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Fundamentals of Social Psychology Canadian Edition Wilson Akert Aronson Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0131275844
  • ISBN-13:978-0131275843

 

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Fundamentals of Social Psychology Canadian Edition Wilson Akert Aronson Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0131275844
  • ISBN-13:978-0131275843

 

 

 

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Fundamentals of Social Psychology (Aronson)

Chapter  10 Prejudice: Causes and Cures

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1)

 

________ refers to a negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their group membership.

 

  1. A)

 

Discrimination

 

  1. B)

 

Stereotypes

 

  1. C)

 

Racism

 

  1. D)

 

Prejudice

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Prejudice: The Affective Component

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

2)

 

Prejudice refers to both the general attitude structure and the ________ component of a negative attitude toward a group of people.

 

  1. A)

 

affective

 

  1. B)

 

behavioural

 

  1. C)

 

illustrative

 

  1. D)

 

cognitive

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Prejudice: The Affective Component

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

3)

 

Although psychologists usually refer to prejudice only in a(n) ________ sense, it is possible for a person to have a(n) ________ prejudice about a particular group.

 

  1. A)

 

benign; destructive

 

  1. B)

 

positive; negative

 

  1. C)

 

negative; positive

 

  1. D)

 

specific; diffuse

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Prejudice: The Affective Component

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

4)

 

Which of the following best exemplifies the concept “prejudice” as used by social psychologists?

 

  1. A)

 

At parties Lynne tends to seek out people who, like her, are psychology majors.

 

  1. B)

 

Kevin feels mistrustful of and uncomfortable around people from the Middle East.

 

  1. C)

 

Maria seldom hangs out with people who are not Catholic.

 

  1. D)

 

Barbara believes that women are smarter than men.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Prejudice: The Affective Component

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

5)

 

________ is to affect as ________ is to cognition.

 

  1. A)

 

Stereotype; prejudice

 

  1. B)

 

Discrimination; stereotype

 

  1. C)

 

Prejudice; discrimination

 

  1. D)

 

Prejudice; stereotype

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Prejudice: The Affective Component and Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

6)

 

Which of the following examples best captures the social-psychological concept of a stereotype?

 

  1. A)

 

Arlene refuses to enter an elevator in which men are riding.

 

  1. B)

 

Mitch believes that women are seductive, duplicitous, and not to be trusted.

 

  1. C)

 

Aaron becomes uncomfortable when a man sits too close to him.

 

  1. D)

 

Nicole avoids homeless people on the street.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

7)

 

The term ________ was coined by journalist Walter Lippman (1922), who referred to these phenomena as “the little pictures we carry around in our heads.”

 

  1. A)

 

generalization

 

  1. B)

 

heuristics

 

  1. C)

 

prejudgments

 

  1. D)

 

stereotype

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

8)

 

Stereotypes are the ________ component of a negative attitude toward a group of people.

 

  1. A)

 

denotative

 

  1. B)

 

behavioural

 

  1. C)

 

cognitive

 

  1. D)

 

affective

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

9)

 

Shane believes that women are more dependent, more nurturing, more intuitive, and less rational than men. These are examples of Shane’s ________ women.

 

  1. A)

 

prejudice toward

 

  1. B)

 

stereotypes about

 

  1. C)

 

discrimination against

 

  1. D)

 

negative affect toward

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

10)

 

________ are generalizations about a group of people in which identical characteristics are ascribed to all members of the group, regardless of within-group variations.

 

  1. A)

 

Schemas

 

  1. B)

 

Stereotypes

 

  1. C)

 

In-group biases

 

  1. D)

 

Negative stereotypes

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

11)

 

Stereotyping is a way of ________ the complex information around us, and thus is sometimes ________.

 

  1. A)

 

coding; destructive

 

  1. B)

 

simplifying; adaptive

 

  1. C)

 

justifying; reassuring

 

  1. D)

 

judging; decisive

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

12)

 

Social psychologist Gordon Allport referred to stereotyping as “the law of least effort.” By this he meant that

 

  1. A)

 

people are cognitively lazy.

 

  1. B)

 

stereotyping is a way to simplify a complex world.

 

  1. C)

 

negative stereotypes are motivated, but positive stereotypes are not.

 

  1. D)

 

it takes a tremendous amount of effort to abandon our stereotypes.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

13)

 

When Gordon Allport (1954) described stereotyping as “the law of least effort,” he was suggesting that stereotypes arise

 

  1. A)

 

from personal experience.

 

  1. B)

 

to help us conserve cognitive energy.

