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HDEV 2nd Canadian Edition Rathus Longmuir Test Bank

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HDEV 2nd Canadian Edition Rathus Longmuir Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0176531661
  • ISBN-13:978-0176531669

 

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HDEV 2nd Canadian Edition Rathus Longmuir Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0176531661
  • ISBN-13:978-0176531669

 

 

 

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Chapter 5—Infancy: Cognitive Development

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Piaget closely observed the activities of his son, Laurent, who, like most children, had a tendency to experiment with his environment. Because of this behaviour, what did Piaget consider children to be?
a. scientists
b. copiers
c. comedians
d. students

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following best defines the process of cognitive development in children?
a. Intelligence is developed.
b. Children learn to imitate others.
c. Children perceive and mentally represent the world.
d. Children learn strategies for developing short- and long-term memory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. How would Piaget (1963) most likely describe the development of children’s cognitive processes?
a. as an orderly sequence or series of stages
b. as slow and continuous from childhood to adulthood
c. as a developmental sequence that varies greatly for each child
d. as primarily completed by age 7, after which no new cognitive development occurs

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Josh has learned that his ball is called a toy. When he sees a round light bulb, he calls it a “toy.” What term describes Josh’s response?
a. accommodation
b. differentiation
c. assimilation
d. conceptualization

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Sarah knows that kittens are animals. Her mother tells her that puppies are also animals. Sarah then changes her scheme of animals to include puppies. What is Sarah using when she changes her scheme to incorporate this new information?
a. assimilation
b. reaction range
c. augmentation
d. accommodation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Which of the following would Piaget NOT consider to be a stage of cognitive development?
a. the logical operations stage
b. the sensorimotor stage
c. the concrete operations stage
d. the formal operations stage

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Dylan picks up an object he has never seen before. He immediately puts it in his mouth. What stage of cognitive development is Dylan demonstrating?
a. the concrete operations
b. the oral-cognitive stage
c. the sensorimotor stage
d. the physio-emotive stage

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Infants progress from responding to events with reflexes, or ready-made schemes, to goal-oriented behaviour. What stage of Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory is being describing?
a. the sensorimotor stage
b. the formal operational stage
c. the concrete operational stag
d. the preoperational stage

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a simple reflex?
a. reaching for an object
b. purposefully searching for an object
c. looking to see if one’s mother is near
d. turning toward the source of a noise

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. During which substage of the sensorimotor period of development are reflexes inflexible and stereotypical?
a. the first substage
b. the second substage
c. the third substage
d. the fourth substage

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. What is the most advanced substage in Piaget’s sensorimotor period?
a. the primary circular reaction substage
b. the secondary circular reaction substage
c. the tertiary circular reaction substage
d. the coordination of secondary schemes substage

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. While observing infants, you witness a tertiary circular reaction. What stage of cognitive development have you observed?
a. the sensorimotor stage
b. the preoperations stage
c. the concrete operations stage
d. the formal operations stage

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a primary circular reaction?
a. Jean-Paul turns toward the sound of the phone ringing.
b. Lucien kicks his mobile over and over, which makes it move.
c. Kayla accidentally touches her nose with her thumb and then repeats the action.
d. Megan pulls her blanket so it brings her teddy bear close enough that she can grab it.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. In what substage of sensorimotor development is goal-directed behaviour first witnessed?
a. the simple reflexes substage
b. the primary circular reactions substage
c. the secondary circular reactions substage
d. the tertiary circular reactions substage

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Children in the sensorimotor stage do NOT realize that people continue to exist even though they can’t be seen. What concept have these children NOT yet mastered?
a. conservation
b. hypothetical reasoning
c. empathetic thought
d. object permanence

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Lacey is 7 months old. She shakes a rattle so it will make a noise she likes. What is Lacey’s action an example of?
a. a simple reflex
b. a primary circular reaction
c. a secondary circular reaction
d. a tertiary circular reaction

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What distinguishes primary circular reactions from secondary circular reactions?
a. They are the same; one engages in a more complex behaviour.
b. Primary reactions involve more important behaviours than secondary reactions.
c. Primary reactions involve only reflexes, whereas secondary reactions involve thoughts.
d. Primary reactions focus on the body, whereas secondary reactions focus on the environment.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. A child looks repeatedly and intensely at an object. Which of the following is indicated by this activity?
a. The child is demonstrating memory.
b. The child does NOT understand the object.
c. The child is purposefully looking in order to see.
d. The child is demonstrating depth perception.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Tabatha is playing with a ball when it rolls down a flight of stairs and out of sight. She makes no attempt to find the ball. What cognitive-development stage is Tabatha in?
a. the preoperational stage
b. the formal operational stage
c. the sensorimotor stage
d. the concrete operational stage

