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Health Assessment for Nursing Practice 6th Edition Wilson Giddens Test Bank

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Health Assessment for Nursing Practice 6th Edition Wilson Giddens Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323377768

ISBN-10: 0323377769

 

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Health Assessment for Nursing Practice 6th Edition Wilson Giddens Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323377768

ISBN-10: 0323377769

 

 

 

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Chapter 12: Heart and Peripheral Vascular System

Wilson: Health Assessment for Nursing Practice, 6th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A nurse informs a patient that her blood pressure is 128/78. The patient asks what the number 128 means. What is the nurse’s appropriate response? The 128 represents the pressure in your blood vessels when:
a. “The ventricles relax and the aortic and pulmonic valves open.”
b. “The ventricles contract and the mitral and tricuspid valves close.”
c. “The ventricles contract and the mitral and tricuspid valves open.”
d. “The ventricles relax and the aortic and pulmonic valves close.”

 

 

ANS:  B

During systole the ventricles contract, creating a pressure that closes the atrioventricular (AV) valves (mitral and tricuspid). The aortic and pulmonic valves open during systole, but ventricles fill during diastole. During systole the ventricles contract, creating a pressure that closes the AV valves (mitral and tricuspid). The ventricles are relaxed and the aortic and pulmonic valves close during diastole, rather than systole.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand            REF:   p. 209

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential: System Specific Assessments

 

  1. A nurse determines that a patient has a heart rate of 42 beats/min. What might be a cause of this heart rate?
a. Sinoatrial (SA) node failure
b. Atrial bradycardia
c. A well-conditioned heart muscle
d. Left ventricular hypertrophy

 

 

ANS:  A

If the SA node is ineffective, the atrioventricular node may initiate contraction, but at a rate of 40 to 60 beats/min. The heart rate reflects the ventricular rate rather than the atrial rate. Although well-conditioned athletes may have slower heart rates, this rate is too slow for even an athlete. Left ventricular hypertrophy alters the strength of contraction rather than the heart rate.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 210

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alterations in Body Systems

 

  1. While taking a history, a nurse learns that a patient had rheumatic heart disease as a child. Based on this information, what abnormal data might this nurse expect to find during an examination?
a. An extra beat just before the S2 heart sound heard during auscultation
b. A raspy machine-like or blowing sound heard during auscultation
c. A prominent thrust of the heart against the chest wall felt on palpation
d. A visible indentation of pericardial tissue noted during inspection

 

 

ANS:  B

A raspy machine-like or blowing sound heard during auscultation is a description of a murmur that can develop after rheumatic heart disease. An extra beat just before the S1 heart sound heard during auscultation is a description of the S4 heart sound that occurs when there is hypertrophy of the ventricle. A prominent thrust of the heart against the chest wall felt on palpation is a description of a heave, which may occur from left ventricular hypertrophy due to increased workload. A visible indentation of pericardial tissue noted during inspection is a description of a retraction that begins in the intercostal spaces and occurs with increased respiratory effort.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 212 | p. 232

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. A nurse is completing a symptom analysis with a patient complaining of chest pain. When asked what makes the chest pain worse, the patient reports that coughing and sneezing increase the chest pain. Based on these data, what does the nurse suspect as the cause of this patient’s chest pain?
a. Stable angina
b. Esophageal reflux disease
c. Mitral valve prolapse
d. Costochondritis

 

 

ANS:  D

Coughing, deep breathing, laughing, and sneezing worsen the chest pain associated with costochondritis. Physical exertion, emotional stress, and cold worsen the chest pain associated with stable angina. A spicy or acidic meal, alcohol, or lying supine may worsen the chest pain associated with esophageal reflux. Only occasional position changes worsen the chest pain associated with mitral valve prolapse.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 216