 

  1. C)

 

at the service of the ego.

 

  1. D)

 

to justify objectionable actions quickly and easily.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

14)

 

Stereotypes are harmful to the extent they

 

  1. A)

 

exist.

 

  1. B)

 

are overgeneralized to members of a group.

 

  1. C)

 

are based on experience.

 

  1. D)

 

reduce cognitive effort.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 312

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

15)

 

Stereotypes are beneficial to the extent that they

 

  1. A)

 

are selectively applied.

 

  1. B)

 

simplify a complex social world.

 

  1. C)

 

are reserved for ambiguous situations.

 

  1. D)

 

minimize differences within a group of people.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 312-313

 

Topic: Stereotypes: The Cognitive Component

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

16)

 

Prejudice is to discrimination as ________ is/are to ________.

 

  1. A)

 

attitudes; behaviour

 

  1. B)

 

behaviour; attitudes

 

  1. C)

 

affect; cognition

 

  1. D)

 

cognition; stereotypes

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 312-314

 

Topic: Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination Defined

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

17)

 

Discrimination is the ________ component of negative attitudes toward a group of people.

 

  1. A)

 

cognitive

 

  1. B)

 

pejorative

 

  1. C)

 

affective

 

  1. D)

 

behavioural

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 314

 

Topic: Discrimination: The Behavioural Component

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

18)

 

Which of the following concepts is most closely related to a social cognition approach to prejudice?

 

  1. A)

 

schemas and heuristics

 

  1. B)

 

realistic conflict

 

  1. C)

 

self-justification processes

 

  1. D)

 

the frustration-aggression link

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 318

 

Topic: The Way We Think: Social Cognition

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

19)

 

Research on the schemas we hold about groups of people suggests that when we encounter information that contradicts our schemas:

 

  1. A)

 

we pay more attention to that information than to information that is consistent with our schemas.

 

  1. B)

 

we think about or rehearse that information more than we do to information that is consistent with our schemas.

 

  1. C)

 

the vividness of that information makes it likely that we will remember it more often than information that is consistent with our schemas.

 

  1. D)

 

none of the above.

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 315-316

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice?-The Way We Think: Social Cognition

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

20)

 

People pay more attention to information that is consistent with schemas about particular groups of others. This is an example of an important implication of schemas: People who hold schemas about particular groups will process information about those groups

 

  1. A)

 

differently than they process information about other groups.

 

  1. B)

 

based on a need to justify their behaviours and bolster their self-esteem.

 

  1. C)

 

based on their responses to internal rather than external cues.

 

  1. D)

 

based on their responses to external rather than internal cues.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 315-316

 

Topic: The Way We Think: Social Cognition

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

21)

 

From a social cognitive perspective, the first step toward prejudice is

 

  1. A)

 

the categorization of people into groups.

 

  1. B)

 

the preference we give to in-groups.

 

  1. C)

 

our tendency to disparage out-groups.

 

  1. D)

 

identification with similar others.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 316

 

Topic: Social Cognition: Social Categorization: Us versus Them

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

22)

 

“Group X” versus “Group W,” blue-eyes versus brown eyes, and tall versus short all represent meaningless criteria by which to

 

  1. A)

 

create in-groups and out-groups.

 

  1. B)

 

minimize the effects of group membership.

 

  1. C)

 

perpetuate stereotypes.

 

  1. D)

 

reduce prejudice.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 316-317

 

Topic: Social Cognition: Social Categorization: Us versus Them

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

23)

 

The tendency to favour the in-group and discriminate against the out-group is

 

  1. A)

 

an automatic product of information processing.

 

  1. B)

 

motivated at least in part by the desire to enhance self-esteem.

 

  1. C)

 

a result of the need to perceive the world accurately.

 

  1. D)

 

more likely in people who are “cognitive misers.”

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 317

 

Topic: Social Cognition: Social Categorization: Us versus Them

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

24)

 

What distinguishes an in-group from an out-group?

 

  1. A)

 

a person’s membership in the group

 

  1. B)

 

the similarity of group members

 

  1. C)

 

a person’s identification with the group

 

  1. D)

 

the size of the group

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 316-317

 

Topic: Social Cognition: Social Categorization: Us versus Them

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

25)

 

Which of the following statements about group membership is true according to your text?

 

  1. A)

 

If you strongly identify with your social group, you feel less threatened by and are less likely to discriminate against members of other groups.

 

  1. B)

 

Discriminating against members of other groups can make you like your own group more.

