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Holes Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 13th Edition Shier Butler Lewis Test Bank

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Holes Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 13th Edition Shier Butler Lewis Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1259277368

ISBN-10: 1259277364

 

 

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Holes Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 13th Edition Shier Butler Lewis Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1259277368

ISBN-10: 1259277364

 

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

Ch21

Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent because
    A. water dissolves in electrolytes.
    B.  water and electrolytes are both in an ionic state in the blood.
    C.  both form ions in blood.
    D.  electrolytes are dissolved in water.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.01
Shier – Chapter 21 #1
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Transcellular fluid includes the water and electrolytes in the
    A. cerebrospinal fluid.
    B.  aqueous and vitreous humors of the eyes.
    C.  synovial fluid of the joints.
    D.  all of the above.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #2
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Compared to the average adult male, the average adult female has
    A. more water and more adipose tissue.
    B.  more water and less adipose tissue.
    C.  less water and more adipose tissue.
    D.  less water and less adipose tissue.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #3
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Extracellular fluids have relatively
    A. high sodium and low potassium ion concentrations.
    B.  high sodium and high potassium ion concentrations.
    C.  low sodium and low potassium ion concentrations.
    D.  low sodium and high potassium ion concentrations.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #4
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Intracellular fluids have high concentrations of
    A. chloride and potassium ions.
    B.  sodium and phosphate ions.
    C.  potassium and phosphate ions.
    D.  sodium and chloride ions.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #5
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. The movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily by
    A. diffusion and osmosis.
    B.  hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure.
    C.  pinocytosis and phagocytosis.
    D.  active and passive transport.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #6
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Which of the following most closely represents the percentage of water by weight in an adult male?
    A. 35%
    B.  45%
    C.  55%
    D.  65%

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #7
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Which is the largest compartment of extracellular water?
    A. Plasma
    B.  Lymph
    C.  Interstitial fluid
    D.  Transcellular fluid

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #8
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. The ratio of intracellular to extracellular fluids in the body of an average male is
    A. 1:2
    B.  2:1
    C.  1:1
    D.  3:2

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #9
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Which of the following body compartments is correctly matched with its location in the body?
    A. intracellular-all fluids outside cells
    B.  extracellular-fluid in tissue spaces, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
    C.  extracellular-fluid in cells
    D.  transcellular-between the lipid layers of cell membranes

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #10
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The thirst center is located in the
    A. thalamus.
    B.  hypothalamus.
    C.  midbrain.
    D.  medulla oblongata.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #11
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Marielle is very thirsty following her tennis game. She drinks for a few minutes, then stops. The stimulus to stop drinking comes from
    A. distension of her stomach.
    B.  hormones secreted by stomach cells.
    C.  changes in intracellular fluid concentration.
    D.  changes in extracellular fluid concentration.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #12
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. A person usually drinks about ____ milliliters a day.
    A. 500
    B.  1,000
    C.  1,500
    D.  2,500

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #13
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Water of metabolism is
    A. water that a person drinks after exercising.
    B.  water that is in food.
    C.  a by-product of the oxidative metabolism of nutrients.
    D.  only present in adults.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #14
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. The thirst center in the hypothalamus is stimulated by _____ of the extracellular fluid, and is inhibited by _____.
    A. an increase in the osmotic pressure; distension of the stomach by water
    B.  a decrease in the osmotic pressure; stimulation of osmoreceptors
    C.  a decrease in sodium ions; an increase in sodium ions
    D.  nerve impulses from the cerebrum; nerve impulses from the thalamus

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #15
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. ADH level in nephrons regulates water output by causing the _____.
    A. glomerulus and proximal convoluted tubule to filter less or more water
    B.  glomerular capsule and nephron loop to absorb more or less water
    C.  distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to reabsorb more or less water
    D.  distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to reabsorb more or less sodium ions

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #16
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Thirst is triggered when total body water decreases by as little as
    A. 1%.
    B.  10%.
    C.  25%.
    D.  58%

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #17
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. A person in a moderate environment would lose the greatest volume of water in
    A. sweat.
    B.  mucus.
    C.  feces.
    D.  urine.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #18
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. If excess water enters the body,
    A. ADH release increases.
    B.  more water is reabsorbed from the renal tubules.
    C.  osmoreceptors in the brain swell.
    D.  the collecting duct becomes more permeable to water.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #19
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The hormone aldosterone promotes the
    A. reabsorption of sodium ions.
    B.  secretion of sodium ions.
    C.  reabsorption of potassium ions.
    D.  secretion of calcium ions.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.04
Shier – Chapter 21 #20
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. An important stimulus for the secretion of aldosterone is
    A. rising potassium ion concentration.
    B.  falling potassium ion concentration.
    C.  rising sodium ion concentration.
    D.  rising calcium ion concentration.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.04
Shier – Chapter 21 #21
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. When sodium ions are reabsorbed in response to the action of aldosterone, potassium ions are
    A. actively reabsorbed.
    B.  passively reabsorbed.
    C.  secreted.
    D.  reabsorbed.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.04
Shier – Chapter 21 #22
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Which of the following would be most helpful in treating hypocalcemia?
    A. Removing the parathyroid glands
    B.  Administering high doses of vitamin D and calcium salts
    C.  Stimulating calcium excretion by the kidneys
    D.  Avoiding foods that are high in calcium