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. The patient describes her chest pain as “squeezing, crushing, and 12 on a scale of 10.” This pain started more than an hour ago while she was resting, and she also feels nauseous. Based on these findings, the nurse should assess for which associated symptoms?
a. Tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypertension
b. Dyspnea, diaphoresis, and palpitations
c. Hyperventilation, fatigue, anorexia, and emotional strain
d. Fever, dyspnea, orthopnea, and friction rub

 

 

ANS:  B

Dyspnea, diaphoresis, and palpitations are symptoms associated with unstable angina. Tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypertension are symptoms associated with cocaine-induced chest pain. Hyperventilation, fatigue, anorexia, and emotional strain are symptoms associated with panic disorder. Fever, dyspnea, orthopnea, and friction rub are symptoms associated with pericarditis.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 216 | p. 242

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. When auscultating the heart of a patient with pericarditis, the nurse expects to hear which sound?
a. A systolic murmur
b. An S3 heart sound
c. A friction rub
d. An S4 heart sound

 

 

ANS:  C

Two classic findings of pericarditis are pericardial friction rub and chest pain. Most systolic murmurs are caused by obstruction of the outflow of the semilunar valves or by incompetent AV valves. An S3 heart sound occurs when there is heart failure. An S4 heart sound occurs when there is hypertrophy of the ventricle.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 243

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. Which patient’s statement helps a nurse distinguish between chest pain originating from pericarditis rather than from angina?
a. “No, I have not done anything to strain chest muscles.”
b. “If I take a deep breath, the pain gets much worse.”
c. “This pain feels like there’s an elephant sitting on my chest.”
d. “Whenever this pain happens, it goes right away if I lie down.”

 

 

ANS:  B

The chest pain from pericarditis is aggravated by deep breathing, coughing, or lying supine. Chest pain from muscle strain may be aggravated by movement of arms. “This pain feels like there’s an elephant sitting on my chest” is associated with a myocardial infarction. Chest pain relieved by rest occurs with angina.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 243

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. While taking a history, a nurse learns that this patient experiences shortness of breath (dyspnea). If the cause of the dyspnea is a cardiovascular problem, the nurse expects which abnormal finding on examination?
a. Flat jugular neck veins
b. Red, shiny skin on the legs
c. Weak, thready peripheral pulses
d. Edema of the feet and ankles

 

 

ANS:  D

This patient may have heart failure. Edema of the feet occurs with right ventricular heart failure. Dyspnea occurs with left ventricular heart failure. Flat jugular veins indicate a fluid deficit, which is not associated with dyspnea. Red, shiny skin on the legs is associated with peripheral arterial disease and is not associated with dyspnea. Weak, thready peripheral pulses indicate fluid deficit, which is not associated with dyspnea.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 215 | p. 217

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. A nurse is assessing a patient’s peripheral circulation. Which finding indicates venous insufficiency of this patient’s legs?
a. Paresthesias and weak, thin peripheral pulses
b. Leg pain that can be relieved by walking
c. Edema that is worse at the end of the day
d. Leg pain that increases when the legs are lowered

 

 

ANS:  C

Dependent edema is an indication of venous insufficiency. Paresthesias and weak, thin peripheral pulses are characteristics of arterial insufficiencies rather than venous. Pain caused by arterial insufficiency gets worse by walking, because walking requires additional arterial blood. Arterial pain is relieved by lowering the leg and aggravated by elevating the legs.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 217

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. A patient reports having leg pain while walking that is relieved with rest. Based on these data, the nurse expects which finding on inspection and palpation of this patient?
a. 1+ edema of the feet and ankles bilaterally
b. The circumference of the right leg is larger than the left leg
c. Patchy petechiae and purpura of the lower extremities
d. Cool feet with capillary refill of toes greater than 3 seconds

 

 

