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Fundamentals of Nursing 4th Edition DeLaune Ladner Test Bank

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Fundamentals of Nursing 4th Edition DeLaune Ladner Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1435480681

ISBN-10: 1435480686

 

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Fundamentals of Nursing 4th Edition DeLaune Ladner Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1435480681

ISBN-10: 1435480686

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

CHAPTER 22: SELF-CONCEPT

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The nurse, planning care for a client to address self-concept, realizes that this concept includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
a. self-esteem. c. identity.
b. body image. d. family history.

 

 

ANS:  D

Self-concept is composed of four components: identity, body image, self-esteem, and role performance. Family history is not a component of self-concept.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Components of Self-Concept

 

  1. The nurse assesses a client as having solid self-esteem. Self-esteem is:
a. developed in childhood and remains the same throughout life.
b. the same as self-concept.
c. not influenced by societal standards.
d. the individual’s sense of worth.

 

 

ANS:  D

Self-esteem is an individual’s generalized sense of worth and value, or how a person regards self. Self-esteem varies over time depending upon the situation. Self-concept is a broader term that is the individual’s overall self-description. Self-esteem is influenced by societal standards.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Self-Esteem

 

  1. How is the client likely to view the nurse during the first phase of the nurse-client relationship?
a. As a stranger c. Identifies with the nurse
b. As a counselor d. Separates from the nurse

 

 

ANS:  A

At the beginning of the nurse-client relationship, the client is likely to view the nurse as a stranger. As the relationship progresses, the client feels free to express feelings to the nurse because the nurse has assumed the roles of listener and counselor. During the first phase of the nurse-client relationship, the client will not identify with the nurse or separate from the nurse.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Role Performance

 

  1. The nurse is scheduled for the evening shift the same evening the nurse’s son is playing in a championship ball game. This is an example of which type of role conflict?
a. Interpersonal role conflict c. Person-role conflict
b. Role overload d. Interrole conflict

 

 

ANS:  D

Interrole conflict is when the expectations of one role oppose the expectations of another role. The nurse needs to work and also needs to attend a ball game for his son. This is an example of interrole conflict. Interpersonal role conflict is when incompatible role expectations are held by one or more people. Person-role conflict is when the individual’s values are violated by the demands of the role. Role overload is when excessive demands of numerous roles have conflicting priorities.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Table 22-2 Types of Role Conflict

 

  1. The nurse realizes that self-concept:
a. stays the same throughout life.
b. is initially shaped by how others treat the individual.
c. is finalized once the individual passes adolescence.
d. is not impacted by illness

 

 

ANS:  B

Self-concept is developed primarily in response to social interactions and experiences and is shaped by how others treat the individual. Self-concept evolves throughout life. Self-concept is not finalized once the individual passes adolescence. Illness does impact self-concept.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Development of Self-Concept

 

  1. The nurse realizes that the following is true regarding illness and self-concept?
a. Illness has little effect on self-concept in the well-developed individual.
b. The same illness has the same effect on all individuals.
c. Conditions that cause a change in body image are the only illnesses that affect self-concept.
d. Society puts a stigma on certain types of illnesses.

 

 

ANS:  D

Some illnesses may impair self-concept. There is a social stigma against mental illness; many people fear cancer and isolate those affected with the disease; a diagnosis of AIDS affects a client’s self-esteem. Illness does affect a person’s self-concept. The same illness does not have the same effect on all individuals. Conditions that cause a change in body image are not the only illness that affect self-concept.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Factors Affecting Self-Concept: Altered Health Status

 

  1. The nurse is caring for an elderly woman who is confined to bed after hip surgery. Which action by the nurse is most likely to enhance the client’s self-esteem?
a. Performing passive range-of-motion exercises
b. Feeding her
c. Washing and arranging her hair
d. Making her bed

 

 

ANS:  C

By assisting the client to maintain personal appearance, the nurse is helping the client improve self-esteem. Passive range-of-motion exercises, feeding, and making the bed will not promote the client’s self-esteem.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Ensuring Satisfaction of Needs: Physical Needs

 

  1. The nurse is visiting an elderly client who lives with his daughter and her family. Which suggestion by the nurse would help promote a healthy self-concept in the client?
a. Encourage the daughter to do everything for her father so he can conserve his strength.
b. Suggest the daughter ask her father to dispose of his personal belongings so he can determine who will have them.
c. Discourage his grandchildren from touching his delicate aging skin.
d. Encourage the family to give the client his own chores and responsibilities.