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.04
Shier – Chapter 21 #23
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Which of the following metabolic processes releases hydrogen ions to body fluids?
    A. Anaerobic respiration of glucose
    B.  Aerobic respiration of glucose
    C.  Incomplete oxidation of fatty acids
    D.  All of the above

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #24
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes by
    A. converting weak acids to strong acids.
    B.  converting strong acids to weak acids.
    C.  increasing breathing rate.
    D.  promoting the excretion of hydrogen ions.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #25
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Maxwell has just finished a brutal 10 kilometer run. His body has
    A. an increased production of carbonic acid and increased pH of body fluids.
    B.  an increased production of carbonic acid and decreased pH of body fluids.
    C.  a decreased production of carbonic acid, and increased pH of body fluids.
    D.  a decreased production of carbonic acid and decreased pH of body fluids.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #26
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Which of the following is a physiological buffer?
    A. Bicarbonate buffer
    B.  Phosphate buffer
    C.  Protein buffer
    D.  Renal mechanism

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #27
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The parts of an amino acid that are important in the protein buffer system are the
    A. amino and R groups.
    B.  amino and carboxyl groups.
    C.  monocarbonate and bicarbonate groups.
    D.  monohydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate groups.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #28
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The respiratory center is most likely to increase the breathing rate if the
    A. concentration of carbonic acid is decreasing.
    B.  pH of body fluids is decreasing.
    C.  pH of body fluids is increasing.
    D.  concentration of sodium bicarbonate is increasing.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #30
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Acid-base buffers are the first line of defense against shifts in pH because
    A. they occur closest to the skin.
    B.  they are slow and prolonged.
    C.  they occur in everyone.
    D.  they are fast.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #31
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Symptoms of respiratory alkalosis include
    A. light headedness.
    B.  agitation.
    C.  tingling sensations.
    D.  all of the above.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #32
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Acidosis is a pH of arterial blood
    A. below 4.5
    B.  above 4.5
    C.  below 7.35
    D.  above 7.35

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #33
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Alkalosis is a pH of arterial blood
    A. below 7.35
    B.  above 7.35
    C.  below 7.45
    D.  above 7.45

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #34
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. A strong acid is one that _____ and an example is _____.
    A. ionizes more completely; H2CO3
    B.  ionizes less completely; H2SO4
    C.  gives off less H+; H3PO4
    D.  ionizes more completely; HC1

