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Human Anatomy 9th Edition Martini Tallitsch Nath Test Bank

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Human Anatomy 9th Edition Martini Tallitsch Nath Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0134320762

ISBN-10: 013432076X

 

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Human Anatomy 9th Edition Martini Tallitsch Nath Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0134320762

ISBN-10: 013432076X

 

 

 

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Human Anatomy, 9e (Martini)

Chapter 16   The Nervous System: The Brain and Cranial Nerves

 

16.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) In the fourth week of development, which primary brain vesicle is known as the “hindbrain?”

  1. A) rhombencephalon
  2. B) metencephalon
  3. C) prosencephalon
  4. D) myelencephalon
  5. E) mesencephalon

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

2) Which secondary brain vesicle forms the cerebrum?

  1. A) metencephalon
  2. B) prosencephalon
  3. C) mesencephalon
  4. D) telencephalon
  5. E) myelencephalon

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

3) The ventral portion of the ________ develops into the pons, and the dorsal portion becomes the cerebellum.

  1. A) telencephalon
  2. B) metencephalon
  3. C) prosencephalon
  4. D) myelencephalon
  5. E) mesencephalon

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

4) The septum pellucidum separates the ________.

  1. A) fourth ventricle
  2. B) cerebellar hemispheres
  3. C) third ventricle
  4. D) lateral ventricles
  5. E) cerebral aqueducts

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

5) Which structure contains the hypothalamus?

  1. A) medulla oblongata
  2. B) epithalamus
  3. C) mesencephalon
  4. D) pons
  5. E) diencephalon

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

6) Which structure automatically adjusts motor activities on the basis of sensory information and memories of learned patterns of movement?

  1. A) hypothalamus
  2. B) cerebellum
  3. C) cerebrum
  4. D) pons
  5. E) medulla

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

7) Which structure connects the third ventricle with the fourth ventricle?

  1. A) septum pellucidum
  2. B) longitudinal fissure
  3. C) cerebral aqueduct
  4. D) hypothalamus
  5. E) epithalamus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

8) Which fold of dura mater projects between the cerebral hemispheres in the longitudinal fissure and attaches to the crista galli, the internal occipital crest and tentorium cerebelli?

  1. A) tentorium cerebelli
  2. B) diaphragma sellae
  3. C) falx cerebri
  4. D) arachnoid granulation
  5. E) falx cerebelli

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

9) The pia mater is anchored to the surface of the brain by the processes of which glial cells?

  1. A) oligodendrocytes
  2. B) astrocytes
  3. C) ependymal cells
  4. D) microglia
  5. E) Schwann cells

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

10) The transverse sinus lies within the ________.

  1. A) diaphragma sellae
  2. B) falx cerebelli
  3. C) superior sagittal sinus
  4. D) falx cerebri
  5. E) tentorium cerebelli

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

11) The ________ acts as a roof over the cranial blood vessels.

  1. A) cranial arachnoid mater
  2. B) dura mater
  3. C) pia mater
  4. D) superior sagittal sinus
  5. E) inferior sagittal sinus

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

12) Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the blood-brain barrier (BBB)?

  1. A) The endothelial cells of the BBB are extensively interconnected with tight junctions.
  2. B) Lipid-soluble compounds can freely diffuse across the endothelial cell membranes.
  3. C) Endothelial transport across the BBB is highly selective.
  4. D) The endothelial cells of the BBB contain small numbers of pinocytotic vesicles.
  5. E) All of these are characteristics of the BBB.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

 

13) Which of the following is NOT a function of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?

  1. A) It supports the brain.
  2. B) It does not transport waste products.
  3. C) It prevents contact between delicate neural structures and the surrounding bones.
  4. D) Except at the choroid plexus, the CSF is in constant communication with the interstitial fluid of the CNS.
  5. E) It transports nutrients and chemical messages.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

14) Which structure is responsible for the production of cerebrospinal fluid?

  1. A) choroid plexus
  2. B) arachnoid granulation
  3. C) tentorium cerebelli
  4. D) dural sinus
  5. E) sagittal sinus

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

15) Which structure(s) of the medulla oblongata passes somatic sensory information to the thalamus?

  1. A) olivary nuclei
  2. B) cuneate nucleus and gracile nucleus
  3. C) reticular formation
  4. D) respiratory rhythmicity centers
  5. E) cardiovascular centers

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

16) The reticular formation ________.