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following children is coordinating secondary schemes?
a. Martha is coordinating primary circular reactions.
b. Geoff is engaging in most repetitions of behaviours by accident.
c. Alyssa can differentiate between how to achieve a goal and the goal itself.
d. Johnny engages in deliberate trial-and-error actions to learn how things work.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Alex reaches for a toy truck, which is hidden under the toy box. What would an informed observer be most likely to assume about this action?
a. Alex’s action is random.
b. The action’s significance depends on Alex’s age.
c. The action’s significance depends on the Alex’s gender.
d. Alex has a mental representation of the object in mind.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Max is 10 months old. He is able to push one toy aside to reach another toy that he wants to play with. He is also able to imitate the gestures and sounds his parents make when they play with him. What is Max’s behaviour an example of?
a. object permanence
b. secondary circular reactions
c. coordination of secondary schemes
d. invention of new means through mental combinations

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82-83         OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. By what age will most children have demonstrated coordination of secondary schemes?
a. by age 2 to 3 months
b. by age 4 to 5 months
c. by age 8 or 9 months
d. by age 12 to 18 months

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82-83         OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. By what age will most children have demonstrated tertiary circular reactions?
a. by age 2 to 3 months
b. by age 4 to 5 months
c. by age8 to 9 months
d. by age 12 to 18 months

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a tertiary circular reaction?
a. Jean-Paul turns toward the sound of the phone ringing.
b. Lucien kicks his mobile over and over, which makes it move.
c. Kayla accidentally touches her nose with her thumb, which makes her laugh. Kayla then repeats the action, which makes her laugh again.
d. After many tries, Megan turns her toy sideways and is able to pull it into the crib. Now, whenever she wants the toy, she turns it sideways to pull it through.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What substage of sensorimotor development serves as a transition to the symbolic thought of the next stage?
a. the tertiary circular reaction substage
b. the secondary circular reaction substage
c. the coordination of secondary schemes substage
d. the invention of new means through mental combinations substage

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of tertiary circular reactions?
a. Trial and error is still used until an action accomplishes the goal.
b. Trial and error is NOT needed.
c. The child will give up if something does NOT work the first time.
d. The child will NOT follow an object that is out of sight.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Pamela is trying to place her rectangular block in the rectangular opening of her “know your shape” toy, but it is too wide to fit. She studies the block for some time and then grabs it, rotates it sideways, and the block successful falls in the opening. What substage of sensorimotor development was Pamela demonstrating?
a. the primary circular reaction substage
b. the secondary circular reactions substage
c. the coordination of secondary schemes substage
d. the invention of new means through mental combinations substage

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Rob hid behind his son’s blanket and said “peek-a-boo!” His son looked bored and turned away. Rob stated, “He just doesn’t seem to understand that I still exist when he can’t see me.” What aspect of sensorimotor development is Rob looking forward to?
a. concrete operations
b. conservation
c. object permanence
d. abstraction

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Children in the sensorimotor stage do NOT realize that people continue to exist even though they CANNOT be seen. What have these children NOT yet mastered?
a. memory
b. conservation
c. hypothetical reasoning
d. object permanence

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What does Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory suggest about children and object permanence?
a. Children develop an understanding of object permanence all at once.
b. Children develop the skills that lead to object permanence by 3 months of age.
c. Children come to understand object permanence even without prior experience.
d. Children develop object permanence before they develop emotional bonds to specific caregivers.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84-85         OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the meaning of the phrase “A-not-B error”?
a. Children will search for hidden objects only when they have an incentive.
b. Children will randomly search for hidden objects, but will quickly become frustrated and give up.
c. A child will search for a hidden toy but will quickly become distracted by other, more interesting objects.
d. A child may reach for a hidden object where it has always been, and will continue to reach there even when the child sees the toy hidden somewhere else.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the earliest age that a rudimentary knowledge of object permanence has been found?
a. at birth
b. at age 4 months
c. at age 8 months
d. at age 12 months

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following best describes Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory?
a. It has NOT been observed cross-culturally.
b. It is a very comprehensive theory of cognitive development.
c. It is an excellent theory for understanding infant social development.
d. It has been validated; infant cognitive development occurs in discrete stages.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism as a result of research into Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory?
a. It overestimates the abilities of infants.
b. It does NOT explain cognitive development of infants.
c. It focuses almost exclusively on learning processes.
d. It focuses almost exclusively on maturational processes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What have other researchers found regarding Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
a. Piaget’s stages have been documented in children cross-culturally.
b. Piaget’s stages have been documented only in Piaget’s own children.
c. Piaget’s stages apply more directly to the cognitive development of boys than girls.
d. Piaget’s stages apply more directly to the cognitive development of girls than boys.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What assumption forms the basis of a stage theory of cognitive development?
a. Development occurs regardless of experience.
b. Development is a continuous process that never ends.
c. Development occurs at different ages for different children.
d. Development progresses according to discrete, age-based steps.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Jocelyn watches as her mother puts her toys in a basket. Three weeks later, after never having engaged in this behaviour, Jocelyn attempts to put her toys in the basket. What is Jocelyn NOT demonstrating?
a. memory
b. recognition
c. deferred imitation
d. simple reflexes