 

  1. C)

 

Favouring your own group and discriminating against other groups is more likely to occur if you have been assigned to a group than if you have chosen it.

 

  1. D)

 

All of the above.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 317

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice?-The Way We Think: Social Cognition

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

26)

 

Jenn, a student at Washington High School, complained to her classmate Tiffany, “Those students at Franklin High School are so immature and loud.” This may reflect Jenn’s

 

  1. A)

 

perception of out-group homogeneity.

 

  1. B)

 

bias toward her in-group.

 

  1. C)

 

school pride.

 

  1. D)

 

need for a target for her prejudice.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 317-318

 

Topic: Social Cognition: Social Categorization: Us versus Them

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

27)

 

________ refers to our tendency to view members of ________ as more similar to one another than they really are.

 

  1. A)

 

In-group bias; our in-group

 

  1. B)

 

In-group heterogeneity; our in-group

 

  1. C)

 

Out-group homogeneity; an out-group

 

  1. D)

 

Out-group heterogeneity; an out-group

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 317-318

 

Topic: Social Cognition: Social Categorization: Us versus Them

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

28)

 

Recall that George Quattrone and Edward E. Jones (1980) showed rival Princeton and Rutgers students videotapes of decisions made by a male character. Half the time the character was allegedly from the participants’ university, and half the time he was from the rival university. Participants then predicted what percentage of students at that university would make a decision similar to the target’s. In support of their “out-group homogeneity” hypothesis, Quattrone and Jones found that participants viewed one person’s behaviour as predictive of his group when

 

  1. A)

 

the target was a member of the rival school.

 

  1. B)

 

the behaviour in the videotape matched stereotypes.

 

  1. C)

 

the target was a member of the participants’ in-group.

 

  1. D)

 

the behaviour in the videotape was negative.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 317-318

 

Topic: Social Cognition: Social Categorization: Us versus Them

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

29)

 

Susan believes that, “All men are afraid of commitment.” Her belief is an example of

 

  1. A)

 

a stereotype.

 

  1. B)

 

a generalization.

 

  1. C)

 

out-group homogeneity.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above.

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 312-318

 

Topic: Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination Defined

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

30)

 

Recall that Jeff Greenberg and Tom Pyszczynski (1985) showed participants a debate between an African-American and a European-American, and asked them to rate the debaters’ skills. These researchers found that when participants overheard a confederate make a racist comment about the African-American debater, their ratings of the African-American were lower on a number of dimensions. The results suggest that

 

  1. A)

 

competition can activate negative stereotypes.

 

  1. B)

 

stereotype activation can affect both specific and general judgments.

 

  1. C)

 

the power of the situation can override the activation of negative stereotypes.

 

  1. D)

 

stereotypes can influence the way we process incoming information.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 319

 

Topic: What We Believe: Stereotypes: The Activation of Stereotypes

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

31)

 

Recall that Eaaron Henderson-King and Richard Nisbett (1997) found that when an African-American confederate took one minor misstep, white participants were hesitant to interact with another African-American person. These results suggest that

 

  1. A)

 

stereotypes are easily activated, and can affect behaviours.

 

  1. B)

 

heuristics make stereotypes more accessible.

 

  1. C)

 

some stereotypes are more accessible than others.

 

  1. D)

 

there is an imperfect relation between prejudice and discrimination.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 319

 

Topic: What We Believe: Stereotypes: The Activation of Stereotypes

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

32)

 

Patricia Devine (1989) argues that even though we all hold ________ stereotypes, ________ can influence whether we believe and act on them.

 

  1. A)

 

negative; experience

 

  1. B)

 

automatically activated; controlled processing

 

  1. C)

 

simple; complex contradictory information

 

  1. D)

 

gender; interacting with others

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 319

 

Topic: What We Believe: Stereotypes: The Activation of Stereotypes

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

33)

 

Even nonprejudiced participants in research by Patricia Devine (1989) can recognize such negative stereotypes as “Jews are money-hungry” or “homosexual men are effeminate.” Still, nonprejudiced participants do not endorse those stereotypes. This is because the activation of stereotypes is ________, whereas the refutation of stereotypes is ________.

 

  1. A)

 

automatic; controlled

 

  1. B)

 

controlled; automatic

 

  1. C)

 

difficult; effortless

 

  1. D)

 

distressing; a relief

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 319-320

 

Topic: What We Believe: Stereotypes: The Activation of Stereotypes

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

34)

 

Patricia Devine’s (1989) research indicates that both low-prejudiced and high-prejudiced people’s stereotypes are ________, but low prejudiced people want to ________ their stereotypes.

