Psychologists would say that Chloe’s temperament can be described as _____.
    A. difficult
    B. easy
    C. slow-to-warm-up
    D. defiant

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 302)Juan is a child with low activity level and tends to withdraw from new situations. He is inflexible, and displays low mood intensity. Juan is said to have what type of temperament?
    A. Easy
    B. Difficult
    C. Slow-to-warm-up
    D. Aversive

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 302-303)According to the textRemember,me researchers disagree with the notion that the labels “easy,” “difficult,” and “slow-to-warm-up” are the best way to conceptualize temperament. These psychologists argue that _____ are the core dimensions of temperament.
    A. object permanence and egocentrism
    B. self-regulation, inhibition, and negative affectivity
    C. parenting style and conservation
    D. morality, identity, and prosocial behavior

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 303)The work of Harry Harlow established that _____.
    A. early social experience in humans is essential to normal functioning in adulthood.
    B. humans are less dependent on contact comfort than rhesus monkeys
    C. human behavior is hardly more complex than that of rhesus monkeys
    D. contact comfort is more important than feeding in the attachment process

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 303)What did Harry Harlow demonstrate in his classic study of attachment amongst baby monkeys?
    A. The monkeys were more attached to the artificial mothers that gave milk.
    B. The monkeys were more attached to the artificial mothers that were warm and soft.
    C. The monkeys displayed no preference for either cloth or wire artificial mothers.
    D. The monkeys unexpectedly preferred wire artificial mothers over cloth ones.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 303-304)The strange situation test is used to assess an infant’s _____.
    A. level of cognitive development
    B. level of moral development
    C. style of attachment
    D. resilience

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 304)Infants who display secure attachment _____.
    A. never cry when their caregiver leaves the room
    B. use their caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment
    C. get very upset when their caregiver leaves and usually continue to show anger and distress when the caregiver returns
    D. do not pay much attention to what their caregiver is doing as they know that they are secure

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 306)According to Erikson’s theory of socioemotional development, the first 18 months of life are devoted to mastering which developmental task?
    A. Autonomy vs. shame
    B. Initiative vs. guilt
    C. Trust vs. mistrust
    D. Industry vs. inferiority

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 306)According to Erikson’s theory of socioemotional development, _____ is the best way to build an infant’s sense of trust.
    A. engaging in establishing a sense that the world is a predictable and safe place
    B. encouraging object permanence
    C. discouraging egocentrism
    D. engaging in authoritarian parenting and placing limits and controls on behavior

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 306)Sammy is in third grade. When he won the spelling bee, he felt proud of his accomplishment. But when he could not complete his arithmetic assignment on time, he felt incompetent. Which of Erikson’s developmental stages does this reflect?
    A. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
    B. Initiative vs. guilt
    C. Industry vs. inferiority
    D. Trust vs. mistrust

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 306)Which of the following accurately represents the correct sequence of Erikson’s first four stages of socioemotional development?
    A. Industry vs. inferiority; initiative vs. guilt; autonomy vs. shame; trust vs. mistrust
    B. Autonomy vs. shame; industry vs. inferiority; trust vs. mistrust; initiative vs. guilt
    C. Trust vs. mistrust; autonomy vs. shame; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority
    D. Initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; trust vs. mistrust; autonomy vs. shame

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 306)Parents who use the _____ parenting style give strict rules to their children with little discussion of the reasons for the rules.
    A. authoritarian
    B. permissive
    C. authoritative
    D. eclectic

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 306)Gabriela’s mother practices the authoritative style of parenting. This suggests that Gabriela’s mother _____.
    A. encourages her to be independent but still places limits and controls on behavior
    B. is uninvolved in Gabriela’s life
    C. is restrictive, punitive, and engages in little verbal exchange with Gabriela when they have a differences of opinion
    D. sets very strict rules and limitations for Gabriela’s behavior

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 306)Children of _____ parents tend to be socially competent, self-reliant, and socially responsible.
    A. authoritarian
    B. authoritative
    C. neglectful
    D. permissive

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 306)Cooper’s father is a corporate executive who works long hours. He travels several days throughout the month and spends very little time with Cooper. He has never been to any of Cooper’s soccer games or met any of his friends. Cooper’s father believes that his career is more important than raising his son. As such, he does not get involved in Cooper’s life. Psychologists would describe Cooper’s father’s style of parenting as _____.
    A. authoritarian
    B. authoritative
    C. neglectful
    D. permissive