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is meant by deferred imitation?
a. Children can imitate from the moment they are born.
b. Children can mimic what they have seen but only within 5 seconds.
c. Imitation is a more automatic process than was assumed in the past.
d. Children may observe a behaviour and have a mental representation of it before they imitate it.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Martha, a 9-month-old infant, watches as her mother pushes a cow image on her favourite book and the book makes a “moo” sound. Several hours later, Martha pushes the cow and the book makes the “moo” sound. What is Martha’s action an example of?
a. imitation
b. deferred imitation
c. instrumental learning
d. classical conditioning

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Nicole adjusts her rate of sucking so she can listen to a recording of her mother reading “Good Night Moon,” a story her mother read aloud while she was pregnant with Nicole. What does this activity illustrate?
a. imitation
b. memory
c. object permanence
d. deferred imitation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO2

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following has research taught us about infant memory?
a. Infants can remember only after 6 months of age.
b. Infants can memorize things after only one exposure.
c. Infants demonstrate memory for experiences they had in utero.
d. Infants do NOT demonstrate reliable memory until approximately 3 months of age.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. At what age does the first dramatic improvement in infant memory occur?
a. between 1 and 2 months of age
b. between 2 and 6 months of age
c. between 6 and 8 months of age
d. between 9 and 12 months

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Newborns at only 0.7 to 71 hours old have been found to imitate adults when the adults have done which of the following?
a. open their mouths or stick out their tongues
b. repeatedly open and close their eyes
c. repeatedly open and “fist up” their hands in front of the newborns
d. purse their lips

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. How long can typical 2-month-old infants remember a task they have learned?
a. a few hours
b. 12 hours
c. up to 2 days
d. up to 3 days

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. How long can typical 3-month-old infants remember a task they have learned?
a. 12 hours
b. 1 to 2 days
c. 3 to 4 days
d. up to one week

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What forms the basis for most human learning?
a. imitation of others
b. genetic programming
c. learning by trial and error
d. self-exploration

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Research studies have shown that infants can imitate an adult who opens her mouth and sticks out her tongue. What is the earliest age this imitative behaviour been observed in infants?
a. less than 1 hour old
b. at age 2 days
c. at age 3 days
d. at age 1 week

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is indicated when an infant sticks out her tongue?
a. memory
b. imitation
c. a random act
d. too little information to tell

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Mary, a one-hour-old infant, sticks out her tongue in response to her mother doing the same. What has most likely occurred?
a. learning
b. an imitation reflex
c. a deferred imitation
d. a decision to mimic an adult

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What is required to move from reflexive imitation to purposeful imitation?
a. the passing of time
b. improvements in cognitive abilities
c. the emergence of genetic programming
d. significant effort on the part of the child over an extended period of time

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Carla is an expectant mother and is reading about newborns’ imitation reflex. Which of the following explanations of an imitation reflex is she NOT likely to encounter?
a. It contributes to caregiver–infant bonding.
b. It helps to ensure survival of the newborn.
c. It may be due to “mirror neurons” in the human brain.
d. It enables the newborn to suckle.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What has research shown regarding individual differences in intelligence among infants?
a. Genetic differences expressed through intelligence are NOT identifiable among infants.
b. A great deal of variability in intelligence exists among infants.
c. Infant intelligence develops in a discontinuous, stage-like process throughout childhood.
d. A genetic process of development minimizes individual differences in infant intelligence.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86-87         OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What test measures infant intelligence?
a. Apgar scale
b. Bayley scales
c. Riley scale
d. Piaget scale

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 87               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. How is infant intelligence assessed?
a. by monitoring brain wave activity while the infant is presented with auditory stimuli
b. by comparing infant abilities to genetic norms
c. by comparing the abilities of one infant to others of the same age
d. by monitoring brain wave activity while the infant is presented with visual stimuli

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 87               OBJ:   LO3

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Which of the following skills does the Bayley Scales NOT measure when assessing an infant’s intelligence?
a. attention span and persistence
b. gross and fine motor skills
c. verbal communication and perceptual skills
d. information processing

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 87               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following scales is included in the Bayley Scales of Infant Development?
a. a reflex rating scale
b. a language rating scale
c. a behaviour rating scale
d. a maternal behaviour with the child scale

