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Human Anatomy 7th Edition Marieb Wilhelm Mallatt Test Bank

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Human Anatomy 7th Edition Marieb Wilhelm Mallatt Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321822413

ISBN-10: 0321822412

 

 

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Human Anatomy 7th Edition Marieb Wilhelm Mallatt Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321822413

ISBN-10: 0321822412

 

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Human Anatomy, 7e (Marieb/Mitchell/Smith)

Chapter 20   Blood Vessels

 

20.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

Figure 20.1

 

Use the diagram above to answer the following questions.

 

1) Identify the letter that indicates the layer common to all blood vessels regardless of their size.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589-590

 

 

2) Identify the letter that is indicating endothelial cells.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589-590

3) Identify the letter that indicates a connective tissue layer consisting of longitudinal collagen fibers.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589-590

 

4) Identify the letter that indicates the blood vessel layer that is comprised of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589-590

 

5) Identify the letter that indicates the subendothelial layer associated with larger blood vessels.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589-590

Figure 20.2

 

Use the diagram above to answer the following questions.

 

6) Identify the letter that indicates the common carotid arteries.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 598

 

7) Identify the letter that indicates the common iliac artery.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 598

8) Identify the letter that indicates the brachial artery.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 598

 

9) Identify the letter that indicates the renal artery as it branches from the Abdominal aorta.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 598

 

10) Identify the letter that indicates one of the primary arteries that contributes to the superficial palmar arch-the ulnar artery.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 598, 603

Figure 20.3

 

Use the diagram above to answer the following questions.

 

11) Identify the letter that indicates the vessel that is easy to find in most people and is used to obtain blood.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 609, 613

 

12) Identify the letter that indicates the longest vein in the body.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 609, 616

 

13) Identify the letter that indicates the vessel that arises from the union of the left and right brachiocephalic veins.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 609-610

 

14) Identify the letter that indicates the cephalic vein.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 609, 613

 

15) Identify the letter that indicates the internal jugular vein.

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) E

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 609, 611

 

16) Layer of blood vessels innervated by sympathetic vasomotor fibers.

  1. A) tunica intima
  2. B) subendothelial layer
  3. C) tunica media
  4. D) tunica externa
  5. E) vasa vasorum

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589

 

17) Capillaries consist of only this layer.

  1. A) tunica intima
  2. B) subendothelial layer
  3. C) tunica media
  4. D) tunica externa
  5. E) vasa vasorum

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 590, 592

 

18) Structure that regulates blood flow into true capillaries.

  1. A) metarteriole
  2. B) thoroughfare channel
  3. C) precapillary sphincter
  4. D) sinusoids
  5. E) fenestrations

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593

 

19) Wide leaky capillaries found in bone marrow and spleen.

  1. A) sinusoids
  2. B) fenestrated capillaries
  3. C) continuous capillaries
  4. D) metarterioles
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593

 

20) A “coming together” of alternate pathways of blood vessels.

  1. A) thoroughfare channel
  2. B) vasa vasorum
  3. C) metarterioles
  4. D) vascular anastomosis
  5. E) converging veins

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 595

 

21) Precapillary sphincters allow blood to leave this structure and enter true capillaries.

  1. A) sinusoids
  2. B) fenestrated capillaries
  3. C) continuous capillaries
  4. D) metarterioles
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593

 

22) Collective name for the structures that drain the cranium.

  1. A) vascular anastomosis
  2. B) dural sinuses
  3. C) internal jugular vein
  4. D) cavernous sinuses
  5. E) inferior vena cava

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 610

 

23) Present in most capillaries, these structures are absent in those of the blood-brain barrier.

  1. A) tight junctions
  2. B) endothelial cells
  3. C) basement membrane
  4. D) intercellular clefts
  5. E) pericytes

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593

 

24) Vessels of the small intestines, renal glomerulus, and synovial membranes that allow passage of fluid and solutes through “windows” in the endothelium.

  1. A) sinusoids
  2. B) fenestrated capillaries
  3. C) continuous capillaries
  4. D) metarterioles
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593

 

25) Microvasculature that provides nourishment to the outer walls of the aorta.

