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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 10th Edition Martini Nath Test Bank

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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 10th Edition Martini Nath Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321928610

ISBN-10: 032192861X

 

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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 10th Edition Martini Nath Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321928610

ISBN-10: 032192861X

 

 

 

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Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 10e, GE (Martini)

Chapter 7   The Axial Skeleton

 

Multiple Choice Questions: Section One

 

1) How many bones make up the axial skeleton?

  1. A) 50
  2. B) 60
  3. C) 70
  4. D) 80
  5. E) 90

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

2) Which of the following is a function of the axial skeleton?

  1. A) provides an attachment for muscles that move the appendicular skeleton
  2. B) provides an attachment for muscles that move the head, neck, and trunk
  3. C) provides an attachment for muscles involved in respiration
  4. D) provides protection for the brain and spinal cord
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

3) Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton?

  1. A) skull
  2. B) false ribs
  3. C) sternum
  4. D) hyoid
  5. E) pelvic girdle

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

4) Which of the following articulate in the mandibular fossa?

  1. A) condylar process
  2. B) mastoid process
  3. C) acromion process
  4. D) coronoid process
  5. E) zygomatic process

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

5) The internal acoustic meatus is located in which bone?

  1. A) occipital
  2. B) maxillary
  3. C) sphenoid
  4. D) temporal
  5. E) parietal

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

6) The occipital condyles of the skull articulate with the

  1. A) atlas.
  2. B) mandible.
  3. C) first thoracic vertebra.
  4. D) occipital bone.
  5. E) axis.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

7) The hard palate of the roof of the mouth is mostly formed by the

  1. A) palatine process of the maxillae.
  2. B) sphenoid bone.
  3. C) nasal bones.
  4. D) zygomatic process.
  5. E) palatine bones.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

8) The foramen magnum is found in the ________ bone.

  1. A) frontal
  2. B) parietal
  3. C) sphenoid
  4. D) occipital
  5. E) temporal

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

9) The suture that forms the articulation of the parietal bones with the frontal bone is the ________ suture.

  1. A) lambdoid
  2. B) rostral
  3. C) coronal
  4. D) squamosal
  5. E) sagittal

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

10) The calvaria (or skullcap) is formed by the ________ bones.

  1. A) frontal, temporal, and parietal
  2. B) frontal, parietal, and occipital
  3. C) temporal, parietal, and occipital
  4. D) frontal, temporal, and occipital
  5. E) frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

11) The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of processes from which two bones?

  1. A) temporal and maxilla
  2. B) frontal and temporal
  3. C) sphenoid and temporal
  4. D) zygomatic and maxilla
  5. E) temporal and zygomatic

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

12) The prominent bulge just posterior and inferior to the external auditory meatus is the

  1. A) mastoid process.
  2. B) styloid process.
  3. C) occipital condyle.
  4. D) condyloid process.
  5. E) temporal process.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

13) Which of these is not one of the facial bones?

  1. A) frontal
  2. B) maxilla
  3. C) vomer
  4. D) mandible
  5. E) zygomatic

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

14) Each of the following landmarks is associated with the occipital bone except the

  1. A) superficial nuchal lines.
  2. B) jugular foramen.
  3. C) hypoglossal canals.
  4. D) petrous process.
  5. E) occipital crest.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

15) The superior and inferior temporal lines mark the points of attachment for muscles that

  1. A) stabilize the skull at the vertebral column.
  2. B) open and close the eye.
  3. C) close the mouth.
  4. D) turn the head.
  5. E) move the ears.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

16) What organ is located in the lacrimal fossa?

  1. A) the pituitary gland
  2. B) the inner ear
  3. C) tear gland
  4. D) the lacrimal ramus
  5. E) the frontal sinus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

17) A point of attachment for muscles that rotate or extend the head is the

  1. A) styloid process.
  2. B) mastoid process.
  3. C) articular tubercle.
  4. D) posterior clinoid process.
  5. E) medial concha.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

18) Ligaments that support the hyoid bone are attached to the

  1. A) styloid process.
  2. B) mastoid process.
  3. C) articular tubercle.
  4. D) posterior clinoid process.
  5. E) middle concha.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

19) Each of the following is associated with the temporal bone except the

  1. A) mastoid cells.
  2. B) petrous portion.
  3. C) sella turcica.
  4. D) internal acoustic meatus.
  5. E) mandibular fossa.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

20) The hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica contains the ________ gland.