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 87               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is indicated when a child’s Bayley test scores are average?
a. The child is developing at an average rate.
b. The infant can complete 100% of the items for his or her age group.
c. The assessment differs from child to child, depending on genetics and environment.
d. The infant passed the test at the age at which 50% of other infants also passed the test.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 87               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. In its simplest sense, what do the Bayley Scales measure?
a. mental and motor abilities
b. genetic influences on intelligence
c. social and emotional development
d. environmental influences on intelligence

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 87               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Why do we assess infant intelligence?
a. to ensure that bright children start school early
b. to screen for problems so that compensations can be made
c. because the assessments lead to accurate developmental predictions
d. to ensure follow-up parent capacity assessments are completed

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO3

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Dana asks her son’s pediatrician whether overall scores on tests, such as the Bayley Scales, can accurately predict future grades in school. What is likely to be the pediatrician’s response?
a. Yes, especially for verbal skills.
b. No, because the tests are invalid.
c. Yes, especially for mathematic abilities.
d. No, perhaps because cognitive functioning changes so rapidly in infancy.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the relationship between achievements on sensorimotor tests and other test achievements?
a. Achievements on sensorimotor tests are strongly related to subsequent IQ scores.
b. Achievements on sensorimotor tests are strongly related to childhood success in school.
c. Achievements on sensorimotor tests are dissimilar to intelligence measures used in other developmental stages.
d. Achievements on sensorimotor tests are strongly related to verbal and symbolic scores obtained in later childhood.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Jenna can tell the difference between a toy she has seen before and a new toy. What term refers to this ability?
a. habituation
b. sensory memory
c. recognition memory
d. classical conditioning

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. A child is shown two objects for 20 seconds. One of the objects is replaced by a new object, and the infant spends more time looking at the new object. What ability is NOT represented by this activity?
a. visual recognition
b. habituation
c. memory
d. classical conditioning

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is typically predicted by higher visual recognition scores in infancy?
a. creativity in later childhood
b. better memory in later childhood
c. higher IQ scores later in childhood
d. an increased likelihood of artistic ability

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. What did Susan Rose and her colleagues (2001) conclude regarding visual recognition memory?
a. It is stable from age to age.
b. It relates significantly to brain myelination.
c. It is positively correlated with brain weight.
d. It can screen infants for handicaps, such as sensory or neurological problems.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT related to recognition memory?
a. a preference for novel stimulation
b. later IQ scores
c. an infant’s ability to scan stimuli and retain images
d. brain wave activity when visually stimulated

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the earliest communicative sound a child makes?
a. crying
b. cooing
c. saying “ma” or “pa”
d. echolalia

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What does the expression “comprehension proceeds production” refer to?
a. echolalia
b. babbling
c. a receptive vocabulary
d. an expressive vocabulary

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What term refers to vocalizations that do NOT represent objects or events?
a. prelinguistic
b. nonsensical
c. random
d. expressive

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Annette is a child development specialist. Her niece, Cassie, has just had her first child and asks Annette whether her infant’s crying is considered a primitive form of language. What is most likely to be Annette’s response?
a. It depends on the gender of the child.
b. It depends on the type of cry emitted.
c. Yes, her infant’s crying represents language.
d. No, because crying does NOT represent objects or events.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Which of the following describes a 1-month-old’s crying?
a. non-distinct
b. highly specific
c. serves no useful purpose
d. activated by the vocal tract

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. At what age do most infants begin cooing?
a. at birth
b. at age 1 week
c. at age 2 months
d. at age 4 months

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What term refers to an infant’s “ooh” and “ah” sounds, which are linked to joy or enthusiasm?
a. positive cries
b. cooing
c. babbling
d. echolalia

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is a child’s most complex vocalization?
a. crying
b. cooing
c. babbling
d. making no sound, which shows awareness that all is well

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Jennifer is curious about her son’s cries and coos. What is her pediatrician most likely to tell her?
a. They are based entirely on know-how.
b. They are innate, but modified by experience.
c. They are based entirely on genetic encoding.
d. They are accidental noises that are soon replaced by meaningful sounds.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Jennifer is eager to know when her son will start babbling. What is her pediatrician most likely to tell her?
a. It occurs before cooing.
b. It occurs after the ability to use intonation.
c. It appears between 6 and 9 months of age.
d. It is strongly related to words the child is trying to say.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Baby Sammy likes to repeat the sound “dada.” What is this vocalization called?
a. cooing
b. babbling
c. echolalia
d. her first word

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is intonation?
a. repeating what has been heard
b. rising and falling speech patterns
c. the replication of consonants and vowels
d. babbling sounds from all achievable languages