  1. A) sets the rate of respiratory movements
  2. B) contains nuclei and centers that help maintain consciousness
  3. C) relays somatic information to the ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus
  4. D) regulates heart rate and force of contraction, and distribution of blood flow
  5. E) relays information from the spinal cord, the red nuclei, other midbrain centers, and the cerebral cortex to the vermis of the cerebellum

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

 

17) The activity of which structure(s) is regulated by inputs from apneustic and pneumotaxic centers of the pons?

  1. A) respiratory rhythmicity centers
  2. B) olivary nuclei
  3. C) reticular formation
  4. D) gracile nucleus
  5. E) cardiovascular centers

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

18) The cardiovascular centers of the medulla oblongata may be subdivided into ________.

  1. A) apneustic and pneumotaxic
  2. B) apneustic and cardiac
  3. C) cardiac and vasomotor
  4. D) cardiac and pneumotaxic
  5. E) apneustic and vasomotor

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

19) Which of these are NOT found in the medulla oblongata?

  1. A) gracile nucleus
  2. B) cuneate nucleus
  3. C) pneumotaxic center
  4. D) olivary nuclei
  5. E) solitary nucleus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

20) Sensory and motor nuclei for which cranial nerves exist in the pons?

  1. A) N III, N V, N VI, N VII
  2. B) N V, N VI, N VII, N VIII
  3. C) N III, N IV, N V, N VI
  4. D) N VI, N VII, N VIII, N IX
  5. E) N III, N VI, N VIII, N IX

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

21) The anterior cerebellar peduncles contain efferent tracts arising at which structure(s)?

  1. A) cerebellar nuclei
  2. B) olivary nuclei
  3. C) cerebral nuclei
  4. D) pontine nuclei
  5. E) medulla oblongata

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

22) The pons is connected to the cerebellum by how many cerebellar peduncles?

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) three
  4. D) four
  5. E) five

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

23) The pons extends superiorly from the medulla oblongata to the ________.

  1. A) telencephalon
  2. B) myelencephalon
  3. C) mesencephalon
  4. D) diencephalon
  5. E) metencephalon

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

24) This mesencephalic structure processes information from the cerebrum and cerebellum and issues involuntary motor commands that maintain muscle tone and limb position.

  1. A) superior colliculus
  2. B) red nucleus
  3. C) substantia nigra
  4. D) inferior colliculus
  5. E) reticular formation

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

25) Which structure receives visual input from the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus on the ipsilateral side?

  1. A) red nucleus
  2. B) substantia nigra
  3. C) superior colliculus
  4. D) reticular formation
  5. E) inferior colliculus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

26) The mesencephalon contains nuclei associated with which cranial nerves?

  1. A) N IV, V
  2. B) N II, III
  3. C) N II, V
  4. D) N III, IV
  5. E) N IV, VI

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

27) Which of the following is a function of the substantia nigra?

  1. A) It integrates information from the cerebrum and cerebellum and issues involuntary motor commands concerned with the maintenance of muscle tone and limb position.
  2. B) It integrates visual information with other sensory input.
  3. C) It regulates the motor output of the basal nuclei.
  4. D) It initiates reflex responses to auditory stimuli.
  5. E) It functions in the automatic processing of incoming sensations and outgoing motor commands.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

28) The reticular formation ________.

  1. A) adjusts heart beat with its cardiovascular centers
  2. B) regulates activity in the basal nuclei
  3. C) controls background muscle tone and limb position
  4. D) carries ascending information to the thalamus
  5. E) integrates auditory information with medial geniculate nuclei

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

29) The ________ integrate(s) auditory information with the medial geniculate nuclei of the thalamus.

  1. A) reticular formation
  2. B) inferior colliculi
  3. C) substantia nigra
  4. D) superior colliculi
  5. E) red nuclei

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

30) The ________ connect(s) the primary motor cortex with motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and carry(ies) ascending sensory information to the thalamus.

  1. A) olivary nuclei
  2. B) nucleus gracilis
  3. C) reticular formation
  4. D) cerebral peduncles
  5. E) substantia nigra

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

31) Which of the following structures secretes antidiuretic hormone?