  1. A) tunica intima
  2. B) subendothelial layer
  3. C) tunica media
  4. D) tunica externa
  5. E) vasa vasorum

Answer:  E

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589

 

26) Which layer of blood vessels contains smooth muscle tissue?

  1. A) tunica intima
  2. B) tunica media
  3. C) tunica externa
  4. D) tunica adventitia

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 589

 

27) Most small molecules pass through a capillary wall through which route?

  1. A) via direct diffusion through the endothelium
  2. B) via pinocytotic vesicles
  3. C) through intercellular clefts
  4. D) through tight junctions

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 592

 

28) Functionally, there are no valves in arteries (as opposed to in veins) because

  1. A) valves direct blood only toward the heart and arterial blood passes away from the heart.
  2. B) valves would tear apart from the high arterial pressure.
  3. C) arteries get more atherosclerosisRemember, valves would cause lethal blood clotting.
  4. D) the blood pressure in arteries is high enough that there is no backflow of blood.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589-591, 595

 

29) Blood pressure is highest in the

  1. A) elastic arteries.
  2. B) arterioles.
  3. C) veins.
  4. D) capillaries.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 589

 

30) The hepatic portal system has two distinct capillary beds separated by a portal vein. What are the functions of these two capillary beds?

  1. A) The first picks up digested nutrients, and the second delivers these nutrients to liver cells.
  2. B) The first nourishes the digestive tube, and the second picks up nutrients from the digestive tube.
  3. C) The first provides oxygen to the liver, and the second picks up nutrients from the liver.
  4. D) The first picks up toxins from the liver, and the second delivers them to the digestive tube for detoxification.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 615-616

 

31) An aneurysm is

  1. A) a rupture in an artery.
  2. B) a buildup of fatty deposits on an arterial wall.
  3. C) a sac-like widening or outpocketing of an artery.
  4. D) a stroke.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 618

 

 

32) The pulse of the facial artery is palpated

  1. A) anterior to the auricle of the ear near the temple.
  2. B) anterior to the masseter muscle at the inferior margin of the mandible.
  3. C) anterior to the sternocleidomastoid.
  4. D) in the anterior triangle of the neck.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 601

33) A blood vessel that ranges from 0.3 mm to about 1 cm in diameter and has a large tunica media relative to the size of the lumen is

  1. A) an elastic artery.
  2. B) a muscular artery.
  3. C) an arteriole.
  4. D) a capillary.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 591

 

34) In a capillary bed, relaxation of the precapillary sphincters causes more blood to flow

  1. A) into the thoroughfare channels.
  2. B) into the arterioles.
  3. C) through the true capillaries.
  4. D) through the metarterioles.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593-594

 

35) The dorsalis pedis artery is located by

  1. A) finding the head of the fibula and palpating inferior to its neck.
  2. B) palpating between the first and second metatarsal.
  3. C) placing the fingers behind the knee.
  4. D) placing a finger behind the medial malleolus.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 608

 

36) What artery enters the skull through the foramen spinosum and supplies the inner surface of the parietal bone, dura mater, and parts of the temporal bone?

  1. A) internal carotid artery
  2. B) middle cerebral artery
  3. C) middle meningeal artery
  4. D) basilar artery

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 601

 

 

37) Two large (wide) arteries that have relatively superficial locations and are often wounded are the

  1. A) aorta and the popliteal artery.
  2. B) right and left coronary arteries.
  3. C) brachial artery and posterior intercostal arteries.
  4. D) common carotid artery and the femoral artery (in the superior thigh).

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 601, 608

 

38) If a physician cannot feel a pulse in the popliteal fossa, the ________ artery is most likely narrowed by atherosclerosis.