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. As Michael plays in his crib, his parents overhear him making repetitive sounds such as “babababa” and “dadadada.” What term describes this repeating of syllables?
a. cooing
b. echolalia
c. babbling
d. intonation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Janet tells her husband that their infant son, Josh, is exhibiting echolalia. What behaviour is she referring to?
a. Josh understands more words than he can say.
b. Josh is speaking words that he does NOT understand.
c. Josh is repeating syllables.
d. Josh is using his tongue’s circular rotation to speak.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Theo is 10 months old. His parents overhear him talking to himself in his crib. His language resembles adult speech in sound, with words rising and falling. What term best describes Theo’s vocalizations?
a. echolalia
b. intonation
c. turn-taking
d. vocabulary development

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is a receptive vocabulary?
a. all words the child comprehend
b. all words the child can articulate
c. the replication of syllables the child has heard
d. the words the child has heard, but does NOT yet comprehend

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89-90         OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the relationship between receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary?
a. Receptive vocabulary generally exceeds expressive vocabulary.
b. Expressive vocabulary generally surpasses receptive vocabulary.
c. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary are always equal.
d. Receptive vocabulary is determined by genetics, whereas expressive vocabulary is determined by the environment.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89-90         OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Ashley is an average 12-month-old child. How many words can Ashley speak?
a. 5
b. 8
c. 13
d. 22

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Harry is an average 12-month-old male child. How many words can Harry understand?
a. 13
b. 25
c. 57
d. 84

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. At what age is an infant’s first word typically spoken?
a. usually by 10 months of age
b. usually between 11 and 13 months of age
c. usually after 18 months
d. NOT before 24 months of age

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Brian and Tamara are concerned because their 12-month-old son has yet to speak his first word. What would an expert in child development most likely to tell Brian and Tamara?
a. They should be concerned because most children speak their first word before their first birthday.
b. They shouldn’t be concerned because boys develop speech much later than girls.
c. They shouldn’t be concerned because children’s normal range for speaking their first word is between 8 and 18 months of age.
d. They shouldn’t’ t be concerned because most children speak their first word after 24 months

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. After children begin to speak their first words, what is the pace of their verbal acquisition?
a. fast, with children speaking 40 to 50 words within a month
b. slow, with children speaking 10 to 30 words within 3 to 4 months
c. fast, as expressive vocabulary outpaces receptive vocabulary
d. slow, 5 to 10 words within 6 months, and sometimes regression takes place

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a general nominal?
a. car
b. doggy
c. ball
d. pretty

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a specific nominal?
a. boy
b. fire truck
c. brown dog
d. Mr. Rogers

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the definition of a specific nominal?
a. a proper noun
b. a personal pronoun
c. a class of objects
d. a word longer than two syllables

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. At 18 months of age, Ben could speak approximately 50 words. However, by 22 months of age, his vocabulary had increased to almost 300 words, most of which were nouns. What term describes Ben’s most recent language development?
a. the referential style
b. the naming explosion
c. the expressive explosion
d. the specific nominal explosion

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the definition of the referential language style?
a. using personal pronouns to refer to the self
b. using language to label objects in the environment
c. using language as a means for engaging in social interaction
d. using words that make no particular reference, but allow practice with the vocal cords

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90-94         OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the definition of the expressive language style?
a. using personal pronouns to refer to the self
b. using language to label objects in the environment
c. using language as a means for engaging in social interaction
d. using words that make no particular reference, but allow practice with the vocal cords

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. A child refers to the “meese” that he saw in the zoo. His mother knows her child saw a moose at the zoo, based on the fact that he knows “geese” refers to more than one goose. What is this child’s error an example of?
a. a syntax error
b. an overextension
c. an Morpheme style
d. a referential language style

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Olivia has learned to call a toy truck “tru.” Now whenever she sees any toy with wheels, she calls it “tru.” What is Olivia’s response an example of?
a. overextension
b. underextension
c. expressive language style
d. referential language style

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. A child says “doggy.” What is this word an example of?
a. a morpheme
b. a holophrase
c. telegraphic speech
d. mean length of utterance

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. A child learns to call a dog “bow-wow” and now calls all animals he sees “bow-wow.” What is this child’s behaviour an example of?
a. morpheme
b. overextension
c. egocentric speech
d. telegraphic speech

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the definition of a morpheme?
a. a single word meant to symbolize an entire phrase
b. a particular word meant to represent multiple objects
c. the total length of an infant’s utterance
d. the smallest unit of meaning in a language

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. What is the definition of the mean length of utterance?
a. the average number of morphemes a child uses in a sentence
b. the total number of sounds a child makes when trying to express herself
c. the average number of letters in the child’s usual utterances
d. the complex arrangement of single words used to express complex thoughts