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 306)Richie’s parents let him do whatever he wants. They place no demands on him, and they place no rules or restrictions on his behavior. Richie’s parents have a(n) _____ parenting style.
    A. permissive
    B. authoritarian
    C. authoritative
    D. neglectful

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 306)Children of permissive parents tend to _____.
    A. be socially competent, self-reliant, and socially responsible
    B. expect to get their own way and often show difficulties respecting others and controlling their behavior
    C. use their caregiver as a secure base from which to explore
    D. handle independence poorly and often show a defiant personality style

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 307)According to Erikson’s theory of socioemotional development, establishing _____ is the central task of adolescence.
    A. an identity
    B. intimacy with a partner
    C. generativity
    D. integrity

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 307)According to James Marcia, identity is a product of _____.
    A. temperament and attachment
    B. exploration and commitment
    C. parenting style and attachment
    D. accommodation and assimilation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 308)Linda has decided to pursue law because everyone in her family is a lawyer. This is an example of _____.
    A. identity moratorium
    B. identity diffusion
    C. identity foreclosure
    D. identity achievement

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 309)Emerging adulthood is the transitional period from adolescence to adulthood that ranges from approximately _____ years of age.
    A. 12-15
    B. 15-18
    C. 18-25
    D. 25-30

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 309)According to Arnett, all of the following except _____ are features of emerging adulthood.
    A. feeling “in between”
    B. self-focus
    C. wisdom
    D. identity exploration in love and work

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 310)Which of the following is the final stage of Erikson’s socioemotional development?
    A. Intimacy versus isolation
    B. Integrity versus despair
    C. Industry versus inferiority
    D. Generativity versus stagnation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 313)A(n) _____ is a mental framework for understanding what it means to be male or female in one’s culture.
    A. gender schema
    B. gender diversity
    C. gender bias
    D. gender orientation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Gender Development

  1. (p. 314)According to Hyde, the gender similarities hypothesis _____.
    A. is the understanding of a gender schema without the cultural factors
    B. can be confirmed by the John/Joan case.
    C. is the idea that men and women (and boys and girls) are much more similar than they are different
    D. explains the contradiction between environmental factors and gender similarities

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Gender Development

 

  1. (p. 315)Sam is a participant in a study of moral development. In response to the Heinz moral dilemma story, Sam says that “Heinz shouldn’t steal the drug because if he steals he will go to jail. Jail is a bad place so Heinz shouldn’t take the risk of such harsh punishment.” Sam appears to be operating at which of the following stages of moral development?
    A. Preconventional
    B. Conventional
    C. Postconventional
    D. Hyper-conventional

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Moral Development

  1. (p. 315)At the preconventional level of moral development, individuals decide right and wrong based on _____.
    A. society’s laws
    B. a sense of duty
    C. individual ethical principles
    D. punishments or rewards

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Moral Development

  1. (p. 315)Which of the following statements best describes moral reasoning at the conventional level?
    A. “What I did was illegal, but I needed the money.”
    B. “What I did was illegal, but nobody will ever find out.”
    C. “What I did was illegal, but saving a life is what a good person is expected to do.”
    D. “What I did was illegal, but the family of the person I saved offered a huge reward.”

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Moral Development

 

  1. (p. 315)A child decides to steal a small item from a neighborhood store in order to be accepted into the Hawk Club. The child reasons that the stealing behavior is acceptable because it is what his friends expect of him. According to Kohlberg, this child is operating at the _____ level.
    A. preconventional
    B. postconventional
    C. universal ethical
    D. conventional

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Moral Development

  1. (p. 310)You would expect an individual at a higher level of moral development to show an increase in _____.
    A. concern over understanding rules and laws
    B. concern over the ethics of a person’s actions
    C. concern over the consequences of a person’s actions
    D. concern over doing what society thinks is right

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Moral Development

  1. (p. 315)According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, an individual who has a personal moral code based on abstract principles for all of humanity is operating at the _____ level of moral development.
    A. conventional
    B. preconventional
    C. postconventional
    D. concrete

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Moral Development

 

  1. (p. 316)Behavior that is intended to benefit other people is called _____.
    A. behavioral casp
    B. egocentric behavior
    C. prosocial behavior
    D. ethical behavior

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Moral Development

  1. (p. 316)Recent research on prosocial behavior has found that _____.
    A. children do not engage in prosocial behavior
    B. children are inherently selfish
    C. parenting style has little effect on children’s prosocial behavior
    D. supportive parenting is related to more prosocial behavior in children

