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Exploring Lifespan Development 3rd Edition Berk Test Bank

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Exploring Lifespan Development 3rd Edition Berk Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205957385

ISBN-10: 0205957382

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Exploring Lifespan Development 3rd Edition Berk Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205957385

ISBN-10: 0205957382

 

 

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Chapter 14
Emotional and Social Development
in early adulthood

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1)  While __________ development continues to be a central focus from the late teens into the mid-twenties, the decade of the twenties is accompanied by a rise in feelings of __________.

  1. A) intimacy; personal insecurity
  2. B) identity; personal control over life events
  3. C) identity; stagnation
  4. D) ego integrity; physical security

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 369

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.1

2)  The transition to adult roles has become so delayed and prolonged that it has spawned a new transitional period extending from the late teens to the mid- to late twenties, called

  1. A) emerging adulthood.
  2. B) the formal operational period.
  3. C) the latent teenage years.
  4. D) pre-adulthood.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 369

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.1

3)  Many emerging adults

  1. A) are settled in their careers.
  2. B) explore alternatives in education and work.
  3. C) move from identity achievement to identity diffusion.
  4. D) are married and financially secure.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 369

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.1

4)  College students who __________ are higher in self-esteem, psychological well-being, and academic, emotional, and social adjustment.

  1. A) are identity diffused
  2. B) spend much time exploring in breadth without making commitments
  3. C) move toward exploration in depth and certainty of commitment
  4. D) move from identity moratorium to identity foreclosure

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 370

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.1

 

5)            Ryan is a typical emerging adult. Which of the following is he likely to say is the most essential for attaining adult status?

  1. A) finishing his education
  2. B) settling into a career
  3. C) moving out of his parents’ house
  4. D) constructing a set of beliefs and values to live by

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 370

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.1

6)  Which of the following statements about the role of religion in emerging adulthood is true?

  1. A) During emerging adulthood, attendance at religious services rises steadily, leveling off around age 30.
  2. B) Religion is less important in the lives of U.S. young people than it is for agemates in other developed countries.
  3. C) Men are more religious than women, a difference evident in other Western nations and throughout the lifespan.
  4. D) Emerging adults, whether involved in organized religion or not, begin to construct their own individualized faith.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 370

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.1

7)  A controversial, widespread opinion about emerging adults is that they

  1. A) derive too much pleasure from community service.
  2. B) are narcissistic and materialistic.
  3. C) become financially independent too quickly.
  4. D) spend too much time on their education.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 371

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.1

8)  Emerging adulthood

  1. A) is limited to cultures that postpone entry into adult roles until the twenties.
  2. B) lasts for a longer period of time in both China and India.
  3. C) is more widespread in developing nations, such as Mexico and Brazil.
  4. D) is virtually nonexistent in most other industrialized countries.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 371

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.1

9)  Low-SES young people in Western nations who are academically unprepared for college

  1. A) tend to postpone marriage and parenthood.
  2. B) typically delay financial independence.
  3. C) experience a limited period of emerging adulthood, or none at all.
  4. D) establish a fulfilling career much earlier than their higher-SES peers.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 372

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.1

 

10)  Adulthood in complex societies

  1. A) begins when young people graduate from high school.
  2. B) coincides with pubertal development.
  3. C) is reached earlier in some domains than in others.
  4. D) rarely begins before age 25, regardless of ethnicity or SES.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 372 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Is Emerging Adulthood Really a Distinct Period of Development?

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.1

11)  During emerging adulthood, __________ promotes favorable self-esteem, identity progress, successful transition to college life, higher academic achievement, and more rewarding romantic ties.

  1. A) a secure, affectionate relationship with parents
  2. B) permissive parenting
  3. C) success at school or work
  4. D) severing and solidifying friendship ties

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 373

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.1

12)  According to Erikson, the primary psychological conflict of early adulthood involves

  1. A) merging romantic and vocational goals.
  2. B) establishing economic independence.
  3. C) redefining one’s own identity to include another’s values.
  4. D) graduating from college or starting a career.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 374

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.2

13)  Alexandra has difficulty forming close relationships with others and tends to compete rather than cooperate. According to Erikson, she has

  1. A) developed a sense of despair.
  2. B) developed a sense of isolation.
  3. C) failed to consolidate her relationships.
  4. D) developed a sense of intimacy.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 374

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.2

14)  According to Levinson, life

  1. A) structures prepare the adult for the next transition.
  2. B) transitions occur at the beginning of each era or stage.
  3. C) structures are highly similar for all individuals.
  4. D) transitions arise only in circumstances of stress and trauma.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 375

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.3

 

15)  Levinson found that during the transition to early adulthood, most young people