  1. A) supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus
  2. B) tuberal nuclei of the hypothalamus
  3. C) paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus
  4. D) mammillary bodies
  5. E) lateral nuclei of the thalamus

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

32) The control of feeding reflexes (chewing, swallowing) is a function of which structure(s)?

  1. A) paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus
  2. B) mammillary bodies
  3. C) lateral nuclei of the thalamus
  4. D) tuberal area of the hypothalamus
  5. E) preoptic area of the hypothalamus

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

33) Which structure(s) coordinates daily cycles of activity that are linked to the day-night cycle?

  1. A) suprachiasmatic nucleus
  2. B) tuberal nuclei
  3. C) supraoptic nucleus
  4. D) paraventricular nucleus
  5. E) preoptic area

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

34) Oxytocin is secreted by which hypothalamic structure(s)?

  1. A) tuberal nuclei
  2. B) mammillary bodies
  3. C) suprachiasmatic nucleus
  4. D) paraventricular nucleus
  5. E) supraoptic nucleus

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

35) The preoptic area regulates body temperature via control of autonomic centers in which brain structure(s)?

  1. A) pons
  2. B) thalamus
  3. C) hypothalamus
  4. D) cerebellum
  5. E) septum pellucidum

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

36) The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to which structure?

  1. A) pineal gland
  2. B) cerebellum
  3. C) pituitary gland
  4. D) tectum
  5. E) cingulate gyrus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

37) The pineal gland secretes ________.

  1. A) serotonin
  2. B) melanin
  3. C) dopamine
  4. D) acetylcholine
  5. E) melatonin

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

38) Which thalamic structure(s) provide a conscious awareness of emotional states by connecting the basal nuclei and emotion centers in the hypothalamus with the prefrontal cortex of the cerebrum?

  1. A) anterior nuclei
  2. B) pulvinar nuclei
  3. C) medial nuclei
  4. D) lateral nuclei
  5. E) ventral nuclei

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

39) Which thalamic structure(s) relays auditory information to the auditory cortex from receptors of the inner ear?

  1. A) ventral group
  2. B) pulvinar nuclei
  3. C) medial geniculate nuclei
  4. D) lateral group
  5. E) lateral geniculate nuclei

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

40) The ventral nuclei in the thalamus ________.

  1. A) relay information to and from the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex
  2. B) are relay stations in feedback loops that adjust activity in the cingulate gyrus and parietal lobe
  3. C) include the pulvinar area and the geniculate nuclei
  4. D) relay information from the hypothalamus and hippocampus to the cingulate gyrus
  5. E) relay auditory information to the auditory cortex from the specialized receptors of the inner ear

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

 

41) Centers in the ________ adjust and coordinate the activities of autonomic centers in other parts of the brainstem concerned with regulating heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and digestive functions.

  1. A) thalamus
  2. B) epithalamus
  3. C) hypothalamus
  4. D) tectum
  5. E) pineal gland

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

42) The inferior cerebellar peduncles ________.

  1. A) contain transverse fibers and carry communications between the cerebellum and pons
  2. B) control physiological responses to changes in body temperature
  3. C) link the cerebellum with the mesencephalon, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum
  4. D) function in the subconscious coordination and control of ongoing movements of body parts
  5. E) link the cerebellum with the medulla oblongata and spinal cord

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

43) Which cerebellar structure is important in the maintenance of balance and the control of eye movements?

  1. A) vermis
  2. B) flocculonodular lobe
  3. C) primary fissure
  4. D) anterior lobe
  5. E) posterior lobe

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

44) The cerebellum receives proprioceptive information from which structure?

  1. A) medulla oblongata
  2. B) hypothalamus
  3. C) spinal cord
  4. D) pons
  5. E) thalamus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

45) The ________ link the cerebellum with the mesencephalon, diencephalon, and cerebrum.

  1. A) inferior cerebellar peduncles
  2. B) arbor vitae
  3. C) middle cerebellar peduncles
  4. D) tectum
  5. E) superior cerebellar peduncles

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

46) The cerebellum coordinates rapid, automatic adjustments that maintain balance and equilibrium; such alterations in muscle tone and position are made by modifying the activity of the ________.

  1. A) vestibular nucleus
  2. B) red nucleus
  3. C) substantia nigra
  4. D) pontine nuclei
  5. E) solitary nucleus

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

47) The primary somatosensory cortex is found in which cerebral structure?