 

  1. A)

 

suspended; activate or use

 

  1. B)

 

accessible; refute or ignore

 

  1. C)

 

known; reveal

 

  1. D)

 

common; use

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 319-320

 

Topic: What We Believe: Stereotypes: The Activation of Stereotypes

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

35)

 

The two steps in Devine’s (1989) model of cognitive processing of stereotypes are

 

  1. A)

 

activation of the stereotype; engaging in discrimination.

 

  1. B)

 

automatic processing; controlled processing.

 

  1. C)

 

negative thoughts; negative feelings.

 

  1. D)

 

negative feelings; negative behaviours.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 319-320

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice?-What We Believe: Stereotypes

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

36)

 

Patricia Devine (1989) assumes that negative stereotypes are automatically triggered in everyone and that what differentiates low-prejudiced people from high-prejudiced people is what happens after those negative stereotypes are activated. In contrast, Russell Fazio and his colleagues (1995) believe that

 

  1. A)

 

stereotypes are only activated in high-prejudiced people.

 

  1. B)

 

some people do not experience a negative reaction to stereotyped groups.

 

  1. C)

 

low-prejudiced people are more sensitive to stereotype activation attempts, and are able to detect them.

 

  1. D)

 

high or low prejudice is not associated with the ease with which stereotypes are activated.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 319-320

 

Topic: What We Believe: Stereotypes: The Activation of Stereotypes

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

37)

 

Research by Sinclair and Kunda (1999) found that people are most likely to inhibit the activation of their racial stereotypes if:

 

  1. A)

 

they received a positive evaluation by a member of a different racial group.

 

  1. B)

 

they received a negative evaluation by a member of a different racial group.

 

  1. C)

 

they received a positive evaluation by a member of their own racial group.

 

  1. D)

 

they received a negative evaluation by a member of their own racial group.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 320

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice?-What We Believe: Stereotypes

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

38)

 

Research on stereotypes indicates that people engage in stereotype activation or inhibition

 

  1. A)

 

in order to maintain well-defined differences between themselves and out-group members.

 

  1. B)

 

in order to feel good about themselves.

 

  1. C)

 

in order to justify their discrimination against out-group members.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 320-321

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice?-What We Believe: Stereotypes

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

39)

 

Your beliefs about the stereotypes that members of other groups hold about you and your own group are called

 

  1. A)

 

second-order stereotypes.

 

  1. B)

 

meta-stereotypes.

 

  1. C)

 

out-group stereotypes.

 

  1. D)

 

in-group stereotypes.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 322

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice?-What We Believe: Stereotypes

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

40)

 

According to research conducted by Vorauer and her colleagues, if you expect to interact with someone you believe holds a negative stereotype of your group, you will

 

  1. A)

 

work harder than usual to overcome that negative stereotype.

 

  1. B)

 

experience a loss of self-esteem.

 

  1. C)

 

anticipate feeling negative emotions during the interaction.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 322

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice?-What We Believe: Stereotypes

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

41)

 

Which of the following has been found to be the weakest predictor of prejudiced attitudes?

 

  1. A)

 

how well-defined our stereotypes about an out-group are

 

  1. B)

 

how strong the emotions elicited by an out-group are

 

  1. C)

 

how much we believe an out-group hinders values that we cherish

 

  1. D)

 

how negative our experiences with members of an out-group have been

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 320-322

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice?-What We Believe: Stereotypes

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

42)

 

As a researcher you know that, in general, members of a certain society are very prejudiced against gays. If you want to predict the attitudes of specific group members towards gays, the best question you could ask would be:

 

  1. A)

 

What emotions do you feel when you think about gays?

 

  1. B)

 

In what ways do you think the values promoted by the gay community contradict your own personal values?

 

  1. C)

 

What kinds of experiences have you had in your interactions with gay people?

 

  1. D)

 

What kinds of personality traits do you think gay people possess?

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 321-322

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice?-What We Believe: Stereotypes

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

43)

 

When we have unwittingly caused our stereotypic expectations to be confirmed by an out-group member’s behaviour, we have actually created a(n)

 

  1. A)

 

self-fulfilling prophecy.

 

  1. B)

 

fundamental attribution error.

 

  1. C)

 

minimal group bias.