  1. A) settle down by focusing on certain relationships and aspirations.
  2. B) construct an image of themselves in the adult world that guides their decision making.
  3. C) reach career maturity and take on more authority in the community.
  4. D) become “keepers of meaning,” or guardians of their culture.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 375

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.3

16)  Throughout his twenties, Randy was preoccupied with finishing college and graduate school and building his career. According to Levinson, around age 30, Randy will probably

  1. A) develop more individualistic goals.
  2. B) focus on finding a life partner.
  3. C) experience a crisis.
  4. D) construct a dream.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 375

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.3

17)  In Levinson’s study, during the age-30 transition, women who had emphasized motherhood and marriage

  1. A) often developed more individualistic goals.
  2. B) felt more stable than career-oriented women.
  3. C) often developed a more feminine gender identity.
  4. D) continued to emphasize these roles.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 375

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.3

18)  Which of the following statements about Levinson’s findings is true?

  1. A) For individuals with satisfying intimate ties or vocational direction, the age-30 transition was a time of crisis.
  2. B) Men remained unsettled in their thirties, often because they added an occupational or relationship commitment.
  3. C) At the age-30 transition, women usually “settled down” by focusing on certain relationships and aspirations.
  4. D) Not until middle age did many women reach career maturity and take on more authority in the community.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 375

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.3

19)  According to Vaillant, men in their fifties and sixties

  1. A) focus on intimacy concerns.
  2. B) focus on career consolidation.
  3. C) become spiritual and reflective.
  4. D) become guardians of their culture.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 375

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.3

 

20)  When Yolanda thinks about the future, she plans to get her first job at age 22, be married by age 24, and have her first child at age 27, just like her older brother did. According to research by Bernice Neugarten, Yolanda has a well-defined

  1. A) split dream.
  2. B) social clock.
  3. C) “feminine” dream.
  4. D) life structure.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 376

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.4

21)  Following a social clock of some kind seems to foster

  1. A) feelings of distress.
  2. B) occupational flexibility.
  3. C) confidence and social stability.
  4. D)

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 376

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.4

22)  With regard to romantic love,

  1. A) partners who are similar in personality are more likely to stay together.
  2. B) strong support exists for the idea that “opposites attract.”
  3. C) partners with similar attributes tend to be less satisfied with their relationship.
  4. D) men prefer a same-age or slightly older partner.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 377

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.5

23)  According to the social learning view of the process of mate selection,

  1. A) women value physical attractiveness as much as men do.
  2. B) men and women are more alike in their preferences in cultures that value gender equality.
  3. C) men and women both seek out partners who are financially secure in cultures with traditional gender roles.
  4. D) women typically want a relationship to move quickly toward physical intimacy.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 377

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.5

24)  Compared with men in China and Japan, American men place __________ emphasis on their mate’s __________.

  1. A) more; domestic skills
  2. B) less; intelligence
  3. C) more; financial prospects
  4. D) less; ambition

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 377

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.5

 

25)  In studies carried out in Australia, Israel, and the United States, adults who described their attachment history as secure characterized their most important love relationship in terms of

  1. A) independence, mistrust, and anxiety.
  2. B) trust, happiness, and friendship.
  3. C) desperation, anxiety, and fear.
  4. D) emotional highs and lows, trust, and jealousy.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 378 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Childhood Attachment Patterns and Adult Romantic Relationships

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.5

26)  Gloria’s marriage was riddled with jealousy, emotional highs and lows, and desperation about whether her husband returned her affection. Though she offered support to her husband, Gloria did so in ways that poorly fit his needs. Based on this information, it is likely that Gloria has a(n) __________ attachment history.

  1. A) secure
  2. B) avoidant
  3. C) resistant
  4. D) trusting

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 378 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Childhood Attachment Patterns and Adult Romantic Relationships

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.5

27)  Robert Sternberg’s __________ identifies three components—intimacy, passion, and commitment—that shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop.

  1. A) intimacy versus isolation stage
  2. B) seasons of love theory
  3. C) triangular theory of love
  4. D) adaptation to life theory

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 377

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.5

28)  Carl and Maria have been dating for several weeks. __________ best predicts whether their relationship will continue for years to come.

  1. A) Their sexual attraction to each other
  2. B) The warmth and trusting affection they demonstrate to each other
  3. C) Their ability to maintain emotional distance from each other
  4. D) Their willingness to pursue their own interests while in a relationship

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 377

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.5

29)  Early __________ is a strong predictor of whether partners keep dating. But without __________, most romances eventually break up.

  1. A) companionate love; passionate love
  2. B) sexual relations; intimacy
  3. C) passionate love; companionate love
  4. D) commitment; passion

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 377

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.5

 

30)  In the transformation of romantic involvements from passionate to companionate, __________ may be the aspect of love that determines whether a relationship survives.

