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Fundamentals of Nursing 6th Edition Craven Hirnle Test Bank

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Fundamentals of Nursing 6th Edition Craven Hirnle Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0781780230

ISBN-10: 0781780233

 

Description

Fundamentals of Nursing 6th Edition Craven Hirnle Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0781780230

ISBN-10: 0781780233

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Chapter 35

Name: __________________________  Date: _____________

 

 

1. Oxygen and carbon dioxide move between the alveoli and the blood by
  A) Osmosis
  B) Hyperosmolar pressure
  C) Diffusion
  D) Negative pressure
  Ans: C
  Feedback:
  Oxygen and carbon dioxide move between the alveoli and the blood by diffusion, the process in which molecules move from an area of greater concentration or pressure to an area of lower concentration or pressure.

 

 

2. When the nurse observes a newborn infant demonstrating an irregular abdominal breathing pattern, with a respiratory rate of 50 breaths/minute with occasional pauses in breathing of 5-second durations, the most appropriate action by the nurse is to
  A) Begin resuscitation efforts
  B) Elevate the head of the crib
  C) Continue to assess the infant
  D) Position the infant side-lying
  Ans: C
  Feedback:
  Newborns breathe rapidly at 30 to 60 breaths per minute and may have occasional pauses of several seconds between breaths.

 

 

3. In a newborn, the cessation of breathing of 20 seconds or longer is best defined as
  A) Dyspnea
  B) Apnea
  C) Orthopnea
  D) Hypercapnea
  Ans: B
  Feedback:
  The newborn’s breathing pattern is characterized by occasional pauses of several seconds between breaths. This periodic breathing is normal during the first 3 months of life, but frequent or prolonged periods of apnea (cessation of breathing 20 seconds or longer) are abnormal.

 

 

4. The pediatric nurse is instructing parents on safety when caring for toddlers and preschoolers. Which of the following teaching interventions is appropriate for this age group?
  A) Normal breathing is 30 to 60 breaths per minute
  B) Cut a hot dog in half, then pieces
  C) Provide toys with small pieces
  D) Sleep supine, not prone
  Ans: B
  Feedback:
  During the toddler and preschool years, children place things in their mouths, and caregivers must protect them against aspirating foreign objects that can obstruct small air passages. Providing safe toys and avoiding hard candy or small hard pieces of food are important ways to ensure normal respiratory function for children in this age group.

 

 

5. The nurse determines that the student who has been instructed about lung function and smoking requires additional teaching when the student says
  A) “A physically fit athlete breathes more slowly than a sedentary person.”
  B) “Smoking only once in a while will not make a person addicted to smoking.”
  C) “An older person may breathe more shallowly than a younger person.”
  D) “An upright position will help someone breathe with less effort.”
  Ans: B
  Feedback:
  During adolescence, 3000 young men and women begin smoking every day, and most will become addicted before age 20. One reason for this finding is that adolescents don’t believe they will become addicted to tobacco when they start to smoke.

 

 

6. A pregnant woman in her last trimester of pregnancy complains of shortness of breath. The nurse instructs her that
  A) Her breathing is normal but if it continues to call her physician.
  B) Instruct her to have a chest x-ray to confirm if she has pneumonia.
  C) That she will assess her lung sounds and determine presence of congestion.
  D) Breathing becomes increasingly difficult as the diaphragm is displaced upward.
  Ans: C
  Feedback:
  During the last weeks of pregnancy, breathing may become increasingly difficult in a supine position because the fetus displaces the diaphragm upward.

 

 

7. A client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complains of severe shortness of breath when it is raining. The nurse instructs the client
  A) “The airway becomes occluded during periods of rain.”
  B) “The air is thicker or more viscous with humidity, thus it is harder for you to breathe.”
  C) “You should use your inhaler during this time to help your breathing.”
  D) “Have you have had a stress test to determine if your airway is obstructed?”
  Ans: B
  Feedback:
  People with chronic respiratory diseases often find breathing more difficult when the weather is hot and humid because humidity contributes to air viscosity.

 

 

8. It is a red air-quality day in your city. This means the air is stagnant, with high pollution levels and high humidity. Which client is most likely to experience shortness of breath?
  A) Child with asthma
  B) Middle-aged adult with hypertension
  C) Teenager with contact dermatitis
  D) Young adult without disease
  Ans: A
  Feedback:
  Air pollution ad high humidity are respiratory irritants. Pollutants cause increased mucous production and contribute to bronchitis and asthma.

 

 

9. Which one of the following problems occurs among individuals exposed to automobile pollutants
  A) Atelectasis
  B) Bronchitis
  C) Bronchiectasis
  D) Croup
  Ans: B
  Feedback:
  Air pollution and high humidity are respiratory irritants. Pollutants cause increased mucous production and contribute to bronchitis and asthma.

 

 

10. A nurse is volunteering at a day camp. A child is stung by a bee and develops wheezing in the upper airways. The child is experiencing
  A) A bronchospasm
  B) Bronchitis
  C) Bronchiectasis
  D) Bronchiolitis
  Ans: A
  Feedback:
  When allergic responses take place in the lungs, breathing difficulties are far more severe. Small airways become edematous, mucous production increases, and inflammatory chemical mediators cause bronchospasm.

 

 

11. Which of the following dietary guidelines would be appropriate for the elderly homebound client with advanced respiratory disease who informs the nurse that she has no energy to eat?
  A) Snack on high-carbohydrate foods frequently
  B) Eat smaller meals that are high in protein
  C) Contact the physician for Ensure
  D) Eat one large meal at noon
  Ans: B
  Feedback:
  The client should consume a diet in which the body can produce plasma proteins. The client should have sufficient caloric and protein intake for respiratory muscle strength.