 

  1. D)

 

expectations relapse.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 325

 

Topic: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

44)

 

Recall that Carl Word, Mark Zanna, and Joel Cooper (1974) tested the self-fulfilling prophecy as it relates to prejudice. They observed the differential behaviours of Anglo-American interviewers who interviewed either African-American or Anglo-American job candidates. They then trained other interviewers to manifest these two different interview styles. When the new interviewers later interviewed Anglo-American job applicants, the applicants who were treated as African-Americans had been treated in the first study

 

  1. A)

 

confronted the interviewers and terminated the conversation.

 

  1. B)

 

actually behaved in less effective and comfortable ways.

 

  1. C)

 

experienced a loss of self-esteem.

 

  1. D)

 

became more convinced that their initial negative expectations were confirmed.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 325

 

Topic: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

45)

 

As the only African-American in his class, LaMont tends to worry about committing errors because he does not want all of his white counterparts to think that all African-Americans are intellectually inferior. LaMont is experiencing

 

  1. A)

 

class anxiety.

 

  1. B)

 

stereotype threat.

 

  1. C)

 

group hostility.

 

  1. D)

 

attribution error.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 327-328

 

Topic: Stereotype Threat

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

46)

 

________ refers to the apprehension among minority group members that they might confirm existing cultural stereotypes.

 

  1. A)

 

Performance ambivalence

 

  1. B)

 

Stereotype threat

 

  1. C)

 

Stereotypic anxiety

 

  1. D)

 

Evaluation apprehension

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 327-328

 

Topic: Stereotype Threat

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

47)

 

In a series of experiments, Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson (1995) had both African-American and Anglo-American students at Stanford University take a verbal test. In one condition, the test was described as a valid measure of intelligence, and in the other condition, the test was described as neither a reliable nor valid measure of intelligence. In the former condition, African-Americans performed more poorly than did Anglo-Americans because

 

  1. A)

 

African-Americans were overwhelmed by a fear of success.

 

  1. B)

 

African-Americans experienced stereotype vulnerability.

 

  1. C)

 

Anglo-Americans were determined that African-Americans would not “outscore” them.

 

  1. D)

 

African-Americans shared the cultural stereotype.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 327-328

 

Topic: Stereotype Threat

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

48)

 

A woman would be most likely to experience stereotype threat when completing

 

  1. A)

 

a calculus examination.

 

  1. B)

 

a vocational interest questionnaire.

 

  1. C)

 

a gender-neutral task.

 

  1. D)

 

an English assignment.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 327-328

 

Topic: Stereotype Threat

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

49)

 

Research on self-blaming attributions for discrimination indicates that when people blame themselves for failure instead of attributing that failure to discrimination, they

 

  1. A)

 

are able to maintain high performance-related self-esteem.

 

  1. B)

 

are able to maintain high feelings of perceived control.

 

  1. C)

 

are likely to experience increased feelings of social rejection.

 

  1. D)

 

are likely to take action against those they believe are prejudiced.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 326-327

 

Topic: Effects of Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

50)

 

Jane Elliot’s (1977) “eye-color exercise” was designed to teach a racially homogeneous group of school children about

 

  1. A)

 

perceptual bias.

 

  1. B)

 

the benefits of diversity.

 

  1. C)

 

prejudice and discrimination.

 

  1. D)

 

the Civil Rights Movement.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 329

 

Topic: Learning Not to Hate

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

51)

 

By ________, third-grade teacher Jane Elliot generated negative stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination among elementary school children.

 

  1. A)

 

providing a new criterion for categorization

 

  1. B)

 

generating competition for attention

 

  1. C)

 

reinforcing existing beliefs

 

  1. D)

 

contradicting existing beliefs

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 329

 

Topic: Learning Not to Hate

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

52)

 

When third-grade teacher Jane Elliot sorted school children based on eye color, she created

 

  1. A)

 

an in-group.

 

  1. B)

 

an out-group.

 

  1. C)

 

minimal groups.

 

  1. D)

 

realistic conflict.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 329

 

Topic: Learning Not to Hate

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

53)

 

Jim-Bob believed that there was no such thing as a talented African-American actor. Then, he saw films with Denzel Washington, Samuel L. Jackson, and Sidney Poitier and decided that there may be a few good African-American actors after all. Jim-Bob has just revised his stereotypical beliefs through the ________ model.

 

  1. A)

 

bookkeeping

 

  1. B)

 

conversion

 

  1. C)

 

attribution

 

  1. D)

 

subtyping

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

54)

 

The ________ model posits that each piece of disconfirming information modifies the stereotype.

 

  1. A)

 

conversion

 

  1. B)

 

subversion

 

  1. C)

 

bookkeeping

 

  1. D)

 

counterfactual

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

55)

 

The ________ model posits that stereotypes can be radically changed after the provision of powerful, salient stereotype-inconsistent information.