ANS:  D

The pain while walking that is relieved by rest is called intermittent claudication and is an indication of arterial insufficiency. Cool feet and prolonged capillary refill also occur due to arterial insufficiency. Edema of 1+ of the feet and ankles bilaterally is an indication of a venous problem rather than an arterial problem. When one leg is larger in circumference than the other, it could be due to lymphedema or a deep vein thrombosis. Petechiae and purpura of the lower extremities indicate a bleeding problem, such as low platelets, rather than an arterial problem.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 217 | p. 222

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. How does a nurse accurately palpate carotid pulses?
a. Two fingers of each hand are placed firmly over the right and left temples at the same time.
b. One finger is placed gently in the space between the biceps and triceps muscles.
c. Two fingers are placed at the thumb side of the forearm at the wrist.
d. One finger is placed along the right and then the left medial sternocleidomastoid muscle.

 

 

ANS:  D

One finger placed along the right and then the left medial sternocleidomastoid muscle is the correct procedure for palpating the carotid pulses, checking each side separately. Two fingers of each hand placed firmly over the right and left temples at the same time is the correct procedure for palpating the temporal pulse. One finger placed gently in the space between the biceps and triceps muscles is the correct procedure for palpating the brachial pulse. Two fingers placed at the thumb side of the forearm at the wrist is the correct procedure for palpating the radial pulse.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand            REF:   p. 219

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Techniques of Physical Assessment

 

  1. To document the palpation of a pulse, the nurse is correct in making which notation about the rhythm?
a. “Rhythm 100 beats/min”
b. “Irregular rhythm”
c. “Rhythm noted at +2”
d. “Bounding rhythm”

 

 

ANS:  B

The rhythm should be an equal pattern or spacing between beats. Irregular rhythms without any pattern should be noted. The notation “rhythm 100 beats/min” refers to the rate rather than the rhythm. The notation “rhythm noted at +2” refers to the amplitude rather than the rhythm. The notation “Bounding rhythm” refers to the contour rather than the rhythm.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 220

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential: System Specific Assessments

 

  1. A nurse expects which finding during a cardiovascular assessment of a healthy adult?
a. Visible, consistent pulsations of the jugular vein
b. Pink nail beds with a 90-degree angle at the base
c. Capillary refill of the toes greater than 5 seconds
d. Bruits heard on auscultation of the carotid arteries

 

 

ANS:  A

Visible, consistent pulsations of the jugular vein is an expected finding. Pink nail beds with a 90-degree angle at the base is not a normal finding; the angle at the base should be 160 degrees. Capillary refill of the toes greater than 5 seconds is not a normal finding. Capillary refills should be 2 seconds or less. Bruits heard on auscultation of the carotid arteries is not a normal finding. Bruits indicate occlusion of a blood vessel.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 220

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential: System Specific Assessments

 

  1. Which pulse may be a challenge for a nurse to palpate?
a. Temporal
b. Femoral
c. Popliteal
d. Dorsalis pedis

 

 

ANS:  C

For the popliteal pulse, palpate the popliteal artery behind the knee in the popliteal fossa to assess perfusion. This pulse may be difficult to find. The temporal pulse is palpated over the temporal bone on each side of the head. For the femoral pulse, palpate below the inguinal ligament, midway between the symphysis pubis and anterior superior iliac. For the dorsalis pedis pulse, palpate on the inner aspect of the ankle below and slightly behind the medial malleolus (ankle bone).

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand            REF:   p. 225

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Techniques of Physical Assessment

 

  1. When assessing a patient with aortic valve stenosis, the nurse should palpate for which abnormality to detect a thrill?
a. Sustained thrust of the heart against the chest wall during systole
b. Visible sinking of the tissues between and around the ribs
c. Fine, palpable vibration felt over the precordium
d. Bounding pulse noted bilaterally

 

 

ANS:  C

A thrill is a palpable vibration over the precordium or artery. A sustained thrust of the heart against the chest wall during systole is a description of a lift. A visible sinking of the tissues between and around the ribs is a description of a retraction. A thrill feels like a palpable vibration rather than a bounding pulse.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand            REF:   p. 227 | p. 239

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. A nurse is having difficulty auscultating a patient’s heart sounds because the lung sounds are too loud. What does the nurse ask the patient to do to improve hearing the heart sounds?
a. Lie in a supine position.
b. Cough.
c. Hold his or her breath for a few seconds.
d. Sit up and lean forward.