  1. A) lacrimal
  2. B) pituitary
  3. C) olfactory
  4. D) nasal
  5. E) sellar

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

21) Each of the following structures is associated with the sphenoid bone except the

  1. A) foramen ovale.
  2. B) optic canals.
  3. C) pterygoid processes.
  4. D) sella turcica.
  5. E) cribriform plate.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

22) A membrane that stabilizes the position of the brain is attached to the

  1. A) crista galli.
  2. B) pterygoid processes.
  3. C) styloid process.
  4. D) perpendicular plate.
  5. E) cribriform plate.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

23) A skull bone that could be described as looking like a bat with wings extended is the

  1. A) maxilla.
  2. B) crista galli.
  3. C) sphenoid.
  4. D) ethmoid.
  5. E) cribriform.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

24) The nasal conchae

  1. A) attach muscles that move the eye.
  2. B) contain the nerves for olfaction.
  3. C) create turbulence in the nasal passageways.
  4. D) protect the pituitary gland.
  5. E) attach muscles that move the eyelids.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

25) The bony portion of the nasal septum is formed by the

  1. A) nasal bones.
  2. B) perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone.
  3. C) perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and vomer bone.
  4. D) vomer and sphenoid bone.
  5. E) perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and sphenoid bone.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

26) Of the following bones, which is unpaired?

  1. A) vomer
  2. B) maxillary
  3. C) palatine
  4. D) nasal
  5. E) lacrimal

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

27) The styloid process, zygomatic process, and auditory ossicles are associated with the

  1. A) parietal bone.
  2. B) occipital bone.
  3. C) sphenoid.
  4. D) temporal bone.
  5. E) ulna.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

28) The hyoid bone is suspended by ________ ligaments.

  1. A) sutural
  2. B) styloid
  3. C) hyoid
  4. D) stylohyoid
  5. E) sternocleidomastoid

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

29) What structure does the occipital bone surround?

  1. A) magnum maximus
  2. B) foramen magnum
  3. C) foramen magnus
  4. D) foramina maximus
  5. E) maximus minimus

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

30) The skull contains ________ bones.

  1. A) 32
  2. B) 22
  3. C) 42
  4. D) 12
  5. E) 27

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

31) While playing softball, Gina is struck in the frontal bone by a wild pitch. Which of the following complaints would you expect her to have?

  1. A) a broken jaw
  2. B) a black eye
  3. C) a headache
  4. D) a sore chest
  5. E) a sore back

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

32) The alveolar process of the mandible

  1. A) supports the upper teeth.
  2. B) supports the lower teeth.
  3. C) anchors the tongue.
  4. D) is part of the temporomandibular joint.
  5. E) articulates with the hyoid bone.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

33) The smallest facial bones are the

  1. A) ethmoid bones.
  2. B) lacrimal bones.
  3. C) lacerum bones.
  4. D) nasal bones.
  5. E) zygomatic bones.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

34) Ridges that anchor muscles that stabilize the head are the

  1. A) anterior and posterior nuchal lines.
  2. B) anterior and superior nuchal lines.
  3. C) inferior and superior nuchal lines.
  4. D) medial and lateral nuchal lines.
  5. E) cranial and caudal nuchal lines.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

35) The hyoid bone

  1. A) attaches to tongue muscles.
  2. B) is linked to the styloid process by a ligament.
  3. C) is superior to the larynx.
  4. D) does not directly articulate with other bones.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

36) The function of the hyoid bone is to

  1. A) stabilize the atlas and the axis.
  2. B) anchor the tongue muscles.
  3. C) protect the trachea.
  4. D) attach to ribs.
  5. E) support the mandible.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

37) Damage to the temporal bone would most likely affect the sense(s) of

  1. A) balance.
  2. B) hearing and balance.
  3. C) smell and taste.
  4. D) vision.
  5. E) touch and pressure.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

38) Premature closure of the sagittal suture would result in

  1. A) a long and narrow head.
  2. B) a very broad head.
  3. C) an unusually small head.
  4. D) a distorted head with one side being longer than the other.
  5. E) death.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

39) Jack gets into a fight and is punched in the nose. Which of the following bones might be fractured?

  1. A) ethmoid bone
  2. B) zygomatic bone
  3. C) temporal bone
  4. D) mandible
  5. E) parietal bone

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

40) As the result of an accident, Bill suffers a dislocated jaw. This injury would involve the

  1. A) stylohyoid ligaments.
  2. B) hyoid bone.
  3. C) condylar process of the mandible.
  4. D) alveolar process of the mandible.
  5. E) greater cornu of the hyoid bone.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

41) Your friend Greg is hit in the jaw and when looking at him, his face looks misaligned. You immediately take him to the emergency room and are not surprised to learn that he has a broken

  1. A) temporal bone.
  2. B) zygomatic bone.
  3. C) mandible.
  4. D) external auditory meatus.
  5. E) clavicle.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

Figure 7-1 Floor of the Cranial Cavity

 

Use Figure 7-1 to answer the following questions:

 

42) Which bone structure has foramina for the olfactory nerves?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

43) Identify the sphenoid bone.

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

44) Identify the internal occipital crest.

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

45) Which structure encloses the pituitary gland?

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 7
  5. E) 8

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

46) What is the name of the structure labeled “7”?

  1. A) optic canal
  2. B) foramen spinosum
  3. C) foramen rotundum
  4. D) foramen lacerum
  5. E) foramen ovale

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

47) What is the name of the structure labeled “8”?

  1. A) sella turcica
  2. B) foramen ovale
  3. C) foramen rotundum
  4. D) carotid canal
  5. E) foramen spinosum

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

48) Which of the following best describes the location of the glabella?

  1. A) vertical groove extending between the nose and the upper lip
  2. B) bilaterally on the thickened regions that form the superior rims of the orbits
  3. C) small, hallow, y-shaped area in the central part of the mandible
  4. D) area just superior to the nasal bones and medially to the supraorbital margins
  5. E) a slit-shaped opening between the sphenoid and the petrous part of the temporal bone

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

49) The facial nerve (N. VII) passes through the internal acoustic meatus and then through the

  1. A) mastoid foramen.
  2. B) stylomastoid foramen.
  3. C) jugular foramen.
  4. D) carotid foramen.
  5. E) foramen lacerum.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

50) The large foramen that serves as a passageway for the medulla of the brain and the accessory nerve (XI) is the

  1. A) foramen lacerum.
  2. B) foramen rotundum.
  3. C) carotid canal.
  4. D) jugular foramen.
  5. E) foramen magnum.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

51) Nerves carrying sensory information from the lips and the chin pass through the

  1. A) ramus of the mandible.
  2. B) condylar process.
  3. C) mental foramina.
  4. D) mandibular foramina.
  5. E) maxillary foramina.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

52) A nerve that carries sensory information from the teeth of the lower jaw passes through the

  1. A) ramus of the mandible.
  2. B) condylar process.
  3. C) mental foramen.
  4. D) mandibular foramen.
  5. E) maxillary foramen.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

53) The ________ passes through the ________.

  1. A) vagus nerve; foramen magnum
  2. B) optic nerve; foramen ovale
  3. C) vestibulocochlear nerve; external acoustic meatus
  4. D) internal jugular vein; jugular foramen
  5. E) internal carotid artery; jugular foramen

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

54) Each of the following bones is a component of the orbital complex except the ________ bone.

  1. A) lacrimal
  2. B) nasal
  3. C) sphenoid
  4. D) ethmoid
  5. E) frontal

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

55) The nasal complex consists of all of the following bones except the

  1. A) zygomatic.
  2. B) ethmoid.
  3. C) sphenoid.
  4. D) frontal.
  5. E) maxillary.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

56) The paranasal sinuses are located in all of the following bones except the

  1. A) frontal.
  2. B) ethmoid.
  3. C) sphenoid.
  4. D) maxillae.
  5. E) zygomatic.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

57) Which statement(s) about the functions of the paranasal sinuses is/are not true?

  1. A) They provide an extensive area of mucous epithelium.
  2. B) They make skull bones lighter.
  3. C) The mucus they secrete enters the oral cavities.
  4. D) They support cilia that move the mucus.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

58) The floor of the orbital complex is formed by the

  1. A) maxilla.
  2. B) ethmoid.
  3. C) zygomatic.
  4. D) sphenoid.
  5. E) frontal.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

59) The largest sinus is within which bone?

  1. A) nasal
  2. B) sphenoid
  3. C) ethmoid
  4. D) frontal
  5. E) maxilla

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

60) The role(s) of the sinuses include(s)

  1. A) making the skull lighter.
  2. B) production of mucus that moistens and cleans the air.
  3. C) increasing surface area for gas exchange.
  4. D) extra source of air and increasing surface area for gas exchange.
  5. E) making the skull lighter and production of mucus that moistens and cleans the air.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

61) A bent nasal septum that slows or prevents sinus drainage is known clinically as a ________ septum.

  1. A) deviated
  2. B) crooked
  3. C) obstructive
  4. D) deviant
  5. E) restrictive

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

62) Sutures can be found at all of the joints of an adult skull except between

  1. A) the mandible and the cranium.
  2. B) the zygomatic bone and the maxillary bone.
  3. C) the occipital bone and the parietal bone.
  4. D) the vomer and the zygomatic bone.
  5. E) the sphenoid bone and the ethmoid bone.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

63) If there were no paranasal sinuses, all of the following would be true except

  1. A) the skull would be heavier.
  2. B) stronger neck muscles would be required.
  3. C) less mucus in the nasal cavity.
  4. D) reduced ability to trap dust and particles.
  5. E) the ability to sneeze would be impaired.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

64) Each of the following statements concerning the development of the skull is true except that

  1. A) all the bones of the skull develop from one single ossification focus.
  2. B) at birth the cranial bones are connected by areas of fibrous connective tissue.
  3. C) the growth of the cranium is usually coordinated with the growth of the brain.
  4. D) the skulls of infants and adults differ in shape and structure of the skeletal elements.
  5. E) the most significant growth of the skull occurs before the age of 5.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

65) Identify the correct statement regarding fontanelles.

  1. A) They form fibrous connections between facial bones.
  2. B) They persist throughout childhood.
  3. C) They enable easier delivery through the birth canal.
  4. D) The occipital fontanelles are also known as the soft spot.
  5. E) There is no correct statement.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

66) The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are

  1. A) fontanelles.
  2. B) sutures.
  3. C) Wormian bones.
  4. D) foramina.
  5. E) fibrocartilaginous discs.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

67) Fibrous connective tissue called ________ accommodates brain growth in infants.

  1. A) sutures
  2. B) vertebrae
  3. C) fontanelles
  4. D) frontals
  5. E) foramina

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

68) The most significant skull growth occurs before the age of

  1. A) 3.
  2. B) 2.
  3. C) 5.
  4. D) 1.
  5. E) 4.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

69) While you’re visiting your friend who recently gave birth, she comments on her infant’s soft spot. You think to yourself that the correct term for the “soft spot” located at the intersection of the frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures is

  1. A) sphenoidal fontanel.
  2. B) anterior fontanel.
  3. C) occipital fontanel.
  4. D) mastoid fontanel.
  5. E) cushion spot.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

70) While volunteering in an outpatient clinic for underprivileged families in your neighborhood, you observe the nurse assessing an infant. The mother had complained about the baby not eating and having several episodes of diarrhea lasting 3 days. You know the nurse suspects possible dehydration when she

  1. A) checks the anterior fontanel for depression.
  2. B) points out the dryness of the infant’s diaper.
  3. C) checks the infant’s reflexes.
  4. D) questions the mother about normal feeding habits.
  5. E) weighs the infant.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

71) The four curves of the adult spinal column are not all present at birth. Which of the following are the secondary curves, which do not appear until several months later?

  1. A) cervical and lumbar
  2. B) thoracic and lumbar
  3. C) sacral and lumbar
  4. D) thoracic and sacral
  5. E) cervical and sacral

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

72) An exaggerated lateral curvature is termed

  1. A) kyphosis.
  2. B) lordosis.
  3. C) scoliosis.
  4. D) gomphosis.
  5. E) mentosis.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

73) The four spinal curves include all but one of the following. Identify the exception.

  1. A) thoracic
  2. B) cervical
  3. C) lumbar
  4. D) axial
  5. E) sacral

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

74) The primary spinal curves

  1. A) are also called compensation curves.
  2. B) accommodate the thoracic and abdominopelvic viscera.
  3. C) develop several months after birth.
  4. D) develop several months after birth to accommodate the growing viscera in the thoracic cavity.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

75) The vertebral column contains ________ thoracic vertebrae.

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 12
  5. E) 31

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

76) The vertebral column contains ________ lumbar vertebrae.

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 12
  5. E) 31

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

77) The vertebral arch is formed by the pedicles and the

  1. A) transverse spinous processes.
  2. B) dorsal spinous processes.
  3. C) laminae.
  4. D) costal facets.
  5. E) intervertebral disc.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

78) The part of the vertebrae that transfers weight along the axis of the vertebral column is the

  1. A) vertebral arch.
  2. B) vertebral body.
  3. C) articular processes.
  4. D) intervertebral space.
  5. E) transverse process.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

79) Most mammals, including humans and giraffes, have ________ cervical vertebrae.

  1. A) 11
  2. B) 6
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 19
  5. E) 10

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

80) Vertebrae of which regions are fused in the adult?

  1. A) lumbar region
  2. B) sacral region
  3. C) coccygeal region
  4. D) thoracic
  5. E) sacral and coccygeal regions

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

81) The widest intervertebral discs are found in the ________ region.

  1. A) cervical
  2. B) thoracic
  3. C) lumbar
  4. D) sacral
  5. E) coccygeal

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

82) As you move in an inferior direction along the vertebral column,

  1. A) the vertebral foramina become relatively larger.
  2. B) the vertebral bodies become relatively larger.
  3. C) the dorsal spines grow progressively longer.
  4. D) the transverse processes move anteriorly.
  5. E) the vertebrae get progressively smaller and thinner.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

83) The dens process is found on the

  1. A) atlas.
  2. B) axis.
  3. C) sacrum.
  4. D) coccyx.
  5. E) ribs.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

84) The vertebra prominens is another name for the ________ vertebra.

  1. A) first cervical
  2. B) second cervical
  3. C) seventh cervical
  4. D) first thoracic
  5. E) fifth lumbar

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

85) Thoracic vertebrae can be distinguished from other vertebrae by the presence of

  1. A) transverse processes.
  2. B) transverse foramina.
  3. C) facets for the articulation of ribs.
  4. D) notched spinous processes.
  5. E) costal cartilages.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

86) Which of the following are distinctive features of thoracic vertebrae?

  1. A) heart-shaped bodies
  2. B) long spinous processes
  3. C) rib articulations
  4. D) no transverse foramen
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

87) The distinguishing feature of a cervical vertebra is the

  1. A) costal facet.
  2. B) vertebral arch.
  3. C) transverse foramen.
  4. D) spinous process.
  5. E) pedicle.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

88) Which of the following types of vertebrae and their numbers is not correct?

  1. A) cervical: 7
  2. B) thoracic: 12
  3. C) lumbar: 5
  4. D) sacral: 1
  5. E) coccygeal: 3 to 5

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

89) All of the following are true of the sacrum except that it

  1. A) provides protection for reproductive, digestive, and excretory organs.
  2. B) provides a point of attachment for leg muscles.
  3. C) articulates with the pelvic bones.
  4. D) articulates with the second and third lumbar vertebrae.
  5. E) articulates with the coccyx.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

90) Gesturing “no” with the head depends on the structure(s) of which cervical vertebrae?

  1. A) atlas
  2. B) axis
  3. C) vertebra prominens
  4. D) both the atlas and the axis
  5. E) both the atlas and the vertebra prominens

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

91) The ribs articulate with the ________ of the vertebrae.

  1. A) spinous processes
  2. B) transverse processes
  3. C) laminae
  4. D) pedicles
  5. E) auric arches

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

92) All of the following are true of lumbar vertebrae except that

  1. A) the superior articular processes face medially.
  2. B) they lack costal facets.
  3. C) the transverse process is slender and projects dorsolaterally.
  4. D) the vertebral foramen is triangular.
  5. E) the vertebral bodies are thin and delicate.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

93) Which of the following statements about the coccyx is true?

  1. A) It is the most caudal vertebral region.
  2. B) It anchors a muscle that constricts the anal opening.
  3. C) It consists of three to five coccygeal vertebrae.
  4. D) Fusion is delayed until the mid-twenties.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

94) Lumbar vertebrae are ________ massive and ________ mobile.

  1. A) least; most
  2. B) most; most
  3. C) least; least
  4. D) not; excessively
  5. E) most; least

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

Figure 7-2 Typical Vertebra (inferior view)

 

Use Figure 7-2 to answer the following questions:

 

95) Identify the structure labeled “7.”

  1. A) transverse process
  2. B) lamina
  3. C) pedicle
  4. D) vertebral body
  5. E) spinous process

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

96) Which structure contacts the intervertebral disc?

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 5
  5. E) 6

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

97) Identify the structure labeled “3.”

  1. A) lateral process
  2. B) spinous process
  3. C) lamina
  4. D) transverse process
  5. E) pedicle

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

98) Identify the structure labeled “1.”

  1. A) pedicle
  2. B) transverse process
  3. C) lamina
  4. D) spinous process
  5. E) transverse articular facet

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

99) Where is the spinal cord located?

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 5
  4. D) 6
  5. E) 7

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

100) Identify the structure labeled “2.”

  1. A) transverse process
  2. B) superior articular process
  3. C) pedicle
  4. D) inferior articular process
  5. E) lamina

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

101) The ribs articulate with the

  1. A) cervical vertebrae.
  2. B) thoracic vertebrae.
  3. C) lumbar vertebrae.
  4. D) sacrum.
  5. E) hyoid bone.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

102) Humans normally have ________ pairs of ribs.

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 6
  3. C) 10
  4. D) 12
  5. E) 24

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

103) The part of the sternum that articulates with the clavicles is the

  1. A) manubrium.
  2. B) body.
  3. C) xiphoid process.
  4. D) angle.
  5. E) tuberculum.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

104) Which bone(s) include(s) a manubrium?

  1. A) scapula
  2. B) clavicle
  3. C) sternum
  4. D) cervical vertebrae #1 and #2
  5. E) all of the vertebrae

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

105) A tubercle of a rib articulates with the

  1. A) manubrium.
  2. B) costal facets of thoracic vertebrae.
  3. C) hyoid.
  4. D) xiphoid process.
  5. E) cervical and thoracic vertebrae.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

106) The true ribs are

  1. A) ribs 1-7.
  2. B) called vertebrosternal ribs.
  3. C) ribs 8-12.
  4. D) called vertebrochondral ribs.
  5. E) ribs 1-7 and are called verterbrosternal ribs.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

107) The sternum contains the

  1. A) manubrium.
  2. B) jugular notch.
  3. C) he body.
  4. D) xiphoid process.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

108) Ossification of the sternum is not complete until at least age

  1. A) 50.
  2. B) 25.
  3. C) 16.
  4. D) 10.
  5. E) 6.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

109) While performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on an unconscious person, you are careful to position your hands correctly to avoid damage to the

  1. A) ribs.
  2. B) scapula.
  3. C) xiphoid process.
  4. D) sacrum.
  5. E) ribs and xiphoid process.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions: Section Two

 

1) The skull and vertebral column are part of the ________ skeleton.

  1. A) axial
  2. B) apical
  3. C) appendicular
  4. D) articulated
  5. E) sagittal

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

2) Identify the mismatched pair.

  1. A) skull bones: 8 cranial and 14 facial bones
  2. B) bones associated with the skull: 6 auditory ossicles and 1 hyoid bone
  3. C) vertebral column: 24 vertebrae and 1 sacrum and 1 coccyx
  4. D) thoracic cage: sternum and 24 ribs and 2 clavicles
  5. E) there is no mismatched pair

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

3) The occipital ________ are where the occipital bone articulates with the first cervical vertebra.

  1. A) processes
  2. B) condyles
  3. C) foramina
  4. D) fossae
  5. E) tubercles

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

4) The parietal bones and occipital bone articulate at the ________ suture.

  1. A) lambdoid
  2. B) central
  3. C) sagittal
  4. D) coronal
  5. E) posterior

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

5) The frontal and parietal bones articulate at the ________ suture.

  1. A) lambdoid
  2. B) central
  3. C) sagittal
  4. D) coronal
  5. E) posterior

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

6) The ________ is the bony chamber that protects and supports the brain.

  1. A) skull
  2. B) centrum
  3. C) cranium
  4. D) cephalum
  5. E) cortex

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

7) Infection of the large process on the temporal bone would be called

  1. A) tinitis.
  2. B) encephalitis.
  3. C) meningitis.
  4. D) petrositis.
  5. E) mastoiditis.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

8) The inferior portion of the nasal septum is formed by the

  1. A) nasal bone.
  2. B) perpendicular plate of the ethmoid.
  3. C) nasal conchae.
  4. D) vomer.
  5. E) palatine bone.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

9) What is the full term for TMJ syndrome?

  1. A) tympanomandibular joint
  2. B) temporomaxillary joint
  3. C) tympanomentalis joint
  4. D) temporomandibular joint
  5. E) tendermouth junction

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

10) The four primary sutures are lambdoid, coronal, sagittal, and

  1. A) lateral.
  2. B) cuboidal.
  3. C) parietal.
  4. D) squamous.
  5. E) frontal.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

11) The ________ bone is unusual because it doesn’t contact another bone.

  1. A) vomer
  2. B) lacrimal
  3. C) hyoid
  4. D) atlas
  5. E) ethmoid

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

12) The nasal complex includes the bones that enclose the nasal cavity and the ________ sinuses.

  1. A) hyponasal
  2. B) paranasal
  3. C) endonasal
  4. D) epinasal
  5. E) perinasal

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

13) Sinus inflammation is called

  1. A) sinusitis.
  2. B) asthma.
  3. C) congestion.
  4. D) postnasal drip.
  5. E) All of the above.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

14) The condition in which distortions of the skull occur due to the premature closure of fontanelles is called

  1. A) anencephaly.
  2. B) microcephaly.
  3. C) craniostenosis.
  4. D) membranitis.
  5. E) epicranial block.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

15) In the condition known as ________, premature closure of all of the cranial sutures results in restricted brain growth and an undersized head.

  1. A) anencephaly
  2. B) microcephaly
  3. C) craniostenosis
  4. D) membranitis
  5. E) epicranial block

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

16) An exaggerated lumbar curvature of the spine is known as

  1. A) kyphosis.
  2. B) lordosis.
  3. C) scoliosis.
  4. D) spinosis.
  5. E) stenosis.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

17) Successive vertebrae articulate at facets on the inferior articular processes of the superior vertebra and facets on the ________ of the adjacent inferior vertebrae.

  1. A) dens
  2. B) pedicles
  3. C) lamellae
  4. D) transverse processes
  5. E) superior articular processes

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

18) The five vertebral regions are the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and

  1. A) medial.
  2. B) proximal.
  3. C) distal.
  4. D) coccygeal.
  5. E) os coxal.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

19) The first cervical vertebra is better known as the

  1. A) primum.
  2. B) atlas.
  3. C) axis.
  4. D) cervix.
  5. E) apex.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

20) The second cervical vertebra is called the

  1. A) primum.
  2. B) atlas.
  3. C) axis.
  4. D) cervix.
  5. E) apex.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

21) The term ________ is used to describe an injury caused by displacement of the cervical vertebrae during a sudden change in body position.

  1. A) remodel
  2. B) rearrangement
  3. C) fracture
  4. D) whiplash
  5. E) adjustment

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

22) The ________ allow for a wide range of head movements.

  1. A) hyoid bones
  2. B) temporomandibular joints
  3. C) cervical vertebrae
  4. D) intervertebral discs
  5. E) occipital condyles

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

23) False ribs have cartilage directly connected to the cartilage of true ribs and are thus called ________ ribs.

  1. A) chondroxiphoidal
  2. B) vertebrosternal
  3. C) sternocostal
  4. D) chondrocostal
  5. E) vertebrochondral

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

24) Ribs 8 to 12 are called ________ because they do not attach directly to the sternum.

  1. A) free
  2. B) false
  3. C) floating
  4. D) fibrous
  5. E) filamentous

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

25) The superior part of the sternum is called the

  1. A) apex.
  2. B) xiphoid.
  3. C) coccyx.
  4. D) manubrium.
  5. E) head.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

26) Give the clinical term for the condition in which the vertebral laminae fail to unite during development.

  1. A) spina incompleta
  2. B) laminaecta
  3. C) laminal cleft
  4. D) ossificans imperfecta
  5. E) spina bifida

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

Essay Questions

 

1) Frank gets into a brawl at a sports event and receives a broken nose. After the nose heals, he starts to have sinus headaches and discomfort in the area of his maxillae. What is probably the cause of Frank’s discomfort?

Answer:  Frank probably has a deviated septum as the result of his broken nose. In a deviated septum the cartilaginous portion of the septum is bent where it joins the bone. This condition often blocks the drainage of one or more sinuses with resulting sinus headaches, infections, and sinusitis.

Learning Outcome:  7-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

2) Consider a disease whereby cilia within the epithelial lining of the paranasal sinuses are destroyed. What would be some of the consequences?

Answer:  The ciliated epithelium moves mucus back toward the throat, where it is eventually swallowed or expelled coughing. Mucus traps foreign particulates, such as dust or microorganisms, which in the absence of cilia would build up within the paranasal sinuses. Possible consequences may include congestion, pain, sinusitis, and spread of infections into the respiratory tract.

Learning Outcome:  7-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

3) What role do the fontanelles play in infant development?

Answer:  These fibrous connective tissue structures fill in between the bones of the cranium in a newborn infant. As the brain grows, the skull bones can move apart and allow for brain growth without interfering with nervous system development and function. If they are prematurely ossified, brain development is restricted, leading to skull deformity and mental retardation. This condition is called craniostenosis.

Learning Outcome:  7-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

4) Joe is 40 years old and 30 pounds overweight. Like many middle-aged men, Joe carries most of this extra weight in his abdomen and jokes with his friends about his “beer gut.” During an annual physical, Joe’s physician advises him that his spine is developing an abnormal curvature. Why is the curvature of Joe’s spine changing, and what is this condition called?

Answer:  The curvature of the spine is changing as a result of the heavy abdomen pulling on the anterior cavity. This extra weight causes abnormal spinal curvature to compensate for balance. The condition is called lordosis because its effects are prevalent in the lumbar region.

Learning Outcome:  7-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

5) Why are ruptured intervertebral discs more common in lumbar vertebrae and dislocations and fractures more common in cervical vertebrae?

Answer:  The lumbar vertebrae have massive bodies and carry a lot of weight; these factors contribute to the rupturing of an intervertebral disc. The cervical vertebrae are more delicate and have small bodies; these factors increase the possibility of dislocations and fractures in the cervical vertebrae.

Learning Outcome:  7-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

6) Billy is injured during a high school football game. His chest is badly bruised and he is experiencing difficulty in breathing. What might the problem be?

Answer:  Billy has probably broken one or more of his ribs. Movement of the ribs changes the size of the thoracic cavity, which is an important part of breathing. When the ribs are broken, breathing can become difficult (labored) because of pain when the ribs are moved.

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

7) The structural features and skeletal components of the sternum make it a part of the axial skeleton, which is important in a variety of clinical situations. If you were teaching this information to prospective health care professionals, what clinical applications would you cite?

Answer:  Because it is accessible, the body of the sternum is often sampled for red bone marrow. The xiphoid process is useful landmark in CPR; this part of the sternum is easily broken, because its only attachment is superior, to the sternum. A broken xiphoid process can cause injury to nearby organs.

Learning Outcome:  7-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

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