 

  1. A)

 

conversion

 

  1. B)

 

subversion

 

  1. C)

 

bookkeeping

 

  1. D)

 

subtyping

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

56)

 

The ________ model posits that although general stereotypes may not be changed, stereotype-inconsistent information can lead to the creation of a new “subcategory” within the general stereotype.

 

  1. A)

 

conversion

 

  1. B)

 

bookkeeping

 

  1. C)

 

subtyping

 

  1. D)

 

assimilation

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

57)

 

Clifton believes that all women are passive, nurturing, and dependent and want to be homemakers. However, after he interacts with female police officers, he decides that some women are different from others: assertive, opinionated, and independent. Clifton’s revision of his stereotypical beliefs reflects the ________ model.

 

  1. A)

 

bookkeeping

 

  1. B)

 

conversion

 

  1. C)

 

attribution

 

  1. D)

 

subtyping

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

58)

 

When people radically change a stereotype, they are revising that stereotype according to the ________ model.

 

  1. A)

 

bookkeeping

 

  1. B)

 

conversion

 

  1. C)

 

attribution

 

  1. D)

 

subtyping

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

59)

 

Most of her life, Belinda has held a negative stereotype of men as loutish, insensitive, selfish, and sex-crazed. Since attending the university, Belinda has met a few men who do not manifest those negative qualities. She’s now decided to call these exceptions to the general rule “sensitive new age guys.” The revision of Belinda’s stereotype of men has apparently resulted from

 

  1. A)

 

subtyping.

 

  1. B)

 

bookkeeping.

 

  1. C)

 

conversion.

 

  1. D)

 

ambivalence.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

60)

 

Most of his life, Pierre has viewed women as passive, dependent, emotional, irrational, and unskilled. Since arriving at university, Pierre has met many women whose behaviours have challenged his negative stereotypes. Consequently, Pierre has come to view women as in reality no different from men. Pierre’s negative stereotypes about women have likely been changed via

 

  1. A)

 

bookkeeping.

 

  1. B)

 

conversion.

 

  1. C)

 

subtyping.

 

  1. D)

 

dissonance reduction.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

61)

 

Someone whose negative gender stereotype has changed via ________ is most likely to classify women into such groups as “rabid feminists,” “whores of Babylon,” and “earth mothers.”

 

  1. A)

 

bookkeeping

 

  1. B)

 

subtyping

 

  1. C)

 

conversion

 

  1. D)

 

self-justification

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

62)

 

Renée Webber and Jennifer Crocker (1983) conducted a series of experiments to determine which model best accounts for the revision of stereotypes. For example, participants who held stereotypes of librarians and corporate lawyers were exposed to information that contradicted their stereotypes. These researchers found the least evidence for the ________ model of stereotype change.

 

  1. A)

 

bookkeeping

 

  1. B)

 

conversion

 

  1. C)

 

subtyping

 

  1. D)

 

attributional

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 330

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

63)

 

The idea that prejudice can be reduced by interacting with members of an out-group is called the

 

  1. A)

 

interactional theory.

 

  1. B)

 

mere exposure paradigm.

 

  1. C)

 

contact hypothesis.

 

  1. D)

 

interpersonal model.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 331-332

 

Topic: The Contact Hypothesis

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

64)

 

________ characterizes a situation in which two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal important to each group.

 

  1. A)

 

Collectivism

 

  1. B)

 

Mutual interdependence

 

  1. C)

 

Zero-sum dynamics

 

  1. D)

 

Mutual exclusivity

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 332

 

Topic: The Contact Hypothesis

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

65)

 

Alice’s three children are driving her crazy. They are constantly squabbling, calling one another names, and generally tormenting one another. To preserve what’s left of her sanity, Alice has decided to try to convince the youngsters to get along. What’s the best way to do this?

 

  1. A)

 

Cook a good hearty meal and have them all gather at the table.

 

  1. B)

 

Promise to take them to a Jim Carey movie only if they clean the playroom in 30 minutes.

 

  1. C)

 

Send them outside to play in the yard.

 

  1. D)

 

Have a family meeting so that they can air their grievances.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 332-333

 

Topic: The Contact Hypothesis

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

66)

 

Alice’s three children are driving her crazy. They are constantly squabbling, calling one another names, and generally tormenting one another. To preserve what’s left of her sanity, Alice has decided to try to convince the youngsters to get along. She promises them that she will take them to a Jim Carey movie if they will work together to clean their playroom in under 30 minutes. To reduce hostilities, Alice has fulfilled two necessary preconditions for reducing conflict

 

  1. A)

 

one-on-one interactions between in-group and out-group members and an informal setting.