  1. A) dorsalis pedis
  2. B) femoral
  3. C) fibular
  4. D) greater saphenous

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 608

39) Of the following, the only unpaired dural sinus is the

  1. A) cavernous sinus.
  2. B) superior sagittal sinus.
  3. C) transverse sinus.
  4. D) carotid sinus.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 610-611

 

40) Which vessel is missing in the following statement? “Tracing venous blood from the inferior left side of the posterior abdominal wall to the heart, we find that blood enters the posterior intercostal veins, the hemiazygos vein, the superior vena cava, and the right atrium.”

  1. A) the azygos vein
  2. B) the hepatic portal vein
  3. C) the inferior vena cava
  4. D) the right brachiocephalic vein

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 611

 

41) The foramen ovale in the heart normally closes

  1. A) in the 2-month fetus.
  2. B) in the 7-month fetus.
  3. C) shortly after birth.
  4. D) never.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 622-23

 

 

42) Which vessel is most commonly used to bypass a damaged coronary artery in coronary bypass surgery?

  1. A) azygos vein
  2. B) great saphenous vein
  3. C) femoral artery
  4. D) internal carotid artery

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 617

 

43) What vessel in the fetus connects the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch so that most of the blood bypasses the immature lungs?

  1. A) ductus venosus
  2. B) foramen ovale
  3. C) ductus arteriosus
  4. D) umbilical vein

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 622

 

44) Which of the following statements about arteries is false?

  1. A) Arterial walls are thicker than venous walls.
  2. B) Arteries have a smaller lumen than veins of similar size.
  3. C) Arteries carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
  4. D) Arteries have more elastin than veins.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 589

45) Which branch (or branches) of the abdominal aorta supplies the stomach?

  1. A) celiac trunk
  2. B) superior mesenteric artery
  3. C) inferior phrenic arteries
  4. D) suprarenal arteries

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 603-604

 

46) The cerebral arterial circle forms a loop around which structures?

  1. A) the great vessels at the base of the heart
  2. B) the internal and external carotid arteries
  3. C) the cerebellum
  4. D) the pituitary gland and the optic chiasma

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 601

 

 

47) A common theme to the development of atherosclerosis is

  1. A) a ballooning out of the vessel walls.
  2. B) a failure of the venous valves resulting in engorged and twisted vessels.
  3. C) an accumulation of glycoproteins in the basement membrane of capillaries.
  4. D) an inflammatory response to a damaged endothelium.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 619

 

48) The abdominal aorta divides at its distal end into which arteries?

  1. A) the femoral arteries
  2. B) the internal iliac arteries
  3. C) the external iliac arteries
  4. D) the common iliac arteries

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 606-607

 

49) Which of the following is most likely to become a varicose vein?

  1. A) the femoral vein
  2. B) the saphenous vein
  3. C) the popliteal vein
  4. D) the fibular (peroneal) vein

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 616-617

 

50) Fenestrated capillaries

  1. A) are located in the central nervous system.
  2. B) have pores in their walls.
  3. C) permit the movement of very few molecules.
  4. D) occur in most of the organs of the body.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 593

51) The correct proximal to distal sequence of the three vessels branching from the aortic arch is

  1. A) brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian.
  2. B) brachiocephalic, left subclavian, left common carotid.
  3. C) left common carotid, left subclavian, brachiocephalic.
  4. D) left subclavian, left common carotid, brachiocephalic.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 599

 

52) What prevents the backflow of blood in veins?

  1. A) valves
  2. B) the narrowed lumen
  3. C) thick smooth muscle and elastic layers
  4. D) increased blood pressure

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 595

 

53) The largest molecules that pass through the walls of typical capillaries are thought to use which route?

  1. A) direct diffusion through the endothelium
  2. B) pinocytotic vesicles
  3. C) intercellular clefts
  4. D) tight junctions

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 593

 

54) The internal carotid artery branches to form the

  1. A) anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, and ophthalmic arteries.
  2. B) facial, maxillary, and superficial temporal arteries.
  3. C) middle meningeal and middle cerebral arteries.
  4. D) posterior cerebral and posterior communicating arteries.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 601

 

55) The major cause of atherosclerosis is due to the

  1. A) formation of atheromas.
  2. B) destruction of valves in veins.
  3. C) lack of formation of anastomosis between vessels.
  4. D) destruction of elastic fibers in artery walls.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 619

 

56) Most systemic venous blood is both oxygen-poor and nutrient-poor. However, systemic venous blood that is not oxygenpoor and is nutrient-rich occurs in

  1. A) the renal vein.
  2. B) superficial veins of the limbs.
  3. C) the hepatic portal vein.
  4. D) the pulmonary veins.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 613-615

57) The ________ delivers arterial blood to the rotator cuff muscles and thyroid gland.