 

 

ANS:  C

Holding the breath for a few seconds eliminates the noise of breathing long enough to hear several cardiac cycles of heart sounds. The holding of the breath can be repeated if needed to hear the heart sounds again. Lying in a supine position will not reduce the noise of breathing. Coughing may clear some secretions, but when the lung sounds are so noisy that the heart sounds are difficult to hear, coughing is not sufficient to eliminate the noise from respirations. Sitting up and leaning forward brings the heart closer to the thoracic wall, but will not eliminate noise produced by the lungs.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand            REF:   p. 229

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. While assessing edema on a male patient’s lower leg, the nurse notices that there is a slight imprint of his fingers where he palpated the patient’s leg. How does the nurse document this finding?
a. No edema
b. 1+ edema
c. 2+ edema
d. 3+ edema

 

 

ANS:  B

A barely perceptible pit is detected after palpation. No pit left after palpation indicates no edema. A deeper pit that rebounds in a few seconds after palpation is 2+ edema. A deep pit that rebounds in 10 to 20 seconds after palpation is 3+ edema.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 222

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. Where does a nurse place a stethoscope to auscultate the mitral valve area? Choose the letter that corresponds to the correct stethoscope placement.
a. A
b. B
c. D
d. E

 

 

ANS:  D

E is the location of the mitral valve area—the fifth intercostal space, midclavicular line. A is the location of the aortic valve area—second intercostal space, right sternal border. B is the location of the pulmonic valve area—fifty-second intercostal space, left sternal border. D is the location of the tricuspid valve area—fourth intercostal space, left sternal border.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand            REF:   pp. 228-230

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential: System Specific Assessments

 

  1. Which valve does a nurse auscultate when the stethoscope is placed on the fourth intercostal space at the left of the sternal border?
a. Pulmonic
b. Tricuspid
c. Mitral
d. Aortic

 

 

ANS:  B

Tricuspid valve sounds are best heard in the fourth intercostal space at the left of the sternal border. Pulmonic valve sounds are best heard in the second intercostal space at the left of the sternal border. Mitral valve sounds are best heard in the fifth intercostal space at the midclavicular line. Aortic valve sounds are best heard in the second intercostal space at the right of the sternal border.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remember            REF:   p. 229 | p. 230

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Techniques of Physical Assessment

 

  1. A patient reports that he has coronary artery disease with ventricular hypertrophy. Based on these data, what finding should the nurse expect during assessment?
a. S4 heart sound
b. Clubbing of fingers
c. Splitting of the S1 heart sound
d. Pericardial friction rub

 

 

ANS:  A

An S4 heart sound signifies a noncompliant or stiff ventricle. Coronary artery disease is a major cause of a stiff ventricle. Clubbing of fingers occurs due to chronic hypoxia rather than a stiff ventricle. Splitting of the S1 heart sound indicates a valve problem rather than ventricular hypertrophy. When the mitral and tricuspid valves do not close at the same time, S1 sounds as if it were split into two sounds instead of one. Pericardial friction rubs are caused by inflammation of the layers of the pericardial sac.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 231

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. What does the S2 heart sound represent?
a. The beginning of systole
b. The closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves
c. The closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves
d. A split heart sound on exhalation

 

 

ANS:  B

The second heart sound is made by the closing of these valves, which indicates the beginning of diastole. The beginning of systole is the S1 heart sound. The tricuspid and mitral valves create the S1 heart sound. A split sound on exhalation is not a correct statement.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remember            REF:   p. 231

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential: System Specific Assessments

 

  1. How is the first heart sound (S1) created?
a. Pulmonic and tricuspid valves close.
b. Mitral and aortic valves close.
c. Aortic and pulmonic valves close.
d. Mitral and tricuspid valves close.