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the relationship between MLU and chronological age?
a. Chronological age and MLU are unrelated.
b. As chronological age increases, MLU tends to increase.
c. MLU tends to decrease initially because other developmental challenges also occur when chronological age increases.
d. Chronological age increases across time, whereas MLU remains the same across time.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is the definition of a holophrase?
a. the first inclusive sentence that a child utters
b. a single word utterance that expresses a complex meaning
c. a first word from the infant accompanied by physical gestures
d. a double-word utterance that a child speaks at approximately 14 months of age

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. To the delight of her parents, 20-month-old Maya just exclaimed “Daddy go.” What does this utterance represent?
a. an MLU
b. a morpheme
c. a holophrase
d. telegraphic speech

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. You are visiting your friends, and you meet their daughter, Roberta. You are delighted to see such a happy child. You also notice that Roberta has begun using two-word sentences. How old is Roberta?
a. 12 months
b. 16 months
c. 24 months
d. 36 months

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 92               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Which of the following perspectives suggests that parents serve as models for the language development of their children?
a. the maturational perspective
b. the social cognitive perspective
c. the Skinnerian learning theory perspective
d. the Piagetian cognitive-developmental perspective

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 92               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. According to B.F. SkinnerRemember,me parents require that children’s utterances of words be progressively closer to actual words before those words are reinforced. What term describes this language development?
a. shaping
b. expressive vocabulary
c. negative reinforcement
d. grammatical construction

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 93               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Natalie is 18 months old and mispronounces some words. Her parents are quick to correct her pronunciation. According to the research cited in the , what is the most likely result of correcting Natalie’s pronunciation?
a. an increase in her language development
b. a possible slowing of her language development
c. no effect on her language development because language acquisition is caused by innate or inborn prewiring
d. a normal expression of grammatical construction

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 93               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. A child says “Off the ride I want,” “can’t you had remembered,” and “keepers losers!” What type of errors do these statements illustrate?
a. morphology
b. shaping
c. syntax
d. grammatical construction

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 93               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Mary, a new parent, is embracing her daughter, Samantha. Mary can be heard speaking slowly to Samantha, at a higher pitch, and with pauses inserted between her words. What would developmentalists call Mary’s speech pattern?
a. morphology
b. grammatical construction
c. shaping
d. Motherese

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 95               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. In the 2011 Canadian Census, how many different languages were reported as a home language, or mother tongue?
a. fewer than 50
b. 50 to 100
c. 101 to 200
d. more than 200

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is demonstrated by the ’s case history of Genie?
a. evidence for the existence of a LAD
b. the effects of teaching ASL to young children
c. support for the hypothesis that there are sensitive periods for learning language
d. proof that language acquisition is genetically determined and NOT dependent on environment

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 96               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

MATCHING

 

 

a. a chance event is repeated
b. words the child can use
c. mental and motor items
d. calling all animals “moo”
e. discriminate known objects from novel objects
f. one-word utterance that conveys a sentence of meaning
g. words the child knows
h. stage theory of cognitive development
i. repeat behaviours that affect the environment
j. babbling
k. concept of the world
l. thinking all animals are “puppy”
m. “Doggy go.”
n. use of words
o. items exist even when out of sight
p. smallest unit of language that has meaning
q. order of words
r. which words belong together
s. schemes are applied to specific situations
t. learning that different animals have different names

 

 

 

  1. Piaget

 

  1. Primary circular reaction

 

  1. Assimilation

 

  1. Holophrase

 

  1. Expressive language

 

  1. Secondary circular reaction

 

  1. Scheme

 

  1. Overextension

 

  1. Visual recognition memory

 

  1. Telegraphic speech

 

  1. Object permanence

 

  1. Morpheme

 

  1. Prelinguistic

 

  1. Syntax

 

  1. Tertiary circular reaction

 

  1. Accommodation

 

  1. Receptive language

 

  1. Linguistic

 

  1. Grammar

 

  1. Bayley test

 

  1. ANS:  H                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  L                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  I                     PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  K                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  M                   PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  O                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  P                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  J                     PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  Q                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  S                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  N                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  R                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. When children accommodate, they create new schemes for the world.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Piaget hypothesized that cognitive processes develop in an orderly sequence of stages.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. A primary circular reaction involves repeating a behaviour that affects the environment.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. According to Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, the first stage of cognitive development is the formal operational stage.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. During the sensorimotor period, infants progress from responding to events with reflexes, or ready-made schemes, to goal-oriented behaviour.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. During the first year of life, infants’ reflexes are stereotypical and inflexible.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82               OBJ:   LO1