  1. A) intimacy
  2. B) passion
  3. C) sexual attraction
  4. D) commitment

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 377

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.5

31)  Deficits in __________ foreshadow poor conflict-resolution skills and eventual weakening of the marital tie.

  1. A) passion
  2. B) intimacy
  3. C) commitment
  4. D) attachment

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 379

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.5

32)  Compared to Westerners, college students of Asian heritage place greater weight on

  1. A) passion and maturity.
  2. B) companionship and practical matters.
  3. C) emotional attachment.
  4. D) physical attraction.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 379

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.5

33)  During adulthood, friends are usually

  1. A) similar in age, sex, and SES.
  2. B) of the same-sex and sexual orientation.
  3. C) similar in social class but different in age or sex.
  4. D) different in most ways.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 379

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.6

34)  __________ is/are sometimes greater in friendship than in marriage.

  1. A) Intimacy and attraction
  2. B) Sharing thoughts and feelings
  3. C) Commitment and communication
  4. D) Loyalty and commitment

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 379

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.6

 

35)  __________, especially, forge compatible friendships before becoming involved romantically.

  1. A) Lesbians
  2. B) Gay men
  3. C) Heterosexual men
  4. D) Heterosexual women

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 380

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.6

36)  After marriage, other-sex friendships __________ for __________.

  1. A) increase; both sexes
  2. B) increase; men
  3. C) increase; women
  4. D) are rare; both sexes

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 380

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.6

37)  In early adulthood,

  1. A) men’s same-sex friendships are characterized by talking and sharing.
  2. B) after marriage, other-sex friendships are more common for men than women.
  3. C) most other-sex friendships lead to romantic and sexual encounters.
  4. D) siblings tend to become more frequent companions as young people marry.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 380

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.6

38)  In families with five to ten siblings,

  1. A) intimacy is more important than commitment.
  2. B) sibling bonds are usually weaker in adulthood.
  3. C) loneliness is common even among the married siblings.
  4. D) close sibling bonds may replace friendships.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 380

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.6

39)  Kaila left her parents’ home at age 18 to attend college. She lived on her own until she married at age 25. She had two children. When they left home, her parenting responsibilities declined. Eventually, Kaila retired. This series of phases is known as

  1. A) the social clock.
  2. B) emerging adulthood.
  3. C) the family life cycle.
  4. D) human ecology.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

 

40)  With regard to the family life cycle, stress tends to be greatest

  1. A) in childhood and adolescence.
  2. B) during transitions between phases.
  3. C) in early adulthood.
  4. D) in middle age.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

41)  Departure from the parental home in early adulthood

  1. A) is usually permanent, with few young adults returning home.
  2. B) occurs at an earlier age than in the past.
  3. C) is a major step toward assuming adult responsibilities.
  4. D) is one phase of the family life cycle that all adults experience.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

42)  The average age of leaving home

  1. A) is lower today than it was in the 1960s.
  2. B) is lower in the United States than it is in the Scandinavian countries.
  3. C) resembles the departure age at the beginning of the twentieth century.
  4. D) is higher in the United States than it is in Mediterranean countries.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.7

43)  Which of the following men is the most likely to live with his parents into his mid-thirties?

  1. A) Andy, who lives in the United States and attended college
  2. B) Klas, who lives in Sweden and works part-time
  3. C) Lukas, who lives in Greece and attended college
  4. D) Elias, who lives in Finland and works full-time

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

44)  Young adults from __________ homes tend to be early leavers.

  1. A) dual-earner
  2. B) warm, supportive
  3. C) middle-SES
  4. D) divorced, single-parent

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.7

 

45)  __________ of U.S. 18- to 25-year-olds return to their parents’ home for brief periods after first leaving.

  1. A) About 10 percent
  2. B) Just over one-quarter
  3. C) Slightly over half
  4. D) Nearly all

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.7

46)  Which of the following young adults is the most likely to return to live at a parent’s home after first leaving?

  1. A) Riley, who is working full-time
  2. B) Isabella, who is a recent college graduate
  3. C) Jason, who is economically well-off
  4. D) Jacques, who is married with a son

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

47)  Which of the following young adult women is the most likely to live on her own before marriage?

  1. A) Paris, an economically well-off Caucasian American
  2. B) Keisha, an African-American community college student
  3. C) Mei, a working Asian American
  4. D) Marisa, a working Hispanic American

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

48)  Leaving home very early because of a lack of parental financial and emotional support is associated with

  1. A) a high level of education.
  2. B) a less successful work life.
  3. C) a high level of social support.
  4. D) a successful married life.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 381

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

49)  The average age of first marriage in the United States

  1. A) is higher for women than for men.
  2. B) has declined since 1960.
  3. C) is lower than it is in Western Europe.
  4. D) is 20 for women and 23 for men.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 382

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.7

 

50)  Which of the following statements about attitudes regarding marriage in the United States today is true?