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Moral Development

  1. (p. 318)Which of the following theory is correctly matched with its propounder?
    A. Views people in terms of their connectedness with others and stresses interpersonal communication, relationships, and concern for others—Lawrence Kohlberg
    B. Human capacity for awareness that we will someday die creates the potential for overwhelming terror—Ernest Becker
    C. The rights of the individual as the key to sound moral reasoning—Carol Gilligan
    D. Our early attachments form the basis of the sense of self we carry throughout life—Albert Bandura

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Death; Dying; and Grieving

 

  1. (p. 319)Which of the following was proposed by Kubler-Ross?
    A. She proposed four statuses of identity based on crisis and commitment.
    B. She has shown that grief unfolds in four patterns—resilience, recovery, chronic dysfunction, and delayed grief.
    C. She proposed a stage model of confronting death, in which the dying individual progresses from denial to acceptance.
    D. She outlined the three stages of socioemotional development in adulthood.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Death; Dying; and Grieving

  1. (p. 320)Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?
    A. Grief unfolds in four patterns—George Bonanno
    B. Four stages of cognitive development—James Marcia
    C. Theory of eight psychosocial stages that characterize socioemotional development—Jean Piaget
    D. Four statuses of identity based on crisis and commitment—Erik Erikson

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Death; Dying; and Grieving

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 280)If you were asked by some co-workers to help settle a controversy about whether heredity or environment is more important in shaping development, what would you tell them?

The nature-nurture issue raises the question of whether human behavior and cognition are influenced more by genetic or hereditary factors (nature), or by factors that exist in a person’s environment (nurture). Psychologists now generally agree that both nature and nurture are important for understanding the causes of behavior and cognition. Contemporary researchers conceptualize the developmental process through the concept of emergent properties. According to this concept, the person we are is the consequence of the interaction of multiple factors. Thus, although psychologists believe that nature and nurture are both important, the relative influence of nature and nurture remains a topic of research and debate.

 

Blooms: Analysis
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

  1. (p. 280)Development is a process that follows a genetic master plan. Refute this argument.

Although it might be easy to think of genes as the blueprint for a person, development is not a process that follows a genetic master plan. In fact, it is difficult to tell in simple ways about how development occurs. One way that scientists and philosophers think about complex processes such as development is through the concept of emergent properties. An emergent property is a big entity (like a person) that is a consequence of the interaction of multiple lower-level factors. Development is about the complex interactions of genes and experience that build the whole person.

 

Blooms: Evaluation
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Exploring Human Development

 

  1. (p. 291-292)Describe the three biological theories of aging (cellular-clock theory, free-radical theory, and hormonal stress theory of aging) discussed in the text.

The cellular-clock theory is Leonard Hayflick’s view that cells can divide a maximum of about 100 times and that, as we age, our cells become less capable of dividing. The free-radical theory of aging states that people age because unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals are produced inside their cells. These molecules ricochet around in the cells, damaging DNA and other cellular structures. Hormonal stress theory argues that aging in the body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease. As individuals age, the hormones stimulated by stress stay in the bloodstream longer than when they were younger.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Physical Development

  1. (p. 294-297)Describe the four stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. What major milestones are achieved at each stage?

Piaget’s first stage, the sensorimotor stage, lasts from birth to about 2 years of age. In this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with motor actions. Object permanence, the understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched, is the major milestone that is achieved toward the end of the sensorimotor stage. Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, the preoperational stage, lasts from approximately 2 to 7 years of age. Preoperational thought is more symbolic than sensorimotor thought. In preschool years, children begin to represent their world with words, images, and drawings. Thus, although their thoughts begin to exceed simple connections of sensorimotor information and physical action, preoperational thought is intuitive and egocentric. Symbolic thought is the major milestone achieved in the prepoperational stage. Piaget’s concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years of age) involves using operations and replacing intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations. Children in the concrete operational stage can successfully complete conservation tasks. Individuals enter the formal operational stage of cognitive development at 11 to 15 years of age. This stage continues through the adult years. Formal operational thought is more abstract and logical than concrete operational thought. The ability to engage in hypothetical-deductive reasoning is a major milestone of formal operational thought.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 297)Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. To what extent is Piaget’s theory supported by psychological research?

Piaget opened up a new way of looking at how children’s minds develop. He is credited for contributing a long list of masterful concepts that have enduring power in psychological research. These include the concepts of schemas, assimilation, accommodation, cognitive stages, object permanence, egocentrism, and conservation. Piaget is also credited for the currently accepted vision of children as active, constructive thinkers who play a role in their own development. Although Piaget is considered a “giant” in the field of developmental psychology, his theory has been criticized and amended. Recent research suggests that Piaget may have underestimated the abilities of infants, and overestimated the abilities of adolescents and adults. For example, research by Baillargeon suggests that infants show evidence of object permanence earlier than Piaget claimed. Critics of Piaget have also cited research showing that some adolescents and adults never reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development. Piaget’s theory has also been criticized for underestimating the importance of culture and education in shaping children’s cognitive development.