  1. A) frontal lobe
  2. B) occipital lobe
  3. C) temporal lobe
  4. D) insula
  5. E) parietal lobe

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

48) The occipital lobe contains (the) ________.

  1. A) tactile areas
  2. B) visual cortex
  3. C) auditory cortex
  4. D) gustatory cortex
  5. E) primary motor cortex

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

49) In which area is the speech center (Broca’s area) usually located?

  1. A) frontal lobe
  2. B) insula
  3. C) occipital lobe
  4. D) parietal lobe
  5. E) temporal lobe

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

50) Which part of the basal nuclei controls and adjusts muscle tone, particularly in the appendicular muscles?

  1. A) claustrum
  2. B) putamen
  3. C) amygdaloid body
  4. D) globus pallidus
  5. E) caudate nucleus

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

51) When a person is walking, which structure(s) control(s) the cycles of arm and leg movements that occur between the time the decision is made to “start walking” and the time the “stop” order is given?

  1. A) globus pallidus
  2. B) amygdaloid body
  3. C) claustrum and putamen
  4. D) caudate nucleus and putamen
  5. E) claustrum and globus pallidus

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

52) The precentral gyrus forms the ________.

  1. A) primary somatosensory cortex
  2. B) olfactory cortex
  3. C) anterior margin of central sulcus
  4. D) premotor cortex
  5. E) gustatory cortex

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

53) The major pathway of communication between the right and left hemispheres is the ________.

  1. A) projection fibers
  2. B) longitudinal fasciculi
  3. C) arcuate fibers
  4. D) internal capsule
  5. E) corpus callosum

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

54) Which of the five cerebral lobes isthe one not visible on the surface of the brain?

  1. A) frontal
  2. B) temporal
  3. C) insula
  4. D) occipital
  5. E) parietal

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

55) The primary gustatory cortex processes information about ________ and is located in the ________.

  1. A) sound; cerebellum
  2. B) taste; insula
  3. C) taste; frontal lobe
  4. D) smell; parietal lobe
  5. E) smell; temporal lobe

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

56) The lateral rectus muscle is innervated by which cranial nerve?

  1. A) N VI
  2. B) N III
  3. C) N V
  4. D) N II
  5. E) N IV

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

57) Which of the following cranial nerves have mixed sensory and motor functions?

  1. A) N I, N III
  2. B) N VI, N VII
  3. C) N VIII, N XI
  4. D) N VII, N IX
  5. E) N II, N V

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

58) The jugular foramen is the site for ingress and egress of which cranial nerves?

  1. A) N X, XI, XII
  2. B) N VIII, IX, X
  3. C) N VI, VII, VIII
  4. D) N IX, X, XI
  5. E) N VII, VIII, IX

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

59) The mandibular branch is the largest branch of the ________ nerve.

  1. A) trigeminal
  2. B) vagus
  3. C) trochlear
  4. D) glossopharyngeal
  5. E) hypoglossal

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

60) Balance and equilibrium are functions of the ________ nerve.

  1. A) N IX
  2. B) N III
  3. C) N VIII
  4. D) N X
  5. E) N V

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

61) The ________ provides taste sensations from the posterior third of the tongue and has special receptors monitoring the blood pressure and dissolved-gas concentrations within major blood vessels.

  1. A) N VII
  2. B) N IX
  3. C) N XI
  4. D) N X
  5. E) N V

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

62) The external branch of ________ controls the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles of the neck and back.

  1. A) N VI
  2. B) N XII
  3. C) N VII
  4. D) N XI
  5. E) N IV

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

63) Which cranial nerves have special sensory functions?

  1. A) N III, IV, VI
  2. B) N V, VI, VII
  3. C) N I, II, VIII
  4. D) N III, VII, IX
  5. E) N IV, V, VI

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

64) Which is the only cranial nerve that innervates visceral organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?

  1. A) N X
  2. B) N V, VII
  3. C) N VII
  4. D) N XII
  5. E) N X, XII

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

 

65) Cranial nerves that distribute autonomic fibers to peripheral ganglia include ________.

  1. A) N I, III, VI, IX
  2. B) N IV, V, VIII, X
  3. C) N III, VII, IX, X
  4. D) N VIII, XI, XII
  5. E) N VI, VIII, X, XI

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

66) In which ways do the olfactory nerves (N I) differ from the other cranial nerves?