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #35
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Metabolic alkalosis may be caused by
    A. prolonged vomiting.
    B.  taking too many antacids.
    C.  gastric lavage (“stomach pumping”).
    D.  all of the above.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #36
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Hyperventilation leads to
    A. respiratory acidosis.
    B.  respiratory alkalosis.
    C.  metabolic acidosis.
    D.  metabolic alkalosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #37
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Prolonged vomiting, in which only the stomach contents are lost, leads to
    A. respiratory acidosis.
    B.  respiratory alkalosis.
    C.  metabolic acidosis.
    D.  metabolic alkalosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #38
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Diabetes mellitus, in which fatty acids react to produce ketone bodies, leads to
    A. respiratory acidosis.
    B.  respiratory alkalosis.
    C.  metabolic acidosis.
    D.  metabolic alkalosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #39
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Ingestion of too much sodium bicarbonate to relieve indigestion may lead to
    A. respiratory acidosis.
    B.  respiratory alkalosis.
    C.  metabolic acidosis.
    D.  metabolic alkalosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #40
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Obstruction of the airways leads to
    A. respiratory acidosis.
    B.  respiratory alkalosis.
    C.  metabolic acidosis.
    D.  metabolic alkalosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #41
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Metabolic acidosis can be
    A. caused by a decreased breathing rate.
    B.  caused by a decreased gas exchange surface area.
    C.  compensated for by the retention of large numbers of H+ in the kidneys.
    D.  compensated for by an increased breathing rate and depth.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #42
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. The buffer system in blood is formed by
    A. the chloride shift through the cell membranes.
    B.  deoxyhemoglobin generated in white blood cells.
    C.  phosphate buffer in the renal system.
    D.  hemoglobin binding hydrogen ions in red blood cells.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #43
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Respiratory alkalosis can be
    A. caused by anything that decreases breathing rate.
    B.  compensated for by a decreased secretion of bases in the kidneys.
    C.  compensated for by a decreased respiratory rate.
    D.  characterized by muscle paralysis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #44
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The sequence of symptoms of heatstroke is
    A. neurological symptoms, dizziness, skin reddening, and then headache and racing heart.
    B.  headache, dizziness, exhaustion, then sweating, which stops as the skin becomes red, hot, and dry.
    C.  intense itching, profuse sweating, kidney failure, racing pulse, headache.
    D.  fever, itching, redness, headache, numb extremities, vomiting.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Vignette
Shier – Chapter 21 #45
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. People who are at high risk for heatstroke include
    A. people prone to fevers and infants.
    B.  people who have mice for pets.
    C.  mountain climbers and elderly marathoners.
    D.  athletes who exercise in high heatRemember,ldiers in the desert.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Vignette
Shier – Chapter 21 #46
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Dehydration is caused by
    A. excessive sweating.
    B.  prolonged water deprivation.
    C.  prolonged vomiting or prolonged diarrhea.
    D.  all of the above.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 21.1
Shier – Chapter 21 #47
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The technical term for water intoxication is
    A. hypoglycemia.
    B.  hypocalcemia.
    C.  hyponatremia.
    D.  hypoxia.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 21.1
Shier – Chapter 21 #48
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Water intoxication causes
    A. low blood sodium.
    B.  high blood sodium.
    C.  low blood potassium.
    D.  abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 21.1
Shier – Chapter 21 #49
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Edema is
    A. a response to dehydration.
    B.  caused by hyperproteinemia.
    C.  abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid.
    D.  caused by depressed venous pressure.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 21.1
Shier – Chapter 21 #50
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Hyponatremia is
    A. another term for dehydration.
    B.  caused by elevated levels of aldosterone.
    C.  high blood sodium.
    D.  more likely in runners who are in a long race, have an extreme body mass index, and drink a great deal during the event.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 21.1
Shier – Chapter 21 #51
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Hypernatremia
    A. can be caused by high fever.
    B.  can be caused by low levels of ADH.
    C.  causes confusion, stupor, and coma.
    D.  is all of the above.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 21.2
Shier – Chapter 21 #52
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Effects of hypokalemia include
    A. muscle weakness.
    B.  acne.
    C.  sweating.
    D.  diabetes.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 21.2
Shier – Chapter 21 #53
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Hyperkalemia can be caused by
    A. renal disease, which reduces potassium excretion.
    B.  drugs that promote renal conservation of potassium.
    C.  insufficient secretion of aldosterone.
    D.  all of the above.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 21.2
Shier – Chapter 21 #54
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Addison disease is characterized by
    A. aldosterone deficiency and loss of extracellular sodium.
    B.  aldosterone deficiency and gain of extracellular sodium.
    C.  aldosterone excess and loss of extracellular sodium.
    D.  aldosterone excess and gain of extracellular sodium.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Boxed Reading: Clinical Application 21.2
Shier – Chapter 21 #55
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

True / False Questions

  1. Factors that alter water balance will also alter electrolyte balance.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.01
Shier – Chapter 21 #56
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. In a healthy body, the volume of water remains relatively stable at all times.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #57
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Normally, fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries as a result of active transport.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #58
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The thirst mechanism is usually not triggered until the volume of the body water has been decreased by 5-10%.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #59
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The hormone ADH is released from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #60
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. The greatest output of electrolytes normally is in urine.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.04
Shier – Chapter 21 #61
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate reabsorption from the renal tubules.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.04
Shier – Chapter 21 #62
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Sometimes the carboxyl groups of proteins release hydrogen ions.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #63
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

 

  1. The kidneys help to regulate the hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids by altering the rate at which hydrogen ions are secreted.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #64
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. A protein functions as an acid-base buffer system by the -COOH group of a molecule accepting H+ in the presence of excess acid and the NH3 group of a molecule releasing H+ in the presence of excess base.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #65
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Chemical buffer systems act rapidly against shifts in pH, whereas physiological buffer systems function more slowly.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #66
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. A blood pH of 7.2 inhibits the respiratory center in the brainstem and decreases CO2 level.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #67
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Kidneys help to regulate acid-base balance of the blood by secreting OH.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #68
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. The intracellular fluid compartment includes all water and electrolytes enclosed by a _____ _____.
    cell membrane

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 21.02
Shier – Chapter 21 #69
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Water obtained as a by-product of the oxidation of various nutrients is called water of _____.
    metabolism

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #71
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The volume of urine produced is regulated mainly by the activity in the distal convoluted tubule and _____ duct.
    collecting

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.03
Shier – Chapter 21 #72
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The concentration of calcium ions in extracellular fluid is regulated primarily by a hormone secreted by the _____ glands.
    parathyroid

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.04
Shier – Chapter 21 #74
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form _____ _____.
    carbonic acid

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #76
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. The part of the brain that helps regulate hydrogen ion concentrations is the _______ center.
    respiratory

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.05
Shier – Chapter 21 #77
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Arterial blood with a pH below 7.35 produces _____________.
    acidosis

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #78
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

 

  1. Arterial blood with a pH above 7.45 produces _____________.
    alkalosis

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 21.06
Shier – Chapter 21 #79
Topic: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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