  1. A) A majority of American adults agree that marriage is becoming obsolete.
  2. B) More than half of high-SES emerging adults say they never want to get married.
  3. C) Irrespective of SES and ethnicity, most U.S. 18- to 23-year-olds say they want to marry and have children.
  4. D) Marriage is not a central life goal for more than two-thirds of low-SES emerging adults.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 382

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

51)  Because legalization of same-sex marriage is so recent, research on same-sex couples in the context of marriage is scant. But evidence of cohabiting same-sex couples suggests that

  1. A) marriage is not a central life goal for most gay and lesbian young people.
  2. B) a clear division of roles, with one partner as the breadwinner and the other as the caregiver, predicts stability.
  3. C) the same factors that contribute to happiness in other-sex marriages do so in same-sex unions.
  4. D) same-sex partners tend to differ in SES, education, religion, and age.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 382

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

52)  __________ is the most consistent predictor of marital stability.

  1. A) Religious similarity
  2. B) Age of marriage
  3. C) Acceptance of in-laws
  4. D) Educational level

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 382

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.7

53)  Lucy and Mark are married and have one son. Mark works outside of the house and is responsible for the family economic well-being. Lucy is a homemaker and a full-time caregiver for their son. They have a(n) __________ marriage.

  1. A) traditional
  2. B) arranged
  3. C) matriarchal
  4. D) egalitarian

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 382

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

54)  Cliff and Claire are married and have four children. Cliff works as a doctor, and Claire works as a lawyer. They both try to balance the time and energy they devote to their occupations, their children, and their relationship. They have a(n) __________ marriage.

  1. A) traditional
  2. B) arranged
  3. C) matriarchal
  4. D) egalitarian

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 382

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

 

55)  Most well-educated, career-oriented women expect a(n) __________ marriage.

  1. A) matriarchal
  2. B) traditional
  3. C) patriarchal
  4. D) egalitarian

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 382

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

56)  Brad and Ashley live in the United States and are married with children. They both work full-time. Which of the following statements is most likely true?

  1. A) They share housework equally.
  2. B) Brad participates in child care about 85 percent as much as Ashley does.
  3. C) Ashley spends about 85 percent as much time as Brad does on housework.
  4. D) Ashley spends nearly twice as much time as Brad does on child care.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 383

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

57)  Which of the following couples in the most likely to report high marital satisfaction?

  1. A) Clark and Marian, who were both 19 when they got married
  2. B) Roger and Daisy, who maintain distance from extended family
  3. C) David and Veronica, who had a child together before they got married
  4. D) Peter and Linda, who share family responsibilities

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 384

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

58)  Which of the following statements about marital satisfaction is true?

  1. A) Women tend to report feeling slightly happier with their marriages than men do.
  2. B) Quality of the marital relationship predicts positive mental health for women but not for men.
  3. C) Partners who hold overly positive, but realistic, biases concerning each other’s attributes are happier.
  4. D) Marriage counseling is rarely an effective answer to a dissatisfactory marital relationship.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 384

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

59)  Which of the following statements about partner abuse is true?

  1. A) In countries with widespread poverty, partner violence is relatively low.
  2. B) Many treated perpetrators repeat their violent behavior with the same or a new partner.
  3. C) Once they leave or move away, women rarely return to their abusive partners.
  4. D) Partner abuse is rare in same-sex relationships.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 384–385 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Partner Abuse

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

 

60)  Which of the following statements about parenthood in the United States today is true?

  1. A) The vast majority of married people embrace parenthood as one of life’s most meaningful experiences.
  2. B) Just under 50 percent of married couples bear children, and they tend to be older when they have their first child.
  3. C) The average number of children per woman is currently 3.1 in the United States.
  4. D) Whether a woman is employed at all has more impact on childbearing than her occupation.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 385

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

61)  The most common __________ of parenthood cited by contemporary couples is __________.

  1. A) disadvantage; a decline in marital satisfaction
  2. B) advantage; the warm, affectionate relationship
  3. C) disadvantage; exhaustion
  4. D) advantage; generativity

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 386

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

62)  In the early weeks after a baby enters the family,

  1. A) traditional marriages usually become more egalitarian.
  2. B) most couples say that their communication quality improves.
  3. C) gender roles of husband and wife usually become more traditional.
  4. D) troubled marriages usually return to the “honeymoon phase.”