 

  1. B)

 

the reduction of frustration and a common goal.

 

  1. C)

 

a neutral setting and role differentiation.

 

  1. D)

 

mutual interdependence and a common goal.

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 332-333

 

Topic: The Contact Hypothesis

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

67)

 

In a typical classroom, informal contact between students is often called “talking to your neighbor” and is discouraged. This violates which precondition for the reduction of prejudice and hostility between students? Contact must occur

 

  1. A)

 

in situations in which social norms promote equality.

 

  1. B)

 

in a tightly structured situation controlled by authority.

 

  1. C)

 

in a friendly setting where group members can interact on a one-to-one basis.

 

  1. D)

 

at the service of attaining a common goal.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 332-333

 

Topic: The Contact Hypothesis

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

68)

 

Conditions under which contact situations reduce prejudice include

 

  1. A)

 

biased attenuation, schematic interference, and hierarchical status.

 

  1. B)

 

multiple contacts, mutual interdependence, and equal status.

 

  1. C)

 

stereotype suppression, enhanced independence, and positive affect.

 

  1. D)

 

affective suppression, mutual dependence, and repeated contact.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 332-333

 

Topic: The Contact Hypothesis

 

Skill: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

69)

 

According to the authors, one reason why school desegregation efforts didn’t have the anticipated positive effects is that the typical classroom

 

  1. A)

 

teachers hold negative stereotypes about minority children.

 

  1. B)

 

teachers support common goals, but the students do not.

 

  1. C)

 

is competitive and students do not participate on an equal footing.

 

  1. D)

 

is too large for teachers to give attention to all students who need it.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 333-334

 

Topic: Cooperation and Interdependence: The Jigsaw Classroom

 

Skill: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

70)

 

In the Jigsaw Classroom, when a student is having trouble mastering his or her material, other group members benefit most by

 

  1. A)

 

taking over and doing the student’s assignment.

 

  1. B)

 

asking the teacher to clarify things.

 

  1. C)

 

asking friendly and good questions.

 

  1. D)

 

focusing their attention on students who have mastered the material.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 333-334

 

Topic: Cooperation and Interdependence: The Jigsaw Classroom

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

71)

 

Why does the Jigsaw Classroom yield such positive results with regard to self-esteem, achievement, and positive informal contact between children of various racial and ethnic groups?

 

  1. A)

 

Students’ responsibilities are informally structured.

 

  1. B)

 

It appeals to young children’s natural empathy for others.

 

  1. C)

 

It is in each child’s self-interest to cooperate with others.

 

  1. D)

 

Minority children are required to compete when they otherwise wouldn’t.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 333-334

 

Topic: Cooperation and Interdependence: The Jigsaw Classroom

 

Skill: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

72)

 

Provide an example of a prejudiced attitude (the example need not reflect how you truly feel). Now, identify and provide an example of the affective, cognitive, and behavioural components of this prejudiced attitude.

 

Answer:

 

First, from a social psychological perspective, the attitude should be a negative attitude. Whatever the specific prejudiced attitude provided, a complete response should refer to the affective component, which reflects a negative evaluation of the group or individual (e.g., fear, hostility, mistrust). The cognitive component should reflect a stereotype about the individual and his or her group; this stereotype should reflect some characteristic assigned to all members of the target’s group (e.g., laziness, low achievement motivation, dependence, violence, greed, and so on). The behavioural component reflects discrimination, or negative or harmful actions directed at members of the target’s group; discrimination can be subtle or obvious (e.g., interrupting the target more than others, refusing to talk to him or her, acts of vandalism against the target).

 

Page Ref: 312-315

 

Topic: Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination Defined

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

73)

 

How does group membership-even in minimal groups-contribute to prejudice and discrimination?

 

Answer:

 

According to Henri Tajfel (1982), group membership, even in minimal groups, often serves to help us enhance our self-esteem when we identify with other group members. Even in minimal groups, an in-group bias often develops. We develop positive feelings for in-group members and are motivated to treat them well; we develop negative feelings toward out-group members, simply because they are not members of our group. Further, a cognitive bias known as out-group homogeneity often develops as function of group membership; we tend to view members of outgroups as more similar to one another than they really are, contributing to stereotypes. Thus, the in-group bias (positive evaluations of members of our own group, and negative evaluations of members of the other group) in combination with cognitive biases (perceptions of out-group homogeneity) set the stage for prejudice and discrimination.