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. According to Piaget, during the fourth substage of sensory motor development, infants coordinate schemes to attain specific goals.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Tertiary circular reactions occur when infants engage in purposeful adaptations of established schemes to specific situations.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 83               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Object permanence is recognition that an object exists when out of sight.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. By approximately 6 months of age, infants tend to look for objects that are dropped.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Critics of Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory suggest that development tends to be more gradual and continuous than he suggested.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Imitation after a time delay occurs as early as 6 months of age.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Piaget was correct regarding the pattern and sequence of cognitive events in children.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Research on deferred imitation supports Piaget’s view of cognitive development.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Infants are unable to imitate others’ behaviours until 6 months of age.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO1

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Newborns’ ability to imitate others may have a survival function.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85               OBJ:   LO2

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Research on infant memory has shown that newborns adjust their rate of sucking to hear a recording of their mother reading a story she had read aloud during the last weeks of pregnancy,

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Memory improves dramatically between 1 and 2 months of age and then again by 36 months.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Rovee-Collier and colleagues demonstrated that infants are unable to remember events that occurred to them from day to day.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Imitation is the basis for much of human learning.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86               OBJ:   LO2

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. The Bayley Scales may identify sensory or neurological problems.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 87               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. A 2007 study of children aged 8 to 16 months concluded that infants exposed to baby DVDs scored lower on language development than children with no screen time.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 87               OBJ:   LO3

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Visual recognition memory during infancy is related to later IQ scores.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 88               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Babbling is the first communicative sound an infant makes.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Cooing is the same thing as crying.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Factual

 

  1. Children do NOT utter meaningful words until about 18 months of age.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89-88         OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Receptive language tends to outpace expressive language.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 89-90         OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Children only speak words and phrases they have heard before.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Most children can use 500 words by 18 months of age.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Children who use language to label objects are said to have a referential style of language.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 90               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Calling all four-legged animals doggies is an example of an overextension.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Types of two-word sentences vary depending on the child’s linguistic environment.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 91               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. A child’s MLU decreases as the child develops.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 92               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Learning theory explains language development primarily as a result of nature.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 92               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Language development can be explained entirely as a result of imitation and shaping.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 93               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Selective reinforcement of children’s pronunciation may lead to slower language development.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 93               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. “Motherese” has been shown to slow language development.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94               OBJ:   LO4

KEY:  WWW            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Reading to a child can help foster his or her language development.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94-95         OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. The nativist view of language development holds that inborn factors cause children to attend to and acquire language in certain ways.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. According to psycholinguistic theory, language acquisition involves an interaction between environmental influences and an inborn tendency to acquire language.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. The innate tendency to learn language was dubbed the language acquisition device (LAD) by Noam Chomsky.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. According to the nativist perspective, children have an inborn tendency to language learning in the form of neurological “prewiring.”

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Universal grammar refers to the surface structure of language.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Persons with Broca’s aphasia speak slowly and laboriously.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Across Canada, more than 50 individual languages belong to 11 Aboriginal language families.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 96               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Language learning is most efficient during sensitive periods, particularly after puberty.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 96               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. There is no evidence of a sensitive period for language development.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 95               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. The situation with Genie, who was locked away for much of her first 13 years of life, supports the nurture view of language development.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 96               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. The case study of Genie supports the idea that the tendency to acquire language is easily learned at any time in life.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 96               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Genie, the girl who was locked away for much of her first 13 years of life, was unable to learn language as well as those who had normal language development.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 96               OBJ:   LO4

BLM:  Remember

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. How do a newborn’s reflexes develop?

 

ANS:

The newborn’s reflexes are stereotypical and inflexible. As the infant develops, these reflexes are modified based on experience. Some reflexes will disappear as the central nervous system develops while others become voluntary actions.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81              OBJ:   LO1               BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Describe the difference between assimilation and accommodation.

 

ANS:

Assimilation is the first step in trying to categorize the world into organized concepts that Piaget called “schemes.” With assimilation, the child attempts to “fit” new information into existing schemes. For example, a child who has learned that a furry creature is called a “kitten,” may call all furry creatures “kitten.” Accommodation refers to the process of creating new schemes when existing schemes cannot accurately categorize the new information. The same child, for example, will eventually learn that puppies and kittens are different and that schemes must be created for both.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 81              OBJ:   LO1               BLM:  Remember

 

  1. How do secondary and tertiary circular reactions differ?

 

ANS:

Secondary circular reactions are goal-directed behaviours. Over time, the child has learned that certain behaviours cause environmental events. For example, a child may have learned that pushing a button on a toy in her crib will cause it to make a beeping noise. With tertiary circular reactions, the child is able to take knowledge of the relationship between her actions and the environment and apply it to specific situations. For example, if Sarah has learned that pushing a button on a toy causes interesting noises, she may attempt to push buttons on other toys.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 82              OBJ:   LO1               BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. How has Piaget’s theory of cognitive development been viewed by later researchers?