  1. A) axillary artery
  2. B) costocervical trunk
  3. C) thyrocervical trunk
  4. D) vertebral artery

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 601

 

 

58) The diameter of a typical capillary is similar to that of

  1. A) a venule.
  2. B) a sinusoid.
  3. C) an erythrocyte.
  4. D) a fat cell.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 592

 

59) Which of the following statements about arterioles is false?

  1. A) They regulate the flow of blood to capillary beds through contraction and relaxation of the tunica media.
  2. B) They redirect blood flow in a sympathetic response to skeletal muscle.
  3. C) They can lead into metarterioles.
  4. D) They have the largest content of smooth muscle in their tunica media.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 591-592

 

60) Systemic venous blood that is oxygen-poor but contains the lowest concentration of nitrogenous wastes occurs in the

  1. A) renal veins.
  2. B) hepatic portal vein.
  3. C) pulmonary veins.
  4. D) umbilical veins of the fetus.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 613

 

61) A preferred site to insert intravenous catheters is into the

  1. A) brachial vein.
  2. B) dorsal venous network of the hand.
  3. C) great saphenous vein.
  4. D) superficial palmar venous arch of the hand.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 613

 

62) Which artery arises from the inferior part of the abdominal aorta and supplies the distal half of the large intestine?

  1. A) gonadal artery
  2. B) median sacral artery
  3. C) superior phrenic artery
  4. D) inferior mesenteric artery

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 616

 

63) The main arteries of the sole of the foot—the medial and lateral plantar arteries—arise behind the ankle from which artery?

  1. A) posterior tibial
  2. B) fibular
  3. C) saphenous
  4. D) dorsalis pedis

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 608

 

64) A dural sinus that contains a major artery and some cranial nerves within it is the

  1. A) superior sagittal.
  2. B) inferior sagittal.
  3. C) cavernous.
  4. D) transverse.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 610-611

 

65) Which vessel is missing from the following statement? “Tracing blood that drains from the large intestine, we find that blood drains from the distal colon is collected in the inferior mesenteric vein, merges with the splenic vein then directed to the hepatic portal vein, the liver sinusoids, and the inferior vena cava.”

  1. A) celiac vein
  2. B) umbilical vein
  3. C) hepatic vein
  4. D) azygos vein

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 613-616

 

66) In the adult, the hepatic portal system carries nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract to the liver. In the fetus, nutrients are absorbed at the placenta, and the vessel that carries these nutrients to the liver is the

  1. A) hepatic portal vein.
  2. B) placental vein.
  3. C) umbilical vein.
  4. D) internal iliac vein.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 622-623

 

67) The right suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the inferior vena cava, whereas the left suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the

  1. A) superior vena cava.
  2. B) other side of the inferior vena cava.
  3. C) hepatic portal system.
  4. D) left renal vein.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 613

68) Phlebitis is

  1. A) inflammation of a vein.
  2. B) a condition characterized by excessively leaky capillaries.
  3. C) cancer of the tunica intima.
  4. D) ballooning of an artery.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 623

 

69) By definition, veins are

  1. A) vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
  2. B) vessels that always carry nutrient-poor blood.
  3. C) the only vessels that lead from capillaries.
  4. D) vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 589, 594

 

70) Which body tissues lack capillaries?

  1. A) the myocardium and epicardium of the heart
  2. B) tendons and ligaments
  3. C) the lens and the cornea
  4. D) bones

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 593

 

71) Which arteries connect the basilar artery and the internal carotid artery forming the posterior aspect of the cerebral arterial circle?