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 386

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

63)  Ellen and Jane recently had a new baby. If they are like most new parents, the arrival of the baby will

  1. A) not cause significant marital strain.
  2. B) lead to high rates of anxiety and depression in both Ellen and Jane.
  3. C) lead to an increase in the quality of their communication.
  4. D) lead to a sharp increase in marital satisfaction.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 386

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

64)  __________ eases the transition to parenthood.

  1. A) Postponing childbearing until the late twenties or thirties
  2. B) Reverting to traditional gender roles of husband and wife
  3. C) Having the first child within the first year or two of marriage
  4. D) Relying on extended family for financial support

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 386

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

 

65)  Tom and Joyce just had their second baby. Which of the following statements is probably true?

  1. A) Their gender roles are becoming more traditional.
  2. B) Tom is taking a more active role in parenting.
  3. C) Their marital satisfaction is at an all-time low.
  4. D) Joyce is less sensitive to their first child.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 386

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

66)  Parents who __________ are more likely to gain in marital interaction, feel competent as parents, use effective child-rearing practices, and have children who are developing well.

  1. A) attend couples’ therapy
  2. B) engage in effective coparenting
  3. C) have traditional gender roles around the home
  4. D) delay childbirth until their thirties

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 387

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

67)  Jon and Annie are employed parents with two young children. Which of the following statements is probably true?

  1. A) They are certain about how to rear their children.
  2. B) They have narrowed their friendship and community ties.
  3. C) They struggle with finding good child care.
  4. D) More and more, they bicker over everyday issues.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 387

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

68)  Which of the following parents is the most likely to report a dip in marital and life satisfaction?

  1. A) Rick, the father of a 14-year-old
  2. B) Dolores, the mother of a 9-year-old
  3. C) Todd, the father of a 3-year-old
  4. D) Heidi, the mother of a 4-month-old

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 387

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.7

69)  Fathers frequently turn to __________ to figure out how to relate to their child.

  1. A) experts
  2. B) mothers
  3. C) their own fathers
  4. D) friends

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 387

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.7

 

70)  In view of recent trends, it is likely that most Americans will spend a substantial part of their adult lives

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C) in a second marriage.
  4. D) as a stepparent.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 388

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.8

71)  More __________ than __________ are single.

  1. A) young-adult women; men
  2. B) Caucasian young adults; African Americans in early adulthood
  3. C) highly educated men; men with a high school diploma or less
  4. D) women in prestigious careers; professionally successful men

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 388

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.8

72)  Both Marion and Bart are single. According to research,

  1. A) compared to Marion, Bart is more likely to have a prestigious career.
  2. B) compared to Bart, Marion is more likely to experience health problems in the future.
  3. C) compared to Bart, Marion is more likely to remain single all of her life.
  4. D) both Marion and Bart will look for a partner that allows them to “marry up.”

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 388

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.8

73)  Until the 1960s, __________ in Western nations was largely limited to low-SES adults.

  1. A) singlehood
  2. B) cohabitation
  3. C) marrying young
  4. D) having children before age 25

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 389

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.8

74)  Among American young people, cohabitation is

  1. A) less likely to serve as preparation for marriage as it is to serve as an alternative to marriage.
  2. B) now the preferred mode of entry into a committed intimate partnership.
  3. C) less common than it was a generation ago.
  4. D) more common than it is in Western Europe.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 389

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.8

 

75)  Which of the following cohabiting unions is the most likely to dissolve within two years?

  1. A) Maggie and Scott, who live in the United States
  2. B) Isa and Lars, who live in the Netherlands
  3. C) Nora and Tobias, who live in Norway
  4. D) Ella and Viktor, who live in Sweden

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 389

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.8

76)  Liam and Olivia met six months ago. They moved into an apartment together three months ago. They are not engaged. Compared to U.S. couples who wait to live together until after they have made a formal commitment to each other, they are __________ likely to __________.

  1. A) less; divorce if they marry
  2. B) more; have had fewer sexual partners
  3. C) more; be androgynous
  4. D) more; be religious

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 389

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.8

77)  People who cohabit after separation or divorce __________ than never-married cohabiters.

  1. A) are more likely to move toward marriage
  2. B) report stronger relationship commitment
  3. C) have poorer-quality relationships
  4. D) cohabit longer

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 389

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.8

78)  Cohabiting gay and lesbian couples are __________ cohabiting heterosexual couples.

  1. A) less likely to have unsupportive extended-family members than
  2. B) less likely to end their relationship when it becomes difficult than
  3. C) less likely to have children in common than
  4. D) not as committed as

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 389

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.8

79)  Noah and Ava are married and voluntarily childless. They are probably

  1. A) college-educated.
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D) self-indulgent.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 390

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.8

 

80)  Voluntary childless adults are __________ parents who have warm relationships with their children.