  1. A) They do not differ from the other cranial nerves in any significant way.
  2. B) Their cell bodies are located in the geniculate ganglion.
  3. C) They are the only cranial nerves that are attached directly to the cerebrum.
  4. D) They contain somatic motor as well as autonomic components.
  5. E) Their axons are the only ones that pass through the hypoglossal canal.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

67) Swelling of the jugular vein as it leaves the skull could compress which of the following cranial nerves?

  1. A) N I, IV, V
  2. B) N IX, X, XI
  3. C) N V, VII
  4. D) N VIII, IX, XII
  5. E) N II, IV, VI

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

16.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Nuclei in the mesencephalon process visual and auditory information, coordinate and direct reflexive somatic motor responses to these stimuli.

Answer:  TRUE

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

2) The cranial dura mater consists of three fibrous layers.

Answer:  FALSE

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

3) Capillaries in the pineal gland are very permeable.

Answer:  TRUE

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

4) The medulla oblongata physically connects the brain with the spinal cord.

Answer:  TRUE

Learning Outcome:  16.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

5) The middle cerebellar peduncles are connected to the transverse fibers of the pons across its posterior surface.

Answer:  FALSE

Learning Outcome:  16.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

6) Each side of the mesencephalon contains a pair of nuclei, the red nucleus and the substantia nigra.

Answer:  TRUE

Learning Outcome:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

7) The thalamus on each side bulges laterally away from the fourth ventricle and anteriorly toward the cerebrum.

Answer:  FALSE

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

8) The cerebellar cortex contains huge highly branched Purkinje cells.

Answer:  TRUE

Learning Outcome:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

9) The two cerebral hemispheres have some functional differences, although anatomically they appear to be identical.

Answer:  TRUE

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

10) The premotor cortex is located immediately anterior to the primary motor cortex.

Answer:  TRUE

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

11) Wernicke’s area is the motor speech area of the frontal lobe.

Answer:  FALSE

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

12) The facial nerve consists only of sensory fibers.

Answer:  FALSE

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

16.3   Essay Questions

 

1) Compare and contrast epidural and subdural hemorrhages.

Answer:  Epidural hemorrhage is a condition in which bleeding into the epidural space of the brain occurs as a result of damage to the meningeal vessels. The most common cases of epidural bleeding involve an arterial break. In this case, the arterial blood pressure rapidly forces considerable quantities of blood into the epidural space, distorting the underlying soft tissues of the brain. The affected individual may lose consciousness from minutes to hours after a severe head injury, and death follows if left untreated. Epidural hemorrhage may also involve a damaged vein. In such cases, massive symptoms are not apparent immediately, and the individual may become unconscious from several hours to several days or even weeks after the original incident. Epidural hemorrhages are rare, occurring in less than one percent of head injuries. The term subdural hemorrhage is somewhat misleading because blood actually enters the inner layer of the dura mater, flowing beneath the epithelium that contacts the arachnoid membrane. Subdural hemorrhages are roughly twice as common as epidural hemorrhages. The most common source of blood is a small vein or one of the dural sinuses. Because the blood pressure is somewhat lower than in a typical epidural hemorrhage, the extent and effects of the condition may be quite variable. The hemorrhage produces a mass of clotted and partially clotted blood, called a hematoma. Acute subdural hematomas become symptomatic in minutes to hours after injury. Chronic subdural hematomas may produce symptoms weeks, months, or even years after a head injury.

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

2) How does physical activity affect neuroplasticity?

Answer:  It has been theorized that physical activity can increase the (neuro) plasticity in the brain. The theory is exhibited in the observation of the adult hippocampus, which clearly demonstrates the addition of new neurons in an activity-dependent way. The stimuli that induce plasticity include both physical and cognitive activities. Research indicates that physical activity throughout life may be needed to provide the brain and its systems of plastic adaptation with the appropriate regulatory input and feedback.

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

3) What is cerebellar dysfunction?

Answer:  Cerebellar dysfunction is the condition in which an individual is unable to anticipate and stop a movement precisely. In this condition, the individual’s cerebellar function is compromised as a result of cerebral palsy (brain injury before, during, or soon after birth), hereditary conditions, stroke, multiple sclerosis (causing cerebellar plaques), infections (meningitis), tumors, trauma, vitamin deficiencies, drugs, or toxins. Without the cerebellar ability to adjust movements while they are occurring, the individual becomes unable to anticipate the course of a movement over time. Most commonly, a reaching movement ends with the hand overshooting the target.