  1. A) genicular arteries that encircle the knee
  2. B) posterior communicating arteries
  3. C) ulnar artery that encircles the elbow joint
  4. D) anterior communicating arteries

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 601

 

72) The extensor muscles of the forearm are supplied by which artery?

  1. A) radial
  2. B) posterior interosseous
  3. C) ulnar
  4. D) deep palmar arch

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 603

 

 

73) The lumbar veins drain the inferior posterior abdominal wall and direct oxygen-poor blood into the

  1. A) superior vena cava.
  2. B) internal iliac vein.
  3. C) external iliac vein.
  4. D) inferior vena cava.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 613

74) Which of the following is not a branch of the celiac trunk?

  1. A) left gastric artery
  2. B) common hepatic artery
  3. C) sigmoidal artery
  4. D) splenic artery

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 604-605

 

75) The right gonadal vein drains into the

  1. A) inferior vena cava.
  2. B) internal iliac vein.
  3. C) lumbar vein.
  4. D) renal vein.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 613

 

76) The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called

  1. A) coronary circulation.
  2. B) pulmonary circulation.
  3. C) hepatic portal circulation.
  4. D) cerebral circulation.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 613-616

 

77) Blood passing through the fetal ductus arteriosus bypasses the

  1. A) lungs, left atrium, and ventricle.
  2. B) pulmonary trunk and lungs.
  3. C) right atrium and ventricle.
  4. D) right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, and lungs.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 622-623

 

 

20.2   True/False Questions

 

1) All types of blood vessels contain a tunica intima.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 589

 

2) All arteries carry oxygen-rich blood, whereas veins carry oxygen-poor blood.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589

 

3) Systemic blood pressure is regulated by adjusting the diameter of arterioles.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 591-592

 

4) In metabolically active tissues, blood is present in metarterioles, and precapillary sphincters are constricted.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593

5) Postcapillary venules function much like true capillaries.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 594

 

6) The pulse of the posterior tibial artery is palpated behind the knee.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 608

 

7) Veins have less elastin in their walls than do arteries.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 595

 

8) Arterioles and venules have a vasa vasorum to provide nutrients to their outer walls, whereas the inner walls receive nutrients from blood in the lumen.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589

 

9) The middle and posterior cerebral arteries are connected by the posterior communicating arteries.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 601

 

10) The internal iliac arteries supply blood both to the pelvic organs and to the lower limbs.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 607

 

 

11) The inferior vena cava ascends on the left side of the vertebral bodies and to the left of the abdominal aorta.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 610

 

12) Muscular arteries regulate blood flow to organs and groups of organs.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 591

 

13) The elastic arteries are the largest arteries near the heart.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 589-591

 

14) The saphenous vein is not paired with an artery with the same name.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 616-617

 

15) Paired fetal umbilical veins carry blood from the fetus to the placenta, whereas the unpaired umbilical artery returns blood from the placenta to the fetus.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 622

20.3   Short Answer Questions

 

1) The ________ pulse can be palpated near the temple anterior to the auricle of the ear.

Answer:  temporal

Diff: 1      Page Ref: 601

 

2) The ________ artery descends along the arcuate line of the ilium and passes below the inguinal ligament.

Answer:  external iliac

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 607-608

 

3) In a capillary bed, blood enters by a terminal arteriole, continues through a metarteriole, and exits to a venule by means of a(n) ________.

Answer:  thoroughfare channel

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593-594

 

4) The ________ vein descends through the transverse foramina of the first six cervical vertebrae.

Answer:  vertebral

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 611

 

5) Capillaries that allow a high degree of flow between the blood and tissue fluid usually have pores called ________ in their membranes.

Answer:  fenestrations

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593

 

6) The blood-brain barrier consists of capillaries with complete ________ and no intercellular clefts.

Answer:  tight junctions

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 593

 

7) The presence of ________ in the veins and the action of skeletal muscle pressing on the walls ensure that blood return to the heart is in one direction.

Answer:  valves

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 595

 

8) The largest blood vessels near the heart have their own blood supply network called the ________.