 

 

ANS:  D

To promote a healthy self-concept in the elderly client, the nurse should encourage the family to give the client his own chores and responsibilities. The daughter should not do everything for her father nor should the client’s personal belongings be removed. The client needs increased socialization and not isolation by the grandchildren.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Nursing Checklist: Promoting Self-Concept in the Older Client

 

  1. When assessing the self-concept of a client, the nurse should consider which of the following?
a. Developmental level
b. Chronological age
c. Developmental level and chronological age
d. Current behaviors only

 

 

ANS:  C

When assessing a client’s self-concept, the nurse must consider both the client’s developmental level and chronological age. Current behaviors should be taken into consideration; however, it is the developmental level and chronological age of the client that will provide the most correct information about the client’s self-concept.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Assessment

 

  1. The nurse is discussing development of self-concept in children with a parent group. To promote the development of self-concept in children, the nurse suggests to the parents that they:
a. focus primarily on the child’s weaknesses.
b. focus only on the child’s accomplishments.
c. give realistic feedback concerning abilities and limitations.
d. recognize that self-esteem does not develop until adolescence.

 

 

ANS:  C

Positive experiences, role models, and family environment are all crucial to the healthy self-concept of the growing child. The child develops a sense of self according to the type of feedback received from significant others. Parents should provide realistic feedback concerning abilities and limitations so that the child develops a healthy self-concept. Focusing primarily on weaknesses will create a negative self-concept. Focusing only on the accomplishments will create a “good me” sense of self. Self-esteem develops throughout the life span as a result of social interactions and not just during adolescence.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Development of Self-Concept: Childhood

 

  1. The nurse planning care for a client realizes that the developmental stage that is crucial for identity development is:
a. young adult. c. preschool age.
b. infancy. d. adolescence.

 

 

ANS:  D

An adolescent’s sense of self is greatly influenced by others. Feelings about one’s self intensify during puberty. Conflict also arises during adolescence as the teenager struggles to become independent and to establish a unique identity. Although important, infancy, preschool, and young adulthood are not as crucial for identity development as adolescence.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Promote Positive Self-Esteem Across the Life Span

 

  1. The nurse demonstrates a positive self-concept to a client with a new ostomy by:
a. stating, “I know the ostomy is difficult to look at, but you will get used to it.”
b. grimacing while stating, “Ostomy care isn’t so bad to get used to.”
c. smiling and stating, “Let me show you how to place the bag on your stoma.”
d. stating, “You have to start taking care of this yourself.”

 

 

ANS:  C

Self-concept is developed primarily in response to social interactions and experiences. Self-concept develops according to perceptions mirrored by others to the individual. The nurse who smiles and offers to show the client how to place the bag on the stoma is demonstrating a positive self-concept. The other responses by the nurse would not be demonstrating a positive self-concept to the client.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Development of Self-Concept

 

  1. A client has just had surgery for a radical mastectomy. The nurse expects the client to have considerable anxiety over:
a. identity. c. self-esteem.
b. role performance. d. body image.

 

 

ANS:  D

The client had a body part removed, which could cause the client to feel ashamed and anxious over body image. Body image is an attitude about one’s physical attributes and characteristics, appearance, and performance. Identity is what sets one person apart as a unique individual. Self-esteem is an individual’s generalized sense of worth and value or how a person regards self. Role performance is how well a person performs a set of expected behaviors.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Diagnosis

 

  1. The nurse is caring for an adolescent client who seems overly concerned about her body image. Which statement about body image is most accurate?
a. Body image is a combination of a person’s actual and perceived body.
b. Perceptions of other persons have no influence on a person’s body image.
c. Physical changes are quickly incorporated into a person’s body image.
d. Body image refers only to the external appearance of a person’s body.

 

 

ANS:  A

Body image is an attitude about one’s physical attributes and characteristics, appearance, and performance. It is a combination of a person’s actual body and perceived body. Perceptions of other people do have an influence on a person’s body image. Physical changes are not quickly incorporated into a person’s body image. Body image does not refer only to the external appearance of a person’s body.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Body Image

 

  1. The nurse realizes that a major time of development that produces change in body image is:
a. toddlerhood. c. adolescence.
b. preschool age. d. young adulthood.

 

 

ANS:  C

Adolescence is the time when an individual’s developing body produces a change in body image. Many teenagers have body image distortions, and it is not uncommon for adolescents to feel self-conscious of their body and individual parts. Toddlers, preschoolers, and young adults do not experience the same changes in body image with body development as the adolescent.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Body Image| Adolescence

 

  1. A person who experiences self as a unique individual is fulfilling which component of self-concept?
a. Accurate and positive body image c. Positive self-esteem
b. Strong sense of identity d. Satisfying role performance

 

 

ANS:  B

The four components of self-concept and their relationship to mental health are strong sense of identity; accurate and positive body image; positive self-esteem, and satisfying role performance. The individual who experiences self as a unique individual is demonstrating a strong sense of identity. A healthy awareness of one’s body based on reality is demonstrating accurate and positive body image. A person with a high degree of self-esteem who respects self and treats self with dignity is demonstrating positive self-esteem. And the person with healthy role performance who relates well with others and receives gratification from fulfilling role expectations is demonstrating satisfying role performance.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Table 22-1 Self-Concept and Mental Health

 

  1. The nurse realizes self-concept greatly influences health status because a person with:
a. positive self-concept is usually more educated and can understand the need for health care.
b. poor self-concept is more likely to go to the doctor frequently to improve his health.
c. poor emotional health will recognize the need for medical help to improve his well-being and self-concept.
d. positive self-concept is more like to care for himself physically, emotionally, and spiritually.

 

 

ANS:  D

Self-concept greatly influences health status because a person with a positive self-concept is more likely to care for himself physically, emotionally, and spiritually. A person with a positive self-concept is not more likely to be educated. A person with poor emotional health may not recognize the need for medical help. A person with poor self-concept is not more likely to go to the doctor to improve his health.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Introduction

 

  1. A client tells the nurse that she worries about her health and wants to be as healthy as possible because she is worth it. The nurse realizes that how an individual feels about herself is referred to as:
a. identity. c. self-esteem.
b. body image. d. role performance.

 

 

ANS:  C

Self-esteem is an individual’s generalized sense of worth and value, or how a person regards the self. Body image is an attitude about one’s physical attributes and characteristics, appearance, and performance. A sense of personal identity is what sets one person apart as a unique individual. Role performance relates to how well a person performs a set of expected behaviors.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Self-Esteem

 

  1. A client tells the nurse that he knows he is overweight and has gotten used to being called fat. How an individual feels about the physical self is referred to as his:
a. personal identity. c. self-esteem.
b. body image. d. role performance.

 

 

ANS:  B

Body image is an attitude about one’s physical attributes and characteristics, appearance, and performance. Personal identity is what sets one person apart as a unique individual. Self-esteem is an individual’s generalized sense of worth and value, or how a person regards self. Role performance is how well a person performs an expected set of behaviors that are determined by family, culture, or society’s norms.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Body Image

 

  1. A nurse is assigned to care for four postoperative clients. Each client has several pages of orders that need to be completed and three of the clients are calling for help and pain medication. The nurse in this situation may experience:
a. person-role conflict. c. role overload.
b. interrole conflict. d. interpersonal role conflict.

 

 

ANS:  C

Role overload is when excessive demands of numerous roles have conflicting priorities. The nurse needs to complete clients’ orders and provide pain medication to three clients. This would be role overload. Person-role conflict is when the individual’s values are violated by the demands of the role. Interrole conflict  is when the expectations of one role oppose expectations of another role. Interpersonal role conflict is when incompatible role expectations are held by one or more people.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Table 22-2 Types of Role Conflict

 

  1. An indication of high self-esteem would be when a client:
a. exhibits frequent and direct eye contact.
b. communicates in a passive or aggressive manner.
c. exhibits an external locus of control.
d. is overly dependent on others.

 

 

ANS:  A

One indicator of high self-esteem is frequent and appropriate eye contact. Communicating in a passive or aggressive manner is an indication of low self-esteem. Exhibiting an external locus of control and being overly dependent on others are also indications of low self-esteem.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application

REF:   Table 22-4 Indicators of High and Low Self-Esteem

 

  1. The nurse identifies a client as having low self-esteem because the client:
a. communicates in an assertive manner. c. attends to her own needs.
b. moves briskly and stands erect. d. is indecisive and hesitant.