  1. A) just as content with their lives as
  2. B) more self-indulgent than
  3. C) less responsible than
  4. D) more likely to be disappointed with life than

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 390

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.8

81)  Childlessness seems to interfere with adjustment and life satisfaction only

  1. A) in low-SES couples.
  2. B) in women.
  3. C) among the highly educated.
  4. D) when it is beyond a person’s control.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 390

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.8

82)  The __________ is one reason divorce rates have stabilized since the mid-1980s.

  1. A) decreasing cohabitation rate
  2. B) rising age of marriage
  3. C) decreasing birth rate
  4. D) financial costs of separation

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 390

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.9

83)  Mia and Jacob are newlyweds. When are they most vulnerable to divorce?

  1. A) within the first seven years of marriage
  2. B) between their 8th and 12th anniversary
  3. C) between their 15th and 25th anniversary
  4. D) after 30 or more years of marriage

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 390

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.9

84)  In a longitudinal study of 2,000 U.S. married people, one of the strongest predictors of divorce was

  1. A)
  2. B) substance abuse.
  3. C)
  4. D) an unsupportive family member.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 390

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.9

 

85)  Overall, women are __________ as likely as men to initiate divorce proceedings.

  1. A) half
  2. B) just
  3. C) twice
  4. D) three times

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 391

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.9

86)  __________ are likely to have increased difficulties following marital separation.

  1. A) Nonworking women who organized their identities around their husbands
  2. B) Career-oriented men who are professionally successful
  3. C) Parents with teenage children
  4. D) Working women who are independent and self-supporting

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 391

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.9

87)  Janelle, a divorced mother with two children, is marrying William, a divorced father with three children. Which of the following statements is most likely true?

  1. A) It will take three to five years for Janelle and William’s blended family to develop the connectedness and comfort of intact biological families.
  2. B) Practical matters, such as financial security and social acceptance, will figure less heavily into Janelle and William’s marriage than in their first marriages.
  3. C) Janelle and William are less likely than never-divorced couples to view divorce as an acceptable solution when marital difficulties resurface.
  4. D) Janelle and William will experience less stress from their children than parents in an intact biological family.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 391

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.10

88)  Research on stepfamilies indicates that

  1. A) stepfathers have a more difficult time than stepmothers establishing positive ties with stepchildren.
  2. B) relationship quality is better when both partners have children from prior relationships.
  3. C) the divorce rate is lower for remarried couples with stepchildren than for those without children.
  4. D) remarried parents typically report higher levels of tension and disagreement than first-marriage parents.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 391

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.10

89)  In the United States, __________ has __________ since 1980.

  1. A) teenage parenthood; risen
  2. B) never-married single parenthood; risen
  3. C) the birth rate of single black women; declined
  4. D) the percentage of single mothers to have a second child; declined

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 392

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.10

 

90)  In the United States, __________ young women make up the largest group of never-married parents.

  1. A) African-American
  2. B) Caucasian
  3. C) Asian-American
  4. D) Hispanic

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 392

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.10

91)  Children of never-married mothers who lack father involvement

  1. A) achieve better in school than children in low-SES first-marriage families.
  2. B) display less antisocial behavior than children in low-SES first-marriage families.
  3. C) are benefited by parental marriage only when the father is a reliable source of economic and emotional support.
  4. D) are at a reduced risk for behavioral problems if their mother marries, even if their stepfather is not supportive.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 392

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.10

92)  Gay and lesbian adoptions are

  1. A) legal in all U.S. states.
  2. B) illegal in most industrialized nations.
  3. C) less successful than heterosexual adoptions.
  4. D) banned in some U.S. states.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 392

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.10

93)  Which of the following statements about gay and lesbian parenthood is true?

  1. A) Homosexual parents are less effective than heterosexual parents at child rearing.
  2. B) Children of homosexual parents have more mental health problems than children of heterosexual parents.
  3. C) Gay and lesbian parents are not as committed as heterosexual parents to child rearing.
  4. D) Children in gay and lesbian families do not differ from children of heterosexual parents in peer relations or sexual orientation.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 392

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.10

94)  Lesbian mothers, Janey and Diana, and gay fathers, Cameron and Neil, are concerned that their children will be stigmatized by their parents’ sexual orientation. Most studies indicate that

  1. A) children of gay fathers are teased or bullied more than children of lesbian mothers.
  2. B) incidents of teasing or bullying are rare because information revealed to others is carefully managed.
  3. C) children of lesbian mothers are teased or bullied more than children of gay fathers.
  4. D) incidents of teasing or bullying are common because the larger society does not support gay parenthood.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 393

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.10

 

95)  As workers in their twenties become aware of the gap between their expectations and reality, they

  1. A) change jobs often.
  2. B) hit the glass ceiling.
  3. C) experience role confusion.
  4. D) lower their expectations.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 393

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.11

96)  Laurie, a young adult, just started her first job in her chosen field and wants to select a helpful mentor. Which of the following people would most likely be her best choice?