 

 

ANS:  D

The first heart sound (S1) is made by the closing of the mitral (M1) and tricuspid (T1) valves. The pulmonic and tricuspid valves are the valves of the right side of the heart, and they do not close simultaneously in the cardiac cycle. The mitral and aortic valves are the valves of the left side of the heart, and they do not close simultaneously in the cardiac cycle. The aortic and pulmonic valves are the semilunar valves that create the second heart sound.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remember            REF:   p. 229

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential: System Specific Assessments

 

  1. A nurse learns from a report that a patient has aortic stenosis. Where does the nurse place the stethoscope to hear this stenotic valve?
a. Second intercostal space, right sternal border
b. Second intercostal space, left sternal border
c. Fourth intercostal space, left sternal border
d. Fifth intercostal space, left midclavicular line

 

 

ANS:  A

Second intercostal space, right sternal border is the location for listening to the aortic valve. Second intercostal space, left sternal border is the location for listening to the pulmonic valve. Fourth intercostal space, left sternal border is the location for listening to the tricuspid valve. Fifth intercostal space, left midclavicular line is the location for listening to the mitral valve.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply | Cognitive Level: Remember        REF:   p. 233

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Techniques of Physical Assessment

 

  1. A nurse who is auscultating a patient’s heart hears a harsh sound, a raspy machine-like blowing sound, after S1 and before S2. How does this nurse document this finding?
a. An opening snap
b. A diastolic murmur
c. A systolic murmur
d. A pericardial friction rub

 

 

ANS:  C

The blowing sound is a murmur. The nurse determines whether it is a systolic or a diastolic murmur based on where it is heard during the cardiac cycle. S1 indicates the beginning of systole; the sound is made by the closing of the mitral and tricuspid valves, which is followed by ventricular contraction or systole. An opening snap is caused by the opening of the mitral or tricuspid valve and is an abnormal sound heard in diastole when either valve is thickened, stenotic, or deformed. The sounds are high pitched and occur early in diastole. A diastolic murmur is heard after the S2 heart sound at the beginning of diastole. Pericardial friction rubs have a rubbing sound that is usually present in both diastole and systole, and is best heard over the apical area.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 232

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. A nurse determines that a patient’s jugular venous pressure is 3.5 inches. What additional data does the nurse expect to find?
a. Weight loss
b. Tented skin turgor
c. Peripheral edema
d. Capillary refill greater than 5 seconds

 

 

ANS:  C

The pressure should not rise more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) above the sternal angle. A pressure of 3.5 inches indicates fluid volume excess, which causes peripheral edema due to excessive fluid in blood vessels. Weight loss occurs with loss of fluid rather than fluid overload. Tented skin turgor occurs with fluid loss rather than fluid overload. Capillary refill greater than 5 seconds occurs with arterial insufficiency rather than fluid overload.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 220 | pp. 238-239

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. How does a nurse assess the competence of venous valves in patients who have varicose veins?
a. Notes how quickly veins fill after lifting one leg above the level of the heart.
b. Assesses for Homan sign in both lower extremities while the patient is supine.
c. Assesses capillary refill on the toes of both feet while the patient is sitting in the chair.
d. Measures the circumference of both calves and compares the results.