Answer:  vasa vasorum

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589

 

9) The ________ branches to form the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries.

Answer:  brachiocephalic trunk

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 600-601

 

10) Cirrhosis of the liver causes backup of blood in the sinusoids, resulting in a condition known as ________ hypertension.

Answer:  portal

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 616

11) Venous blood from the right posterior intercostal veins (except the first intercostal space) flows to the unpaired ________ vein and on to the superior vena cava.

Answer:  azygos

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 611

 

12) Venous blood from the hands can be drained towards the heart through the radial, ulnar, median, cephalic, and ________ veins.

Answer:  basilic

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 612-613

 

13) ________ channels, also known as arterial anastomoses, provide alternative pathways of blood to joints.

Answer:  Collateral

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 595

 

14) Blood flow to the posterior brain follows the following sequence: subclavian artery, vertebral artery, ________, posterior cerebral arteries.

Answer:  basilar artery

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 601

 

 

15) Veins with compromised valves are called ________ veins.

Answer:  varicose

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 595-596

 

20.4   Essay Questions

 

1) Identify the superficial veins of the forearm and arm, and describe their anatomical location.

Answer:  The superficial veins include the cephalic, basilic, median, and median cubital veins. The cephalic vein and basilic veins arise from the dorsal venous network. The cephalic ascends the lateral forearm, whereas the basilic ascends the medial aspect. The median cubital vein bridges these two veins; it runs obliquely across the cubital fossa from the cephalic to a more proximal union with the basilic vein. The median vein ascends the center of the forearm before passing the medial side of the cubital fossa.

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 612-613

 

2) Describe how blood flow is regulated (a) to whole organs, (b) within tissues, and (c) to capillary beds.

Answer:  Blood flow to groups of organs or to individual organs is regulated by the muscular arteries. Sympathetic vasomotor fibers innervating their walls constrict or dilate the arteries to divert or enhance blood flow. A similar regulatory system occurs within tissues via vasoconstriction of arterioles. Sympathetic stimulation can cause vasoconstriction of arterioles to increase systemic blood pressure. Alternatively, local chemical conditions within metabolically active tissues can cause local vasodilation of the arterioles. These chemical factors also cause relaxation of the precapillary sphincters allowing greater perfusion of capillary beds within the tissues.

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 589-592

3) Define and explain the significance of vascular anastomoses.

Answer:  A vascular anastomosis is a “coming together” of either arteries or veins. Vascular anastomoses are alternative pathways for blood flow. These pathways are called collateral channels. Arterial anastomoses often occur around joints providing alternative pathways for blood to flow when movement of a joint impinges upon flow through other vessels. The anastomosis ensures adequate perfusion of the tissue. Venous anastomoses provide multiple pathways for drainage. Blockage of a single vein rarely blocks blood flow or leads to tissue death.

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 595-596

 

4) Define the term portal system, and describe the significance of portal-systemic anastomoses.

Answer:  A portal system consists of two separate capillary beds between the arterial and venous ends of the circuit. The capillary beds are joined to each other in sequence by a portal vein. In the hepatic portal system, destruction of the hepatic sinusoids can lead to blockage of blood flow through the liver, resulting in increased blood pressure throughout the liver and GI tract. Venous anastomoses along the GI tract provide a “safety valve” through which venous blood can drain, bypassing the blocked liver and relieving the hypertension.

Diff: 3      Page Ref: 613-616

 

 

5) Describe the function of the fetal shunts from the pulmonary circuit.

Answer:  The foramen ovale is a shunt between the right and left atria of the heart. This shunt allows blood to bypass the entire pulmonary circuit. Only about half of the blood entering the right atrium is diverted through the foramen ovale. Much of the remainder of the blood that proceeds through the right ventricle and into the pulmonary trunk then enters the second shunt. This ductus arteriosus connects the pulmonary trunk directly to the arch of the aorta. This blood then continues to the systemic circuit. Only a small quantity of the initial blood entering the heart goes to the developing lungs.

Diff: 2      Page Ref: 622-623

 

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