  1. A) a top executive in the company
  2. B) another young graduate just starting his career
  3. C) a female supervisor
  4. D) a member of her professional association

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 393

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.11

97)  Women

  1. A) working full time earn as much as men.
  2. B) are overrepresented in managerial roles.
  3. C) more often choose scientific than service fields.
  4. D) are underrepresented in executive roles.

Answer:   D

Page Ref: 393

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.11

98)  U.S. government surveys indicate that

  1. A) the gender pay gap closes within ten years after graduation.
  2. B) women make as much as men in most professions requiring graduate degrees.
  3. C) women with bachelor’s degrees working full time earn just 80 percent as much as men.
  4. D) the gender pay gap has little to do with gender differences in college majors.

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 393

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.11

99)  Especially for women in traditionally feminine occupations, career __________ is ___________.

  1. A) planning; long-term
  2. B) planning; subject to change
  3. C) advancement; common
  4. D) change; uncommon

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 394

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.11

 

 

100)   Mentoring by a __________ predicts progress into management roles and pay gains more strongly for women in male-dominated industries than for men.

  1. A) female member of a professional association
  2. B) female colleague
  3. C) senior male executive
  4. D) male member of a professional association

Answer:   C

Page Ref: 394

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.11

101)  African Americans __________ than Caucasian Americans with equivalent job qualifications.

  1. A) receive more callbacks in response to résumés
  2. B) experience less stable employment
  3. C) acquire more work experience
  4. D) spend less time searching for work

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 394

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.11

102)  The majority of women with children are

  1. A) in the work force.
  2. B)
  3. C) stay-at-home moms.
  4. D) earning more than their husbands.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 394

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.11

103)  In dual-earner marriages, role overload is __________ for __________ and is linked to __________.

  1. A) greater; men; increased psychological stress
  2. B) greater; women; child behavior problems
  3. C) similar; men and women; less effective parenting
  4. D) similar; men and women; more traditional gender roles

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 394

Skill: Understand

Objective: 14.11

104)  A large, nationally representative sample of U.S. working adults showed that employees with several time-flexible work options

  1. A) missed fewer days of work.
  2. B) more often arrived at work late.
  3. C) more often left work early.
  4. D) felt less committed to their employer.

Answer:   A

Page Ref: 395

Skill: Remember

Objective: 14.11

 

 

105)   Frankie and Mike are a dual-earner couple. They would like to have a better balance between work and family. Which of the following is good advice to help them combine their work and family roles?

  1. A) Frankie should set the standards for child care, become the family child-rearing expert, and expect Mike to abide by the standards she sets.
  2. B) Both Frankie and Mike should critically evaluate the time that they devote to work in view of their family values and priorities, cutting back where needed.
  3. C) While Mike should take on an equal share of child-care responsibilities, Frankie can take on a greater share of household duties because she can do them more efficiently.
  4. D) Both Frankie and Mike should understand that family life needs to accommodate to work demands because it not possible to adjust work roles to meet family needs.

Answer:   B

Page Ref: 395

Skill: Apply

Objective: 14.11

ESSAY

106)  Explain the concept of emerging adulthood as it applies to young people in industrialized nations.

Answer:   The life pursuits and subjective judgments of many contemporary young people in industrialized nations indicate that the transition to adult roles has become so delayed and prolonged that it has spawned a new transitional period extending from the late teens to the mid- to late twenties, called emerging adulthood. Psychologist Jeffrey Arnett is the leader of a movement that regards emerging adulthood as a distinct period of life. As Arnett explains, emerging adults have left adolescence but are still a considerable distance from taking on adult responsibilities. Young people who have the economic resources to do so explore alternatives in education, work, and personal values and behavior more intensely than they did as teenagers. Not yet immersed in adult roles, many emerging adults can engage in activities of the widest possible scope. Because so little is normative, or socially expected, routes to adult responsibilities are highly diverse in timing and order across individuals. For example, more college students than in past generations pursue their education in a drawn-out, nonlinear way—changing majors as they explore career options, taking courses while working part-time, or interrupting school to work, travel, or participate in national or international service programs. About one-third of U.S. college graduates enter graduate school, taking still more years to settle into their desired career track. As a result of these experiences, young people’s interests, attitudes, and values broaden. Exposure to multiple viewpoints also encourages development of a more complex self-concept that includes awareness of their own changing traits and values over time, along with enhanced self-esteem rises. Together, these changes contribute to advances in identity.