 

ANS:

Piaget’s theory has been shown to be supported in its general view of developmental progressions, although some research suggests that development is more gradual than discrete. His theory has also been supported by research looking at children from a variety of cultures, suggesting that this development is universal. Piaget’s theory did not examine how others may influence the child’s development. He also appeared to have underestimated the ability of infants. Object permanence and deferred imitation have been shown to appear much sooner than predicted by his theory.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85              OBJ:   LO1               BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is object permanence and what abilities does it represent?

 

ANS:

Object permanence is the term for an individual’s understanding that objects continue to exist even when they can no longer be sensed. This understanding is a major milestone in cognitive development and marks the end of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage. Object permanence suggests that the child has developed a scheme of the world that things can exist that cannot be seen. It also represents a level of memory. To understand that the object still exists and will return, the child needs to have a memory of the object. This ability also suggests that infants have developed the ability to form mental representations of the world.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84-85         OBJ:   LO1               BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What does it mean to say “many of the cognitive capabilities of infants depend upon memory”?

 

ANS:

Memory is essential for cognitive development. Children cannot form schemas, demonstrate progression in circular reactions, or begin to use language without memory. The ability to “experiment” by applying what has been learned to new and specific situations (the ability to perform tertiary circular reactions) requires that the infant remember the action and remember what happened when that action was performed previously. The ability to form schemes in an effort to conceptualize the world is also very memory-dependent. A child cannot learn to differentiate a kitten from a puppy, for example, unless she can remember how they are similar and how they are different.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 86-87         OBJ:   LO1               BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. What is object permanence and how is it tested?

 

ANS:

Object permanence is the ability of a child to know that an object exists even when it is hidden. To test this ability, show an object to the child and then hide it under a blanket or behind a screen. Determine whether the infant seeks the object by looking with its eyes or searching for it with its hands. Younger infants will have a limited ability to search with its handsRemember, another technique is available for measuring this ability. One can show an object, hide it with a screen, remove the object from behind the screen and determine whether the infant shows surprise at the object’s absence when the screen is removed.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 84-85         OBJ:   LO2               BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Who developed the Bayley Scales of Infant Development? When was this assessment tool created and what does it measure?

 

ANS:

 

The Bayley Scales were first constructed in 1933 by psychologist Nancy Bayley, then later revised. Today the Bayley Scales consist of 178 mental-scale items and 111 motor-scale items. The mental scale assesses verbal communication, perceptual skills, learning and memory, and problem-solving skills. The motor scale assesses gross motor skills, such as standing, walking, and climbing, and fine motor skills, as shown by the ability to manipulate the hands and fingers. Also used is a behaviour rating scale that is based on an examiner’s observation of the child during the test. The behaviour rating scale assesses attention span, goal directedness, persistence, and aspects of social and emotional development.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 85              OBJ:   LO 3               BLM:  Higher Order

 

  1. Identify the major characteristics of Motherese.

 

ANS:

 

  1. Motherese is spoken slowly, at a higher pitch, and with pauses inserted between ideas.
  2. Sentences are brief.
  3. Sentences use simple grammar.
  4. Keywords come at the ends of sentences and are spoken in a higher and louder voice.
  5. The diminutive morpheme y is frequently added to nouns: i.e., Dad becomes Daddy, and horse becomes horsey.
  6. Adults repeat sentences several times using minor variations, as in “Show me your nose.” “Where is your nose?”
  7. Motherese includes reduplication. Yummy becomes yummy-yummy. Daddy may alternate with Dada.
  8. Vocabulary is concrete, referring, when possible, to objects in the immediate environment. Stuffed lions may be referred to as “kitties.”
  9. Objects may be overdescribed by being given compound labels. Rabbits may become “bunny rabbits,” and cats may become “kitty cats.”

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94-95         OBJ:   LO3               BLM:  Higher Order

 

 

  1. Parents speak for the children, as in, “We want to take our nap now, don’t we?”

 

REF:    p. 95    OBJ:    LO4     BLM:   Higher Order

 

  1. How can infants’ and children’s language development be enhanced?

 

ANS:

Numerous methods can be used to help infants and children learn to use language:

 

  • Respond positively to the use of sounds, such as cooing and babbling.
  • Use a simplified form of speech known as “Motherese.”
  • Use questions that engage the child in conversation. Respond to the child’s expressive language efforts in a way that is “attuned,” providing feedback to the use of ideas and words.
  • Join the child in paying attention to a particular activity or toy.
  • Gesture to help the child understand what he is saying.
  • Describe aspects of the environment occupying the infant’s current focus of attention.
  • Read to the child.
  • Talk to the child a great deal.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 94-95         OBJ:   LO4               BLM:  Higher Order

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