 

Blooms: Evaluation
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

  1. (p. 300)Explain the distinction between a cross-sectional study and a longitudinal study.

In cross-sectional studies, a number of people of different ages are assessed at one point in time. One problem in cross-sectional studies is cohort effects. Cohort effects are differences between individuals that stem not necessarily from their ages but from the historical and social time period in which they were born and developed. For instance, individuals who were born in the 1940s might be less likely to have attended college than those born in the 1990s. Differences observed between these groups might be due not to their age but rather to these differing educational opportunities. In contrast to cross-sectional research, a longitudinal study assesses the same participants over a lengthy period. A longitudinal study of intelligence in middle adulthood might consist of giving the same intelligence test to the same individuals over a 20-year time span, when they are 40, 50, and 60 years of age.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Cognitive Development

 

  1. (p. 308-309)What role do parents and peers play in adolescent development?

Parents and peers both powerfully influence adolescents’ development. To help adolescents reach their full potential, a key parental role is to be an effective manager—one who locates information, makes contacts, helps to structure their choices, and provides guidance. By assuming this managerial role, parents help adolescents to avoid pitfalls and to work their way through the many decisions they face. A crucial aspect of the managerial role of parenting is effective monitoring of the adolescent. During adolescence, individuals spend more time with peers than they did in childhood. These peer influences can be positive or negative. A key aspect of positive peer relations is having one or more close friends. Adolescents can learn to be skilled and sensitive partners in intimate relationships by forging close friendships with selected peers. Yet some peers and friends can negatively affect adolescents’ development. Recent studies have shown that hanging out with delinquent peers in adolescence can be a strong predictor of substance abuse, delinquent behavior, and depression.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

  1. (p. 309)Describe how psychologists define the emerging adulthood lifespan period and list Arnett’s five features of emerging adulthood.

Emerging adulthood is the transitional period from adolescence to adulthood that occurs at from approximately 18-25 years of age. Jeffrey Arnett identified five features of emerging adulthood: (1) identity exploration, especially in love and work, (2) instability, (3) self-focus, (4) feeling “in between,” (5) the age of possibilities, a time when individuals have an opportunity to transform their lives.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 310)Your friend Cecily just got married. Given the high rate of divorce in the U.S., Cecily is interested in doing everything she can to make her marriage a success. Knowing that you are a psychology student, she turns to you for advice. Discuss the results of John Gottman’s research with Cecily and describe the four principles that are characteristic of a successful marriage.

According to Gottman, love is a decision and a responsibility. His research suggests that successful marriages often are often associated with four characteristics. The fist is nurturing fondness and admiration. When couples put a positive spin on their talk with and about each other, the marriage tends to work. Partners in successful marriages also tend to turn toward each other as friends: Partners see each other as friends and turn toward each other for support in times of stress and difficulty. The third aspect of a successful marriage is characterized by giving up some power. Bad marriages often involve one partner who is a power monger. This is more common in husbands, but some wives have the problem as well. Finally, in successful marriages partners work on solving conflicts together, Couples work to solve problems, regulate their emotion during times of conflict, and compromise to accommodate each other.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Socioemotional Development

 

  1. (p. 315-316)Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development.

Kohlberg’s theory of moral development has stimulated considerable research about how people think about moral issues. One criticism is that moral reasoning does not necessarily mean moral behavior. Thus, cheaters, liars, and thieves might know what is right but still do what is wrong. Another criticism is that Kohlberg’s view does not adequately reflect concern for other people and social bonds. Kohlberg’s theory is called a justice perspective because it focuses on the rights of the individual, who stands alone and independently makes moral decisions. In contrast, the care perspective, which lies at the heart of Carol Gilligan’s approach to moral development, views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships, and concern for others. From Gilligan’s perspective, this is a weakness in Kohlberg’s approach. Similarly, culture can influence whether a person approaches a moral dilemma from the perspective of justice or care. Individuals in Western cultures, who more generally tend toward an individualistic sense of self and who therefore are inclined to take a justice perspective, might score higher in Kohlberg’s scheme than individuals in Asian cultures that stress collectivism and a sense of the self as part of a larger group.

 

Blooms: Evaluation
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Moral Development

 

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Experience Psychology 2nd Edition King Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *