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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 9th Edition Martini Nath Bartholomew Test Bank

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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 9th Edition Martini Nath Bartholomew Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321709332

ISBN-10: 0321709330

 

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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 9th Edition Martini Nath Bartholomew Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321709332

ISBN-10: 0321709330

 

 

 

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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Martini)

Chapter 25  Metabolism and Energetics

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called

  1. A) glycolysis.
  2. B) oxidative phosphorylation.
  3. C) catabolism.
  4. D) anabolism.
  5. E) metabolism.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

2) Cells synthesize new organic components for which of the following reasons?

  1. A) structural maintenance
  2. B) growth and repair
  3. C) produce secretions
  4. D) store nutrients
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

3) Reactions within ________ provide most of the energy needed by a typical cell.

  1. A) cytoplasm
  2. B) the plasma membrane
  3. C) the mitochondria
  4. D) the endoplasmic reticulum
  5. E) nucleus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

4) Cells perform catabolism to generate ATP, which can be used for

  1. A) muscle contraction.
  2. B) ion transport.
  3. C) protein synthesis.
  4. D) glycogen synthesis.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

5) What percent of energy released from catabolism is lost as heat?

  1. A) 20
  2. B) 30
  3. C) 40
  4. D) 50
  5. E) 60

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

6) Cells must synthesize new organic compounds

  1. A) to support growth.
  2. B) to perform structural maintenance or repairs.
  3. C) to produce secretions.
  4. D) to store nutrient reserves.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

7) The chemical equation that correctly summarizes the overall reaction in oxidative phosphorylation is

  1. A) H2+ O2→ H2O + O.
  2. B) 2 H2+ O2→ 2 H2
  3. C) 3 H2+ 2O2→ 3 H2O + 2 O.
  4. D) H2+ O2→ H2
  5. E) P + 3 O → PO

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

8) The function of the citric acid cycle is to

  1. A) remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes.
  2. B) transfer the acetyl group.
  3. C) hydrolyze glucose.
  4. D) produce carbon dioxide.
  5. E) produce water.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

9) In the ETS, ________ accepts electrons from one molecule and transfers them to another.

  1. A) a hydrogen ion
  2. B) a coenzyme
  3. C) the acetyl group
  4. D) ADP
  5. E) NAD

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

10) Each cytochrome contains

  1. A) a lipoprotein.
  2. B) a metal ion.
  3. C) an ATP synthase.
  4. D) an inorganic salt.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

11) In order for glycolysis to proceed, which of the following need not be present?

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) acetyl-CoA
  3. C) ATP
  4. D) NAD
  5. E) ADP

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

12) The ________ of the mitochondrion contains large-diameter pores that are permeable to ions and small organic molecules such as pyruvic acid.

  1. A) inner membrane
  2. B) plasma membrane
  3. C) outer membrane
  4. D) matrix
  5. E) cristae

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

13) During glycolysis

  1. A) a molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
  2. B) four molecules of ATP are produced.
  3. C) two molecules of ATP are consumed.
  4. D) hydrogen atoms are removed from organic molecules.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

14) The citric acid cycle

  1. A) begins with the formation of a molecule of citric acid.
  2. B) directly produces most of the ATP from the catabolism of glucose.
  3. C) consumes two moles of carbon dioxide.
  4. D) contains enzymes called cytochromes.
  5. E) forms acetyl-CoA from glucose-6-phosphate.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

15) The carbon dioxide of respiration is formed during

  1. A) glycolysis.
  2. B) the citric acid cycle.
  3. C) electron transport.
  4. D) the formation of pyruvic acid.
  5. E) the formation of water.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

16) In the electron transport chain

  1. A) NADH and FADH2donate hydrogen atoms.
  2. B) reduced molecules transfer energy to ATP formation.
  3. C) oxidative phosphorylation leads to ATP formation.
  4. D) generates a concentration gradient by pumping hydrogen ions.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

17) In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose that is catabolized gives a net yield of how many molecules of ATP?

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 30
  4. D) 36
  5. E) 38

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

18) The strategy of eating starchy foods for several days before an athletic event is known as

  1. A) carbohydrate craving.
  2. B) the Atkins diet.
  3. C) carbohydrate loading.
  4. D) glycolysis reaction.
  5. E) overeating.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

19) Although other nutrients can feed into the citric acid cycle, ________ yields energy the quickest.

  1. A) glycogen
  2. B) glucose
  3. C) protein
  4. D) fat
  5. E) an amino acid

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

20) The major steps in oxidative phosphorylation include all of the following, except

  1. A) removal of hydrogen atoms from a substrate molecule by coenzymes.
  2. B) ionization of hydrogen atoms.
  3. C) increasing the energy level of electrons passing through the electron transport chain.
  4. D) the breaking of carbon-carbon covalent bonds.
  5. E) the acceptance of electrons by oxygen atoms.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

21) In oxidative phosphorylation, energy for the synthesis of ATP is directly obtained from

  1. A) the splitting of oxygen molecules.
  2. B) the breaking of the covalent bonds in glucose.
  3. C) the movement of hydrogen ions through channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
  4. D) the combination of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen to form water.
  5. E) the oxidation of acetyl-CoA.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

22) How many net ATP molecules are produced by the complete metabolism (all pathways) of one glucose molecule?

  1. A) 2 ATP
  2. B) 63 ATP
  3. C) 500 ATP
  4. D) 36 ATP
  5. E) 32 ATP

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

23) What is the role of NADH in metabolism?

  1. A) convert pyruvic acid into acetyl-coA
  2. B) produce bicarbonate ions for a pH buffer
  3. C) transport hydrogen atoms to coenzymes in the mitochondrial cristae
  4. D) produce carbon dioxide
  5. E) phosphorylate ADP into ATP

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

24) The citric acid cycle occurs in the

  1. A) cytosol.
  2. B) golgi apparatus.
  3. C) mitochondrial cristae.
  4. D) mitochondrial matrix.
  5. E) ribosome.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

25) Hydrogen atoms from one FADH2 from the citric acid cycle produce how much ATP in the Electron Transport System?

  1. A) 32 ATP
  2. B) 2 ATP
  3. C) 3 ATP
  4. D) 4 ATP
  5. E) 1 ATP

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

26) When NAD+ is ________ it becomes NADH.  When NADH is ________ it becomes NAD+.

  1. A) phosphorylated; deaminated
  2. B) reduced; oxidized
  3. C) made; recycled
  4. D) phosphorylated; dephosphorylated
  5. E) oxidized; reduced

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

27) Oxygen is an important molecule in which of the following:

  1. A) citric acid cycle and ETS
  2. B) glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and ETS
  3. C) citric acid cycle only
  4. D) glycolysis only
  5. E) ETS only

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

28) If 8 molecules of NADH from the citric acid cycle entered the ETS, how much ATP would be produced?

  1. A) 36 ATP
  2. B) 32 ATP
  3. C) 3 ATP
  4. D) 8 ATP
  5. E) 24 ATP

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

29) The citric acid cycle is an aerobic process because

  1. A) ADP is phosphorylated.
  2. B) FADH2 is produced.
  3. C) citric acid molecules have oxygen atoms.
  4. D) oxygen is needed to remove carbon atoms as carbon dioxide.
  5. E) NAH+ is converted into NADH.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

30) The main purpose of the citric acid cycle is to

  1. A) produce Acetyl CoA.
  2. B) produce proteins for energy storage.
  3. C) phosphorylate glucose molecules.
  4. D) supply hydrogen atoms to the mitochondria.
  5. E) produce citric acid to make vitamin C.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

31) The end products of aerobic respiration are

  1. A) carbon dioxide, water, and energy (ATP).
  2. B) pyruvic acid and carbon dioxide.
  3. C) carbon dioxide and alcohol.
  4. D) oxygen and water.
  5. E) NADH and FADH2.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

32) Most of the ATP from metabolism is produced in the

  1. A) citric acid cycle.
  2. B) Electron Transport System.
  3. C) cytosol.
  4. D) mitochondrial matrix.
  5. E) glycolysis.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

33) In the citric acid cycle, a 2 carbon molecule and a 4 carbon molecule combine to produce

  1. A) fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.
  2. B) carbon dioxide.
  3. C) pyruvic acid.
  4. D) NADH.
  5. E) citric acid.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

34) The end products of glycolysis are

  1. A) ATP, water, and carbon dioxide.
  2. B) ATP, NADH, and pyruvic acid.
  3. C) ADP and ATP.
  4. D) pyruvic acid and citric acid.
  5. E) NADH and FADH2.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

Figure 25-1 The Citric Acid Cycle

Use Figure 25-1 to answer the following questions:

 

35) What is the molecule labeled “1”?

  1. A) phosphoglyceric acid
  2. B) citric acid
  3. C) pyruvate acid
  4. D) NADH
  5. E) FADH2

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

36) What is the molecule labeled “2”?

  1. A) hydrogen atoms
  2. B) citric acid
  3. C) NADH
  4. D) carbon dioxide
  5. E) FADH2

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

37) What is the substance labeled “4”?

  1. A) hydrogen atoms
  2. B) citric acid
  3. C) 4 carbon molecule
  4. D) NADH
  5. E) FADH2

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

38) What is the molecule labeled “7” ?

  1. A) hydrogen atoms
  2. B) citric acid
  3. C) 4 carbon molecule
  4. D) NADH
  5. E) FADH2

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

39) What is the molecule labeled “5”?

  1. A) fumaric acid
  2. B) citric acid
  3. C) 4-carbon molecule
  4. D) malic acid
  5. E) oxaloacetic acid

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

40) The essential fatty acids are

  1. A) linoleic acid and linolenic acid.
  2. B) leucine and lysine.
  3. C) cholesterol and glycerol.
  4. D) HDLs and LDLs.
  5. E) glycerol and pyruvic acid.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

41) The lipoproteins that carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the bloodstream are

  1. A) HDLs.
  2. B) VLDLs.
  3. C) LDLs.
  4. D) chylomicrons.
  5. E) coenzymes.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

42) During lipolysis

  1. A) triglycerides are converted into molecules of acetyl-CoA.
  2. B) triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids.
  3. C) lipids are converted into glucose molecules.
  4. D) lipids are formed from excess carbohydrates.
  5. E) lipids are metabolized to yield ATP.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

43) All of the following are true of beta-oxidation, except that

  1. A) it occurs in the mitochondria.
  2. B) fatty acids break down into two-carbon fragments that enter the TCA cycle.
  3. C) lipids are converted into glycogen molecules.
  4. D) it requires coenzyme A, NAD, and FAD.
  5. E) it yields large amounts of ATP.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

44) Lipids

  1. A) deliver somewhat less energy than an equivalent mass of glucose.
  2. B) are difficult to store since they are not water soluble.
  3. C) yield quick bursts of energy.
  4. D) provide energy for cells with modest energy demands.
  5. E) are the primary nutrient metabolized in cells.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

45) Lipogenesis generally begins with

  1. A) glucose.
  2. B) amino acids.
  3. C) fatty acids.
  4. D) acetyl-CoA.
  5. E) succinyl-CoA.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

46) Linoleic acid and linolenic acid are examples of

  1. A) transport proteins.
  2. B) lipoproteins.
  3. C) essential fatty acids.
  4. D) essential amino acids.
  5. E) vitamins.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

47) In the human body, cholesterol is important because it

  1. A) helps waterproof the epidermis.
  2. B) is a lipid component of all cell membranes.
  3. C) is a key constituent of bile.
  4. D) is the precursor of several steroid hormones and vitamin D3.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

48) In order to determine the LDL level in a patient’s blood it is necessary to measure

  1. A) total cholesterol level.
  2. B) HDL level.
  3. C) triglyceride level.
  4. D) triglyceride and monoglyceride levels.
  5. E) total cholesterol level, HDL level, and triglyceride level.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

49) Someone with a total cholesterol level between 200 and 239 mg/dl should

  1. A) modify their diet.
  2. B) lose weight if overweight.
  3. C) have annual checkups.
  4. D) reduce the amount of saturated fat in the diet.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

50) The largest lipoproteins, ranging in diameter up to 0.5 µm, ________ are produced by intestinal epithelial cells from the fats in food.

  1. A) very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
  2. B) low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
  3. C) intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs)
  4. D) high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)
  5. E) chylomicrons

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

51) Sometimes called “good cholesterol,” ________ carry excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver.

  1. A) very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
  2. B) low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
  3. C) intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs)
  4. D) high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)
  5. E) very-high-density lipoproteins (VHDLs)

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

52) Removal of the amino group from amino acids in the first step of their catabolism requires a coenzyme derived from vitamin  ________.

  1. A) A
  2. B) C
  3. C) B12
  4. D) B6
  5. E) B9

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

53) In transamination, the amino group of an amino acid is

  1. A) converted to ammonia.
  2. B) converted to urea.
  3. C) transferred to a keto acid.
  4. D) absorbed by water.
  5. E) transferred to acetyl-CoA.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

54) The conversion of ammonia into a less toxic substance produces

  1. A) ketone bodies.
  2. B) urea.
  3. C) nitrate.
  4. D) acetyl-CoA.
  5. E) water.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

55) Urea is formed in the

  1. A) liver.
  2. B) stomach.
  3. C) kidneys.
  4. D) small intestine.
  5. E) large intestine.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

56) For adults there are ________ essential amino acids.

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 6
  3. C) 8
  4. D) 10
  5. E) 20

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

57) Metabolism of amino acids in the citric acid cycle yields

  1. A) more energy than lipid metabolism.
  2. B) more energy than carbohydrate metabolism.
  3. C) approximately the same energy as lipid metabolism.
  4. D) approximately the same energy as carbohydrate metabolism.
  5. E) more energy than lipid and carbohydrate metabolism combined.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

58) A high uric acid level (above 7.4 mg/dl) can lead to the painful condition known as

  1. A) gout.
  2. B) rheumatoid arthritis.
  3. C) anorexia nervosa.
  4. D) lupus.
  5. E) ketosis.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

59) Catabolism of protein is not a practical source of quick energy because of all of the following, except that

  1. A) proteins are more difficult to break apart than lipids or carbohydrates.
  2. B) the energy yield from protein is less than the yield from lipids.
  3. C) one of the by-products of protein catabolism is ammonia.
  4. D) most individuals have little protein to spare before harming vital organs.
  5. E) extensive catabolism of protein threatens homeostasis.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

60) During the absorptive state,

  1. A) the liver forms glycogen.
  2. B) adipocytes release fatty acids to the circulation.
  3. C) skeletal muscle breaks down glycogen.
  4. D) insulin levels are low.
  5. E) skeletal muscle fibers release glucose.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

61) All of the following occur during the postabsorptive state, except that

  1. A) glycogenolysis occurs in the liver.
  2. B) levels of blood glucose are elevated.
  3. C) ketone bodies may be formed.
  4. D) fat mobilization occurs.
  5. E) gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

62) During starvation

  1. A) carbohydrate utilization increases.
  2. B) gluconeogenesis ceases.
  3. C) there is a decline in circulating ketone bodies.
  4. D) muscle proteins are used as an energy source.
  5. E) carbohydrate reserves maintained by metabolizing inorganic compounds.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

63) The presence of ketone bodies in the urine is known as

  1. A) polyuria.
  2. B) hematuria.
  3. C) ketonuria.
  4. D) uremia.
  5. E) ketosis.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

64) When the body is relying on internal energy reserves to continue meeting its energy demands, it is in the

  1. A) postabsorptive state.
  2. B) absorptive state.
  3. C) starvation state.
  4. D) deprivation state.
  5. E) preabsorptive state.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

65) Glucocorticoids have which of the following effects on general peripheral tissues?

  1. A) They decrease the use of glucose.
  2. B) They increase gluconeogenesis.
  3. C) They increase glycogenolysis.
  4. D) They promote glucose synthesis.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

66) Which of the following complements the actions of glucocorticoids?

  1. A) insulin
  2. B) growth hormone
  3. C) glucagon
  4. D) epinephrine
  5. E) androgens

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

67) Compounds that cells can use to make glucose include all of the following, except

  1. A) acetyl-CoA
  2. B) glycerol
  3. C) amino acids
  4. D) lactic acid
  5. E) pyruvic acid

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

68) On a tour of African countries, Mark contracts a bad case of traveler’s diarrhea. Because he can’t eat very much, his body starts to use energy sources other than carbohydrates. This would result in

  1. A) increased levels of urea in the blood.
  2. B) ketosis and a decreased blood pH.
  3. C) increased gluconeogenesis in the liver.
  4. D) lipid metabolism.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

69) Wally decides to go on a hunger strike to further one of his favorite causes. After many days with nothing but water you would expect to observe

  1. A) elevated levels of glucocorticoids.
  2. B) ketone bodies in his urine.
  3. C) decreased blood pH.
  4. D) decreased blood glucose level.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

70) A balanced diet should

  1. A) include adequate substrates for the production of energy.
  2. B) provide essential amino acids and fatty acids.
  3. C) contain adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals.
  4. D) contain adequate amounts of water.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

71) Nitrogen compounds of the body include all of the following, except

  1. A) amino acids.
  2. B) oxaloacetic acid.
  3. C) creatine.
  4. D) porphyrin.
  5. E) purines.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

72) The major cation in extracellular fluid is

  1. A) sodium.
  2. B) potassium.
  3. C) calcium.
  4. D) magnesium.
  5. E) iron.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

73) The major cation in cytoplasm is

  1. A) sodium.
  2. B) potassium.
  3. C) calcium.
  4. D) magnesium.
  5. E) iron.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

74) The major anion in body fluids is

  1. A) chloride.
  2. B) bicarbonate.
  3. C) sulfate.
  4. D) iodide.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

75) A cation that is essential for muscle contraction, nerve function, and blood clotting is

  1. A) sodium.
  2. B) potassium.
  3. C) calcium.
  4. D) magnesium.
  5. E) selenium.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

76) An ion that is a necessary component of high-energy compounds and nucleic acids and a structural component of bone is the ________ ion.

  1. A) chloride
  2. B) sulfate
  3. C) phosphate
  4. D) bicarbonate
  5. E) iodide

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

77) A cation that often acts as a cofactor for enzymes is

  1. A) sodium.
  2. B) potassium.
  3. C) calcium.
  4. D) magnesium.
  5. E) zinc.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

78) An element that is a component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes is

  1. A) calcium.
  2. B) magnesium.
  3. C) iron.
  4. D) zinc.
  5. E) cobalt.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

79) The element that is necessary for the proper function of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase is

  1. A) iron.
  2. B) cobalt.
  3. C) zinc.
  4. D) selenium.
  5. E) iodine.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

80) The trace element needed for hemoglobin synthesis is

  1. A) zinc.
  2. B) copper.
  3. C) cobalt.
  4. D) iodine.
  5. E) silicon.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

81) The vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia and is required for the synthesis of visual pigments is vitamin

  1. A) A.
  2. B) B.
  3. C) C.
  4. D) D.
  5. E) E.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

82) The vitamin that is required for proper bone growth and for calcium absorption and retention is vitamin

  1. A) A.
  2. B) B.
  3. C) C.
  4. D) D.
  5. E) E.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

83) The vitamin that prevents breakdown of vitamin A and fatty acids is vitamin

  1. A) A.
  2. B) B.
  3. C) C.
  4. D) D.
  5. E) E.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

84) The vitamin that is essential for the production of several clotting factors is vitamin

  1. A) A.
  2. B) B.
  3. C) E.
  4. D) C.
  5. E) K.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

85) The vitamin whose deficiency causes beriberi is

  1. A) thiamine.
  2. B) riboflavin.
  3. C) niacin.
  4. D) folic acid (folate).
  5. E) cobalamin.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

86) The vitamin that is part of the coenzymes FAD and FMN is

  1. A) thiamine.
  2. B) riboflavin.
  3. C) niacin.
  4. D) folic acid (folate).
  5. E) cobalamin.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

87) The vitamin that is part of the coenzyme NAD is

  1. A) thiamine.
  2. B) riboflavin.
  3. C) niacin.
  4. D) folic acid (folate).
  5. E) cobalamin.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

88) A vitamin obtained from meat that is a coenzyme in amino acid and lipid metabolism is

  1. A) pyridoxine (B6).
  2. B) pantothenic acid.
  3. C) riboflavin.
  4. D) folic acid (folate).
  5. E) niacin.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

89) The vitamin that is a constituent of coenzyme A is

  1. A) folic acid (folate).
  2. B) pantothenic acid.
  3. C) pyridoxine (B6).
  4. D) riboflavin.
  5. E) niacin.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

90) The vitamin that is a coenzyme in amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism is

  1. A) pantothenic acid.
  2. B) pyridoxine (B6).
  3. C) folic acid (folate).
  4. D) vitamin C.
  5. E) vitamin K.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

91) Inadequate exposure to sunlight could result in decreased amounts of vitamin ________ in the body.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B12
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

92) Impaired fat absorption in the intestine would interfere with the absorption of

  1. A) vitamin A.
  2. B) vitamin B12.
  3. C) vitamin C.
  4. D) niacin.
  5. E) riboflavin.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

93) The food pyramid recommends many servings a day of dark-green and orange vegetables. Which vitamin is particularly abundant in this food group?