Learning Outcome:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

4) Describe the condition known as infant hydrocephalus and its cause(s) and effect(s).

Answer:  Infant hydrocephalus is a condition in which an infant’s skull exhibits abnormally high intracranial pressure, resulting in an enlarged cranium. Because the arachnoid granulations do not appear until roughly three years of age, infants are especially sensitive to alterations in intracranial pressure. Abnormally high intracranial pressure causes the ventricles to expand. Since the cranial sutures in an infant have yet to fuse, the skull can enlarge to accommodate the extra fluid volume. This enlargement produces the condition called hydrocephalus (or “water on the brain”) in which the skull has expanded enormously, causing distortion of the brain. Infant hydrocephalus often results from interference with normal CSF circulation, such as blockage of the aqueduct of the midbrain or constriction of the connection between the subarachnoid spaces of the cranial and spinal meninges. Untreated infants often suffer some degree of mental developmental delay. Successful treatment usually involves the installation of a shunt, a tube that either bypasses the blockage site or drains the excess CSF. In either case, the goal is reduction of the elevated intracranial pressure.

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

5) What is Bell’s palsy?

Answer:  Bell’s palsy results from an inflammation of the facial nerve that is probably related to viral infection. Involvement of the facial nerve (N VII) can be deduced from symptoms of paralysis of facial muscles on the affected side and loss of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The individual does not show prominent sensory deficits, and the condition is usually painless. In most cases, Bell’s palsy “cures itself” after a few weeks or months, but this process can be accelerated by early treatment with corticosteroids and antiviral drugs.

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

16.4   Labeling Questions

 

Figure 16.1

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

1) Identify the structure indicated by Label B.

  1. A) Central canal
  2. B) Cerebral aqueduct
  3. C) Fourth ventricle
  4. D) Anterior horns of lateral ventricles
  5. E) Third ventricle

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

2) Identify the structure indicated by Label H.

  1. A) Fourth ventricle
  2. B) Cerebral aqueduct
  3. C) Anterior horns of lateral ventricles
  4. D) Central canal
  5. E) Third ventricle

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

3) Identify the structure indicated by Label I.

  1. A) Third ventricle
  2. B) Central canal
  3. C) Cerebral aqueduct
  4. D) Anterior horns of lateral ventricles
  5. E) Inferior horns of lateral ventricles

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

4) Identify the structure indicated by Label L.

  1. A) Cerebral aqueduct
  2. B) Third ventricle
  3. C) Central canal
  4. D) Inferior horns of lateral ventricles
  5. E) Fourth ventricle

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Figure 16.2

 

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

5) Identify the structure indicated by Label O.

  1. A) Lateral ventricles
  2. B) Third ventricle
  3. C) Fourth ventricle
  4. D) Cerebral aqueduct
  5. E) Interventricular foramen

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

6) Identify the structure indicated by Label P.

  1. A) Fourth ventricle
  2. B) Interventricular foramen
  3. C) Cerebral aqueduct
  4. D) Third ventricle
  5. E) Lateral ventricles

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

7) Identify the structure indicated by Label R.

  1. A) Lateral ventricle
  2. B) Fourth ventricle
  3. C) Interventricular foramen
  4. D) Cerebral aqueduct
  5. E) Third ventricle

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

8) Identify the structure indicated by Label X.

  1. A) Central canal
  2. B) Fourth ventricle
  3. C) Lateral ventricles
  4. D) Interventricular foramen
  5. E) Cerebral aqueduct

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

Figure 16.3

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

9) Identify the structure indicated by Label F.

  1. A) Arachnoid mater
  2. B) Meningeal cranial dura
  3. C) Transverse sinus
  4. D) Periosteal cranial dura
  5. E) Pia mater

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

10) Identify the structure indicated by Label G.

  1. A) Periosteal cranial dura )
  2. B) Dural sinus
  3. C) Subarachnoid space
  4. D) Pia mater
  5. E) Meningeal cranial dura

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

11) Identify the structure indicated by Label J.