Page Ref: 369–370

 

107)  Discuss the social clock. How does following a social clock impact development?

Answer:   Changes in society from one generation to the next can affect the life course. Bernice Neugarten identified an important cultural and generational influence on adult development: the social clock—age-graded expectations for major life events, such as beginning a first job, getting married, birth of the first child, buying a home, and retiring. All societies have such timetables.

Conformity to or departure from the social clock can be a major source of adult personality change, affecting self-esteem, independence, responsibility, and other attributes because adults (like children and adolescents) make social comparisons, measuring their progress against that of agemates. Among economically better-off young people, finishing one’s education, marrying, and having children occur much later in the lifespan than they did a generation or two ago. Furthermore, departures from social-clock life events have become increasingly common. A growing number of women, mostly of lower income, are not marrying and, instead, rearing children as single mothers, turning not to a spouse but rather to their extended families for assistance. These conditions can create intergenerational tensions when parents expect their young-adult children to attain adult milestones on an outdated schedule, at odds with their children’s current opportunities and desires. Young adults may also feel distressed because their own timing of major milestones is not widely shared by their contemporaries or supported by current public policies, thereby weakening both informal and formal social supports. And while rendering greater flexibility and freedom to young people’s lives, an ill-defined social clock likely causes them to feel inadequately grounded—unsure of what others expect and of what to expect of themselves. In sum, following a social clock of some kind seems to foster confidence and social stability because it guarantees that young people will develop skills, engage in productive work, and gain in understanding of self and others. In contrast, “crafting a life of one’s own,” whether self-chosen or the result of circumstances, is risky—more prone to breakdown.

Page Ref: 376

108)  Describe the gender differences in same-sex adult friendships.

Answer:   Extending a pattern evident in childhood and adolescence, women have more intimate same-sex friendships than men. Barriers to intimacy between male friends include competitiveness, which may make men unwilling to disclose weaknesses, and concern that if they tell about themselves, their friends will not reciprocate. Because of greater intimacy and give-and-take, women generally evaluate their same-sex friendships more positively than men do. But they also have higher expectations of friends. Thus, they are more disapproving if friends do not meet their expectations. Of course, individual differences in friendship quality exist. The longer-lasting men’s friendships are, the closer they become and the more they include disclosure of personal information. And gay and lesbian romantic relationships often develop out of close same-sex friendships, with lesbians, especially, forging compatible friendships before becoming romantically involved. As they develop romantic ties and marry, young adults—especially men—direct more of their disclosures toward their partners. Still, friendships continue to be vital contexts for personal sharing throughout adulthood.

Page Ref: 380

109)  Discuss the changes that adolescence brings to parenthood.

Answer:   Adolescence brings sharp changes in parental roles. Parents must establish a revised relationship with their adolescent children—blending guidance with freedom and gradually loosening control. As adolescents gain in autonomy and explore values and goals in their search for identity, parents often complain that their teenager is too focused on peers and no longer cares about being with the family. Heightened parent–child bickering over everyday issues takes a toll, especially on mothers, who do most of the negotiating with teenagers. Overall, children seem to navigate the challenges of adolescence more easily than parents, many of whom report a dip in marital and life satisfaction. More people seek family therapy during this period of the family life cycle than during any other.

Page Ref: 387

 

110)  Discuss career development in early adulthood, focusing on career establishment.

Answer:   Besides family life, vocational life is a vital domain of social development in early adulthood. Young people must learn how to perform work tasks well, get along with co-workers, respond to authority, and protect their own interests. When work experiences go well, adults develop new competencies, feel a sense of personal accomplishment, make new friends, and become financially independent and secure. And aspirations and accomplishments in the workplace and the family are interwoven. Young people diverse paths and timetables for career development. Furthermore, not all people embark on the vocation of their dreams. The late-2000s recession greatly increased the number of young people in jobs that do not match their educational preparation. Even for those who enter their chosen field, initial experiences can be discouraging. Adjusting to unanticipated disappointments in salary, supervisors, and co-workers is difficult. As workers in their twenties become aware of the gap between their expectations and reality, they change jobs often.

Career progress often depends on the quality of a mentoring relationship. Access to an effective mentor is jointly affected by the availability of willing people and the individual’s capacity to select an appropriate individual. The best mentors are seldom top executives, who tend to be preoccupied and therefore less helpful and sympathetic. Usually, young adults fare better with mentors who are just above them in experience and advancement or who are members of their professional associations. Furthermore, mentoring early in a worker’s career increases the likelihood of mentoring later on. The professional and personal benefits of mentoring induce employees to provide it to others and to seek it again for themselves.

Page Ref: 393

 

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