 

 

12. The nurse is caring for a postoperative adult client who has developed pneumonia.  The nurse should assess the client frequently for symptoms of
  A) Atelectasis
  B) Bronchospasm
  C) Croup
  D) Epiglottitis
  Ans: A
  Feedback:
  Stiffer lungs tend to collapse and their alveoli also collapse. This condition is called atelectasis.

 

 

13. A woman comes to the emergency room with her 2-year-old. She states he woke up and had a loud barking cough. The child is suffering from
  A) Atelectasis
  B) Pulmonary fibrosis
  C) Asthma
  D) Croup
  Ans: D
  Feedback:
  Croup and epiglottitis are common in young children. The child has an obstruction of the upper airways, with swelling of the throat tissue.

 

 

14. A client suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complains that it is hard to cough up secretions and they are thick and sticky. The nurse should instruct the client to
  A) Increase her fluid intake to thin secretions
  B) Eat small frequent meals to conserve energy
  C) Decrease exercise and increase rest periods
  D) Take a cough suppressant to decrease coughing
  Ans: A
  Feedback:
  When a cough is productive, it is important to establish the source of the sputum and assess its color, volume, consistency, and other noteworthy characteristics. The nurse should instruct the client to increase fluid intake to thin secretions.

 

 

15. The home care nurse visits a client who has dyspnea. The nurse notes the client has pitting edema in his feet and ankles. What additional assessment would the nurse expect to observe?
  A) Crackles in the lower lobes
  B) Inspiratory stridor
  C) Expiratory stridor
  D) Wheezing in the upper lobes
  Ans: A
  Feedback:
  People with chronic congestive heart failure often experience shortness of breath because of excess fluid in the lungs and low oxygen levels.

 

 

16. A child is admitted to the pediatric division with an acute asthma attack. The nurse assesses the lung sounds and respiratory rate. The mother asks the nurse, “Why is his chest sucking in above his stomach? The nurse’s most accurate response is
  A) “He will require additional testing to determine the cause.”
  B) “He is using his chest muscles to help him breathe.”
  C) “His infection is causing him to breathe harder.”
  D) “His lung muscles are swollen so he is using abdominal muscles.”
  Ans: B
  Feedback:
  The client will use accessory muscles to ease dyspnea and improve breathing.

 

 

17. What sign of hypoxia will be seen with lung cancer clients?
  A) Edema
  B) Cyanosis
  C) Constipation
  D) Clubbing
  Ans: D
  Feedback:
  Clubbing occurs in lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, and lung diseases such as lung abscess and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

 

 

18. What skin disorder is associated with asthma?
  A) Seborrhea
  B) Psoriasis
  C) Abrasions
  D) Eczema
  Ans: D
  Feedback:
  The client with asthma often recalls childhood allergies and eczema.

 

 

19. When the nurse observes that the elderly client’s anteroposterior chest diameter is increased, she determines that the most likely cause for the abnormality is
  A) Acute bronchitis
  B) Asthma
  C) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  D) Pneumonia
  Ans: C
  Feedback:
  In COPD, the client’s chest becomes hyperinflated over time because of an inability to exhale fully. This increases the anterior–posterior chest diameter, resulting in a barrel-shaped appearance.

 

 

20. When the client demonstrates loud, coarse breath sounds on inspiration, the nurse documents the breath sounds heard as
  A) Crackles
  B) Vesicular
  C) Wheezes
  D) Rales
  Ans: A
  Feedback:
  A coarse crackle is a low-pitched, rumbling sound in airways. When they are coarse and loud and occur with severe dyspnea, crackles may be a telling sign of pulmonary fibrosis, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary edema.

 

 

21. Which of the following medications are administered in the home or the hospital to relieve inflammation in the lung tissue?
  A) Antibiotics
  B) Bronchodilators
  C) Expectorants
  D) Corticosteroids
  Ans: D
  Feedback:
  In many cases, bronchodilators and corticosteroids are required to open airways and ease breathing. Corticosteroids relieve inflammation.

 

 

22. The home care nurse visits a client with compromised lung function. She has greenish-yellow sputum with a musty odor. This is indicative of
  A) Allergy
  B) Congestive heart failure
  C) Asthma
  D) Infection
  Ans: D
  Feedback:
  Sputum that is yellow or greenish or has a musty odor usually indicates an infection.

 

 

23. When the emergency room nurse assesses the pulse oximeter on a client and it reveals 105%, the nurse determines that the most likely explanation for the value is
  A) Carbon monoxide poisoning
  B) Edema on the sensor site
  C) High oxygen level
  D) Low carbon dioxide levels
  Ans: A
  Feedback:
  Carbon monoxide poisoning results in false high readings; edema at the sensor site produces false low readings.

 

 

24. A client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requires low flow oxygen.  How will the oxygen be administered?
  A) Nasal cannula
  B) Simple oxygen mask
  C) Venturi mask
  D) Partial rebreather mask
  Ans: A
  Feedback:
  Nasal cannula and tubing administers oxygen concentrations at 22% to 44%.

 

 

25. The client has an increased anteroposterior chest diameter, dyspnea, and nasal flaring. The most appropriate nursing diagnosis is
  A) Hypoxia related to pneumonia and ineffective airway clearance related to dyspnea edema
  B) Ineffective breathing pattern related to hyperventilation related to increased anteroposterior diameter
  C) Risk for ineffective airway clearance related to infection as evidenced by dyspnea and yellow-green sputum
  D) Impaired gas exchange related to increased carbon dioxide and irritability
  Ans: B
  Feedback:
  Ineffective breathing pattern is the state in which a person’s inspiration and/or expiration pattern does not provide adequate ventilation.

 

 

 

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