  1. A) Meningeal cranial dura
  2. B) Subarachnoid space
  3. C) Pia mater
  4. D) Transverse sinus
  5. E) Periosteal cranial dura

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

12) Identify the structure indicated by Label L.

  1. A) Periosteal cranial dura
  2. B) Arachnoid mater
  3. C) Pia mater
  4. D) Meningeal cranial dura
  5. E) Transverse sinus

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Figure 16.4

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

13) Identify the structure indicated by Label A.

  1. A) Septum pellucidum
  2. B) Corpora quadrigemina
  3. C) Cingulate gyrus
  4. D) Corpus callosum
  5. E) Mesencephalon

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

14) Identify the structure indicated by Label I.

  1. A) Mesencephalon
  2. B) Corpus callosum
  3. C) Corpora quadrigemina
  4. D) Medulla oblongata
  5. E) Mamillary body

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

15) Identify the structure indicated by Labels Q.

  1. A) Pineal gland
  2. B) Septum pellucidum
  3. C) Corpus callosum
  4. D) Mamillary body
  5. E) Corpora quadrigemina

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

16) Identify the structure indicated by Label X.

  1. A) Thalamus
  2. B) Cingulate gyrus
  3. C) Mesencephalon
  4. D) Corpora quadrigemina
  5. E) Corpus callosum

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Figure 16.5

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

17) Identify the structure indicated by Label A.

  1. A) Lateral sulcus
  2. B) Transverse sinus
  3. C) Longitudinal fissure
  4. D) Dural sinus
  5. E) Central sulcus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

18) Identify the structure indicated by Label B.

  1. A) Cerebellum
  2. B) Right cerebral hemisphere
  3. C) Pons
  4. D) Left cerebral hemisphere
  5. E) Medulla oblongata

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

19) Identify the structure indicated by Label D.

  1. A) Central sulcus
  2. B) Lateral sulcus
  3. C) Longitudinal fissure
  4. D) Dural sinus
  5. E) Parieto-occipital sulcus

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

20) Identify the structure indicated by Label E.

  1. A) Parieto-occipital sulcus
  2. B) Transverse sinus
  3. C) Lateral sulcus
  4. D) Central sulcus
  5. E) Longitudinal fissure

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Figure 16.6

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

21) Identify the structure indicated by Label I.

  1. A) Frontal lobe
  2. B) Occipital lobe
  3. C) Pons
  4. D) Temporal lobe
  5. E) Parietal lobe

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

22) Identify the structure indicated by Label J.

  1. A) Temporal lobe
  2. B) Pons
  3. C) Parietal lobe
  4. D) Medulla oblongata
  5. E) Frontal lobe

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

23) Identify the structure indicated by Label K.

  1. A) Pons
  2. B) Temporal lobe
  3. C) Medulla oblongata
  4. D) Frontal lobe
  5. E) Cerebrum

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

24) Identify the structure indicated by Label M.

  1. A) Parietal lobe
  2. B) Frontal lobe
  3. C) Pons
  4. D) Temporal lobe
  5. E) Medulla oblongata

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Figure 16.7

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

25) Identify the structure indicated by Label O.

  1. A) Central sulcus
  2. B) Longitudinal fissure
  3. C) Lateral sulcus
  4. D) Dural sinus
  5. E) Parieto-occipital sulcus

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

26) Identify the structure indicated by Label Q.

  1. A) Right cerebral hemisphere
  2. B) Cerebellum
  3. C) Longitudinal fissure
  4. D) Left cerebral hemisphere
  5. E) Precentral gyrus

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

27) Identify the structure indicated by Label S.

  1. A) Cerebellar hemispheres
  2. B) Medulla oblongata
  3. C) Pons
  4. D) Tectum
  5. E) Cerebrum

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

28) Identify the structure indicated by Label T.

  1. A) Cerebellum
  2. B) Medulla oblongata
  3. C) Cerebrum
  4. D) Tectum
  5. E) Pons

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Figure 16.8

 

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

29) Identify the structure indicated by Label A.

  1. A) Olfactory cortex
  2. B) Gustatory cortex
  3. C) Primary somatosensory cortex
  4. D) Visual cortex
  5. E) Primary motor cortex

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

30) Identify the structure indicated by Label F.

  1. A) Primary somatosensory cortex
  2. B) Visual cortex
  3. C) Gustatory cortex
  4. D) Primary motor cortex
  5. E) Olfactory cortex

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

31) Identify the structure indicated by Label M.