  1. A) A
  2. B) C
  3. C) E
  4. D) folic acid
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

94) Factors that influence an individual’s BMR (basal metabolic rate) include all of the following, except

  1. A) physical exertion.
  2. B) age.
  3. C) body weight.
  4. D) genetics.
  5. E) gender.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

95) The nutrients that yield the most energy per gram when metabolized are

  1. A) carbohydrates.
  2. B) proteins.
  3. C) fats.
  4. D) nucleic acids.
  5. E) vitamins.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

96) A T4 assay is used to

  1. A) determine the number of calories in food.
  2. B) directly measure the basal metabolic rate.
  3. C) obtain an index of metabolic activity.
  4. D) monitor the energy efficiency of metabolism.
  5. E) determine the amount of oxygen consumed during metabolism.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

97) The condition when excessive fluid loss from sweating disrupts thermoregulatory mechanisms is known as

  1. A) thermoneogenesis.
  2. B) heat exhaustion.
  3. C) hydrosis.
  4. D) heat stroke.
  5. E) hypothermia.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

98) Obesity is defined as a body weight more than ________ percent above the ideal body weight for an individual.

  1. A) 5
  2. B) 10
  3. C) 15
  4. D) 20
  5. E) 30

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

99) When the temperature of the preoptic area of the hypothalamus exceeds its thermostat setting,

  1. A) peripheral vasoconstriction occurs.
  2. B) skin blood flow increases.
  3. C) tidal volume increases.
  4. D) sweat glands are inhibited.
  5. E) skin blood flow increases and tidal volume increases.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

100) All of the following occur when the temperature of the preoptic area of the hypothalamus drops below its thermostat setting, except that

  1. A) blood flow to the skin increases.
  2. B) shivering thermogenesis occurs.
  3. C) nonshivering thermogenesis occurs.
  4. D) epinephrine levels rise.
  5. E) blood returning from limbs is shunted to deep veins.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

101) The loss of infrared energy from the body is called

  1. A) radiation.
  2. B) conduction.
  3. C) convection.
  4. D) evaporation.
  5. E) thermal regulation.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

102) Which of the following individuals would lose heat the fastest in a cold room?

  1. A) an adult man
  2. B) an adult woman
  3. C) an adolescent male
  4. D) a child
  5. E) a newborn infant

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

103) The heat-gain center for thermoregulation

  1. A) resides in the pre-optic hypothalamus.
  2. B) activates shivering thermogenesis.
  3. C) activates nonshivering thermogenesis.
  4. D) activates skin vasoconstriction.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

104) Which of the following statements regarding brown fat is false?

  1. A) Brown fat is found in infants.
  2. B) Brown fat functions in nonshivering thermogenesis.
  3. C) Brown fat contains a rich vascular supply.
  4. D) Brown fat is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system.
  5. E) Brown fat is concentrated around visceral organs in the adult.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

105) Assuming they all weigh the same and maintain the same body temperature, which of the following would lose heat the fastest?

  1. A) a short, thickly built person
  2. B) a tall, very slender person
  3. C) a person of average build

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

106) More than half the heat is lost from the body indoors through the process of

  1. A) radiation.
  2. B) conduction.
  3. C) convection.
  4. D) evaporation.
  5. E) concentration.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

Short Answer Questions

 

107) The process of synthesizing glucose from noncarbohydrates is called ________.

Answer:  gluconeogenesis

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

108) The process of glycogen formation is known as ________.

Answer:  glycogenesis

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

109) Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of ________ from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as lactic acid, glycerol, or amino acids.

Answer:  glucose

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

110) ________ creates 90 percent of the ATP normally generated. (Note: Be sure to capitalize the first letter of your answer).

Answer:  Oxidative phosphorylation

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

111) Fatty acids and many amino acids cannot be used for ________, because their catabolic pathways produce acetyl-CoA.

Answer:  gluconeogenesis

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

112) Fatty acids that are necessary for proper health but cannot be synthesized by the body are called ________.

Answer:  essential fatty acids

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

113) Lipoproteins that are formed within the intestinal epithelium to transfer dietary fats into circulation are called ________.

Answer:  chylomicrons

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

114) Lipoproteins that are intermediate in size and lipid composition between VLDLs and LDLs are called ________.

Answer:  intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs)

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

115) Lipoproteins that carry mostly cholesterol to peripheral tissues are called ________.

Answer:  low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

116) The inherited metabolic disorder that results from the accumulation of phenylketones from phenylalanine is ________.

Answer:  phenylketonuria or PKU

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

117) Eating disorders are common among girls and young women. They result from a psychological problem that causes inadequate or excessive food consumption. Two major eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and ________.