 

 

ANS:  A

Noting how quickly veins fill after lifting one leg above the level of the heart is the procedure to test for incompetent veins. Homan sign is an unreliable test for deep vein thrombosis. Assessing capillary refill assesses perfusion (blood flow from arteries) rather than competence of venous valves. Measuring the circumference of both calves and comparing the results is used to assess deep vein thrombosis.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 238 | p. 239

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. Which patient does the nurse identify as the one at greatest risk for hypertension?
a. Woman with coronary artery disease
b. Hispanic male
c. Obese male with diabetes mellitus
d. Postmenopausal woman

 

 

ANS:  C

Obese men with diabetes mellitus have three risk factors: obesity, gender, and comorbidity of diabetes mellitus. Although hypertension is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, coronary artery disease is not a risk factor for hypertension. Although male gender is a risk factor, African-American men have a greater risk than Hispanic men. Postmenopausal women do not have an increased risk for developing hypertension.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 213

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Health Promotion Programs

 

  1. After two separate office visits, the nurse suspects that a patient is developing Stage 1 hypertension based on which consecutive blood pressure readings?
a. Visit 1, 118/78; Visit 2, 116/76
b. Visit 1, 130/88; Visit 2, 134/88
c. Visit 1, 144/92; Visit 2, 150/90
d. Visit 1, 162/100; Visit 2, 166/104

 

 

ANS:  C

These readings are stage 1 because the systolic pressures are 140 to 159 and diastolic pressures are 90 mm Hg or greater. The readings in option A are within normal limits. The readings in option B are prehypertension because the systolic pressures are 120 to 139 and diastolic pressures are greater than 80 mm Hg. The readings in option D are stage 2 because the systolic pressures are greater than 160 and diastolic pressures are 100 mm Hg or greater.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 221

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alteration in Body Systems

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. During a health fair, the nurse is alert for which risk factors for hypertension? (Select all that apply.)
a. Excessive protein intake
b. Having parents with hypertension
c. Excessive alcohol intake
d. Being Asian
e. Experiencing persistent stress
f. Elevated serum lipids

 

 

ANS:  B, C, E, F

Options B, C, E, and F are all risk factors for hypertension. Excessive protein is not a risk factor for hypertension, but excessive sodium intake is a risk factor. Being Asian is not a risk factor, but being African-American is a risk factor.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 213 | p. 214

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential: Potential for Alteration in Body Systems

 

  1. A patient with heart failure reports having a cough with frothy sputum and awakening during the night to urinate. Based on this information, what abnormal data might this nurse expect to find during an examination? (Select all that apply.)
a. S4 heart sound
b. Dyspnea
c. Jugular vein distention
d. Pericardial friction rub
e. Edema of ankle and feet at the end of the day
f. S3 heart sound

 

 

ANS:  B, C, E, F

All of the manifestations mentioned in options B, C, E, and F are consistent with fluid overload that occurs in heart failure because the cardiac output is decreased. S4 heart sounds signify a noncompliant or stiff ventricle. Hypertrophy of the ventricle precedes a noncompliant ventricle. Also, coronary artery disease is a major cause of a stiff ventricle. Pericardial friction rubs are caused by inflammation of the layers of the pericardial sac.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 217 | p. 242

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation: Alterations in Body Systems

 

  1. What findings does the nurse expect when assessing the cardiovascular system of a healthy adult? (Select all that apply.)
a. Heart rate of 102 beats/min
b. S1 and S2 present with regular rhythm
c. Capillary refill greater than 3 seconds
d. Blood pressure of 124/86
e. Warm, elastic turgor
f. Pulse of smooth contour with 2+ amplitude

 

 

ANS:  B, E, F

Options B, E, and F are all expected findings. A heart rate of 102 beats/min is tachycardia. Capillary refill should be 2 seconds or less. Blood pressure of 124/86 is prehypertension. Normal is less than 120 and less than 80 mm Hg.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze                REF:   p. 239

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential: System Specific Assessments

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. A patient’s blood pressure using the posterior tibial pulse is 104/72 while blood pressure using the brachial pulse is 112/84. This patient’s ankle-brachial index is ____.

 

ANS:

0.92

 

Posterior tibial systolic pressure (104) divided by the brachial systolic pressure (112) = 0.92. The systolic pressures are the numbers used to calculate the ABI.4.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply                   REF:   p. 237

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential: System Specific Assessments

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