  1. A) Visual cortex
  2. B) Primary motor cortex
  3. C) Olfactory cortex
  4. D) Gustatory cortex
  5. E) Primary somatosensory cortex

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

32) Identify the structure indicated by Label R.

  1. A) Primary motor cortex
  2. B) Olfactory cortex
  3. C) Gustatory cortex
  4. D) Primary somatosensory cortex
  5. E) Visual cortex

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Figure 16.9

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

33) Identify the structure indicated by Label I.

  1. A) Accessory nerve
  2. B) Hypoglossal nerve
  3. C) Facial nerve
  4. D) Glossopharyngeal nerve
  5. E) Vagus nerve

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

34) Identify the structure indicated by Label O.

  1. A) Vestibulocochlear nerve
  2. B) Facial nerve
  3. C) Trigeminal nerve
  4. D) Abducens nerve
  5. E) Oculomotor nerve

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

35) Identify the structure indicated by Label T.

  1. A) Optic chiasm
  2. B) Abducens nerve
  3. C) Oculomotor nerve
  4. D) Facial nerve
  5. E) Olfactory bulb

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

36) Identify the structure indicated by Label U.

  1. A) Oculomotor nerve
  2. B) Trochlear nerve
  3. C) Optic chiasm
  4. D) Olfactory tract
  5. E) Trigeminal nerve

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

Figure 16.10

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

37) Identify the structure indicated by Label A.

  1. A) Infundibulum
  2. B) Basilar artery
  3. C) Vertebral artery
  4. D) Falx cerebri
  5. E) Diaphragma sellae

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

38) Identify the structure indicated by Label B.

  1. A) Diaphragma sellae
  2. B) Basilar artery
  3. C) Infundibulum
  4. D) Vertebral artery
  5. E) Falx cerebri

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

39) Identify the structure indicated by Label C.

  1. A) Basilar artery
  2. B) Infundibulum
  3. C) Falx cerebri
  4. D) Diaphragma sellae
  5. E) Vertebral artery

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

40) Identify the structure indicated by Label E.

  1. A) Basilar artery
  2. B) Vertebral artery
  3. C) Infundibulum
  4. D) Falx cerebri
  5. E) Diaphragma sellae

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Figure 16.11

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

41) Identify the structure indicated by Label B.

  1. A) Ciliary ganglion
  2. B) Otic ganglion
  3. C) Pterygopalatine ganglion
  4. D) Dorsal root ganglion
  5. E) Semilunar ganglion

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

42) Identify the structure indicated by Label H.

  1. A) Semilunar ganglion
  2. B) Dorsal root ganglion
  3. C) Pterygopalatine ganglion
  4. D) Otic ganglion
  5. E) Ciliary ganglion

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

43) Identify the structure indicated by Label J.

  1. A) Pterygopalatine ganglion
  2. B) Otic ganglion
  3. C) Dorsal root ganglion
  4. D) Ciliary ganglion
  5. E) Semilunar ganglion

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

44) Identify the structure indicated by Label O.

  1. A) Semilunar ganglion
  2. B) Ciliary ganglion
  3. C) Otic ganglion
  4. D) Dorsal root ganglion
  5. E) Pterygopalatine ganglion

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Figure 16.12

 

 

Using the figure above, identify the labeled structure(s) in each of the following questions.

 

45) Identify the structure indicated by Label D.

  1. A) Anterior vagal trunk
  2. B) Celiac plexus
  3. C) Otic ganglion
  4. D) Hypogastric plexus
  5. E) Cardiac plexus

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

46) Identify the structure indicated by Label F.

  1. A) Hypogastric plexus
  2. B) Anterior vagal trunk
  3. C) Celiac plexus
  4. D) Cardiac plexus
  5. E) Pterygopalatine plexus

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

47) Identify the structure indicated by Label H.

  1. A) Celiac plexus
  2. B) Cardiac plexus
  3. C) Anterior vagal trunk
  4. D) Hypogastric plexus
  5. E) Otic ganglion

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

48) Identify the structure indicated by Label L.

  1. A) Pterygopalatine ganglion
  2. B) Cardiac plexus
  3. C) Hypogastric plexus
  4. D) Anterior vagal trunk
  5. E) Celiac plexus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

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