 

 

ANS:  D

A client with low self-esteem is indecisive and hesitant with decision making. Communicating in an assertive manner, moving briskly, standing erect, and attending to one’s own needs are indicators of high self-esteem.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Table 22-4 Indicators of High and Low Self-Esteem

 

  1. A client, recovering from a mastectomy, will not look at the incision. The nurse identifies the nursing diagnosis of Body image disturbance. Which nursing intervention would be most appropriate to encourage the client to identify her personal strengths?
a. Telling the client she may feel more like looking at it tomorrow
b. Appealing to the client’s sense of humor
c. Insisting that the client must look at the incision
d. Having the spouse or partner look at the incision first

 

 

ANS:  B

When caring for a client with altered or threatened self-concept, the nurse should first identify the client’s strengths and successful coping mechanisms before formulating and implementing a plan of care. One way to help the client identify her personal strengths would be to appeal to the client’s sense of humor. Telling the client that she may feel like looking at it tomorrow will not help the client identify her personal strengths. Insisting that the client look at the incision or having the spouse or partner look at the incision first also will not identify the client’s personal strengths.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Support Healthy Defense Mechanisms

 

  1. A nurse is working with a client who has demonstrated low situational self-esteem related to a new diagnosis of cancer. What would be an appropriate goal for this client?
a. The client will admit the need for help at home.
b. The client will state two positive aspects of his life.
c. The client will decide to quit work during treatment.
d. The client will not demonstrate anxiety or fear.

 

 

ANS:  B

The client is demonstrating situational low self-esteem because of a new diagnosis of cancer. The nurse needs to promote the client’s sense of well-being and facilitate growth. The best goal for this client to promote well-being and facilitate growth would be “the client will state two positive aspects of his life.” The other goals would not promote the client’s sense of well-being and facilitate growth.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   Outcome Identification and Planning

 

  1. A client tells the nurse she is a retired aerodynamics engineer and was considered an expert in her field, having designed many new products. This can be described as an expression of the client’s:
a. role ambiguity. c. self-identity.
b. self-image. d. ego integrity.

 

 

ANS:  C

Self-identity includes a person’s name, gender, ethnic identity, family status, occupation, and various roles. The client identifies herself as an expert engineer, which is an expression of self-identity. This client is not demonstrating role ambiguity, ego identity, or self-image.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Identity

 

  1. A client, a CEO of a major corporation, tells the nurse that he is not used to sitting around and waiting for things to get done. The nurse realizes this client is having difficulty with:
a. role overload c. the sick role
b. person-role conflict d. interpersonal role conflict

 

 

ANS:  C

The client is used to being active and healthy and is expressing difficulty with the sick role. Role overload is excessive demands of numerous roles with conflicting priorities. Person-role conflict is when the individual’s values are violated by demands of the role. Interpersonal role conflict is when incompatible role expectations are held by one or more people.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Respecting Our Differences: Sick Role| Table 22-2 Types of Role Conflict

 

  1. The nurse realizes that a client’s fear of pain is which type of stressor to the client?
a. Threat to psychological integrity c. Inability to exert control
b. Threat to physical safety d. Unmet biological needs

 

 

ANS:  B

The client with a fear of pain is experiencing a threat to physical safety. A new challenging situation would be a threat to psychological safety. Having little or no input into important decisions would be considered the inability to exert control. Hunger, thirst, and discomfort would be considered unmet biological needs.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Table 22-3 Stressors Associated with Illness

 

  1. A new mother overhears her husband ask the nurse “how long will it be before she is the thin lady I married?” This comment could lead to which of the following in the new mother?
a. Love and acceptance of the baby c. Improved self-image
b. Positive self-esteem d. Difficulty bonding with the infant

 

 

ANS:  D

A woman who feels unlovable or unattractive may make disparaging remarks about the infant and have difficulty bonding and adjusting to the new life changes a baby produces. The comment would not lead to love and acceptance of the baby, positive self-esteem, or improved self-image.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Developmental Transitions

 

  1. A client tells the nurse that it does not matter how many times he tries to do something, he always fails. The nurse realizes this client’s self-concept is:
a. positive. c. healthy.
b. being a failure. d. successful.

 

 

ANS:  B

Individuals who have experienced several failures begin to view themselves as failures and their behavior often becomes self-fulfilling in that they perform at an unsuccessful level because they feel that is all they are capable of achieving. This client’s self-concept is not positive, healthy, or successful.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis         REF:   Experience

 

  1. A client comes into the clinic for a routine physical examination. The client’s clothing is wrinkled and hair uncombed. The client is looking around the room and answering assessment questions in a monotone voice. What does this client’s appearance and behavior tell the nurse?
a. The client has low self-esteem. c. The client has a high self-concept.
b. The client has high self-esteem. d. The client has a positive body image.

 

 

ANS:  A

Evidence of low self-esteem includes an unkempt appearance, avoidance of eye contact, and speaking in a monotone voice. A client who is well-groomed, maintains eye contact, and speaks well with appropriate inflection would demonstrate high self-esteem, high self-concept, and a positive body image.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analysis

REF:   Table 22-4 Indicators of High and Low Self-Esteem

 

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