Answer:  bulimia

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

118) The term ________ refers to an unhealthy state resulting from inadequate intake of one or more nutrients that becomes life-threatening as the deficiencies accumulate.

Answer:  malnutrition

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

119) A ________ contains all of the ingredients necessary to maintain homeostasis.

Answer:  balanced diet

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

120) A ________ contains all of the essential amino acids.

Answer:  complete protein

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

121) An ________ is deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids.

Answer:  incomplete protein

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

122) Inorganic ions released through the dissociation of electrolytes are called ________.

Answer:  minerals

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

123) According to the food pyramid, there are ________ basic food groups.

Answer:  5 (or five)

Learning Outcome:  25-6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

124) The energy content of foods is commonly given in units of ________.

Answer:  kilocalories (also, kcal or Cal)

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

125) The ________ represents the minimum resting energy expenditures of an awake, alert individual.

Answer:  basal metabolic rate or BMR

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

126) The term ________ refers to the homeostatic process that allows us to maintain a constant body temperature.

Answer:  thermoregulation

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

127) The direct transfer of heat energy from one object to another is called ________.

Answer:  conduction

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

128) The transfer of heat energy by emission of photons is called ________.

Answer:  radiation

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

129) The loss of heat energy by vaporizing water is called ________.

Answer:  evaporation

Learning Outcome:  25-7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Essay Questions

 

130) Why is the citric acid cycle called a cycle? What substances enter the cycle, and what substances leave it?

Answer:  The citric acid reaction sequence is a cycle because the four-carbon starting compound (oxaloacetic acid) is regenerated at the end. Acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetic acid begin the cycle by combining to form citric acid, and then in a series of steps CO2, NADH, ATP, and FADH2 are released and oxaloacetic acid is regenerated to begin the cycle again.

Learning Outcome:  25-2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

131) Ketosis develops in the postabsorptive state. What is ketosis? Why does it develop? What metabolic effects does it have?

Answer:  Ketosis is a high concentration of ketone bodies in body fluids. Ketone bodies are metabolites with the ketone group that form during starvation states. When glucose levels are low, the liver turns to fats and amino acids to make energy. This produces much acetyl-CoA ,which leads to production of ketone bodies. Because most ketone bodies are acidic, they lower the pH of body fluids, bringing on acidosis. If severe, the ketosis and acidosis can injure the CNS, heart, and other organs. In extreme cases, death can result.

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

132) The drug colestipol binds bile salts in the intestine, forming complexes that cannot be absorbed. How would this drug affect cholesterol levels in blood?

Answer:  Colestipol would lead to a decrease in the plasma levels of cholesterol. Since the bile salts are bound they are not available for reabsorption in the large intestine and recycling to cholesterol in the liver and so will be lost in the feces. This deprives the body of a major source of cholesterol and the loss will need to be made up by increased liver synthesis. Overall, a drop in circulating cholesterol will result.

Learning Outcome:  25-3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

133) What happens during protein catabolism? How is this related to nitrogen balance?

Answer:  Protein catabolism is the breakdown of proteins by cellular proteases and peptidases into constituent amino acids. These amino acids can be either reused for protein synthesis (anabolism) or broken down via deamination and used to make glucose or directly used in the citric acid cycle to make energy. Deamination removes the nitrogen group from the amino acid, which is then excreted as ammonia or urea. This is a negative nitrogen balance.

Learning Outcome:  25-4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

134) Briefly outline the role of the liver in glucose metabolism.

Answer:  During the absorptive state, under insulin control, the liver takes in glucose and converts it to glycogen, the inert storage form. In the postabsorptive state, the liver releases glucose into the circulation to maintain homeostasis. The glucose comes from the glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis. Additionally, the liver converts lactic acid released from skeletal muscle back into glucose. Epinephrine, growth hormone, glucagon, glucocorticoids, and other hormones trigger glucose release.

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

135) List and briefly describe the body’s five metabolic components.

Answer:  The body has five metabolic components: the liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, neural tissue, and other peripheral tissues. The liver is the focal point for metabolic regulation and control. Adipose tissue stores lipids, primarily in the form of triglycerides. Skeletal muscle contains substantial glycogen reserves, and the contractile proteins can be degraded and the amino acids used as an energy source. Neural tissue does not contain energy reserves; glucose must be supplied to it for energy. Other peripheral tissues are able to metabolize glucose, fatty acids, or other substrates under the direction of the endocrine system.

Learning Outcome:  25-5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

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