 

Page Ref: 316-318

 

Topic: What Causes Prejudice? Social Categorization: Us versus Them

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

74)

 

According to Patricia Devine’s (1989) experimental research on prejudice and information processing, how are prejudiced people like nonprejudiced people? How are they different?

 

Answer:

 

Prejudiced people and nonprejudiced people are alike in that they are aware of the stereotypes that permeate their society. Thus, stereotypes are easily primed (automatically triggered) in both prejudiced and nonprejudiced people via automatic processing. According to Devine, what seems to differentiate prejudiced from nonprejudiced people is that nonprejudiced people use controlled processing to refute or ignore the automatically primed stereotype.

 

Page Ref: 319-320

 

Topic: The Activation of Stereotypes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75)

 

In what ways do self-fulfilling prophecies contribute to prejudice and negative stereotypes?

 

Answer:

 

Self-fulfilling prophecies involve behaving in ways that actually elicit from other people the very behaviours that we initially expected. If we hold inaccurate stereotypes about members of out-groups, we might treat them consistently with our stereotypes. Our behaviour toward them might well bring forth from them the very behaviours or characteristics that we erroneously expected, based on our stereotypes. These behaviours then bolster our faith in our stereotypes, and might actually bolster our prejudice and our tendency to discriminate against out-group members.

 

Page Ref: 325

 

Topic: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

76)

 

What is stereotype threat, why does it arise, and what are the consequences?

 

Answer:

 

Stereotype vulnerability refers to the apprehension that minority group members experience when they believe that they might behave in a manner that reinforces or confirms existing stereotypes about their group. The consequences are often that this anxiety or apprehension often impedes the performance of these apprehensive minority group members, thus inadvertently reinforcing existing cultural stereotypes.

 

Page Ref: 327-329

 

Topic: Stereotype Threat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

77)

 

Three different models have been proposed to explain how stereotypical beliefs sometimes change. Briefly describe these three models, and identify the model(s) that best explain(s) how and why stereotypes can be modified.

 

Answer:

 

The bookkeeping model posits that stereotypes change as people are confronted with new, stereotype-inconsistent information about many members of a group. The conversion model posits that stereotypes undergo a radical change when people are confronted with stereotype-inconsistent information. The subtyping model posits that as people are provided with inconsistent information about a few members of a group, they revise their stereotypes to include new sub-categories. Research by Renée Webber and Jennifer Crocker (1983) has revealed that although the bookkeeping and subtyping information can modify stereotypes, conversion information is seldom effective; it takes more than one inconsistent fact about an out-group to combat stereotypes.

 

Page Ref: 330-331

 

Topic: Revising Stereotypical Beliefs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

78)

 

Given Gordon Allport’s (1954) description of the necessary preconditions for contact to reduce prejudice and conflict, why did desegregation efforts as originally enacted fail?

 

Answer:

 

When groups have a history of conflict, contact alone is not enough; simply bringing different groups together in a classroom would not reduce prejudice or hostility, given a history of poor race relations in the United States. Groups need to be interdependent, and the traditional classroom fosters competition for teacher attention, not interdependence. The groups should have equal status; historically, minority students were underpreparedRemember, they did not have equal academic status with majority children. Contact should occur in an informal setting where in-group and out-group members can interact; in the traditional classroom, this is called “talking to your neighbor,” and is discouraged. Contact must occur with multiple members of the out-group; in classrooms in which there were one or a few minority children, this couldn’t happen. Finally, norms must promote equality; classroom norms and individual grades do not promote equality, nor do teachers who themselves might be prejudiced.

 

Page Ref: 331-332

 

Topic: The Contact Hypothesis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

79)

 

Describe how the jigsaw classroom technique fosters cooperation and interdependence in the cooperative classroom.

 

Answer:

 

Each student in the jigsaw classroom is assigned a part of the whole lesson to teach to other members of the group. The teacher is no longer the expert; other students are. In order to do well on individual assessments of their learning, students are motivated to help fellow students to communicate the information completely and clearly. If the fellow student is having problems, other students learn that they can succeed by becoming patient and good questioners. The better they become at asking questions and helping the fellow student, the more that student reveals what he or she really knows, and negative stereotypes are revised or abandoned, leading to increase liking and increased empathy.

 

Page Ref: 333-335

 

Topic: Cooperation and Interdependence: The Jigsaw Classroom

 

 

 

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