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CHAPTER
The Peripheral Nervous System
14
Lecture and Demonstration
Objectives
1. Outline the organization of the peripheral nervous system.
2. Describe the structural components of the peripheral nervous system.
3. Classify sensory receptors according to body location, stimulus detected, and structure.
4. Name the 12 pairs of cranial nerves, and describe the structures innervated by each.
5. Describe the location of a spinal nerve, and distinguish spinal roots from rami.
6. Describe the somatic innervation of the back, trunk, and limbs.
7. Define nerve plexus. Name the four main plexuses formed by ventral rami, and the body
region innervated by each. Describe the major nerves originating from each plexus.
8. Define dermatomes, and explain Hilton’s law of the innervation of joints.
9. Explain the causes and symptoms of shingles, migraine headaches, and peripheral
neuropathy.
10. Relate the development of the PNS to the basic body segmental pattern of the outer tube
of the human body.
Suggested Lecture Outline
I. Organization of the Peripheral Nervous System (p. 428, Fig. 14.1)
A. The PNS is composed of nervous system structures outside the brain and spinal cord;
basic structural components of the PNS are the sensory receptors, motor endings that
innervate effectors, nerves, and ganglia; basic functional components are reviewed in
Fig. 14.1. (p. 428, Fig. 14.1)
B. Nerves are spinal nerves or cranial nerves; most nerves contain both sensory and motor
axons and are called mixed; some cranial nerves are purely sensory or purely motor in
function. (p. 428)
II. Peripheral Sensory Receptors (pp. 428–432, Figs. 14.2, 14.3, Table 14.1)
A. Sensory receptors detect stimuli (environmental changes) inside the body as well as
outside the body; classification is based on body location, stimulus detected, and
structure. (pp. 428–429)
B. The three classes of sensory receptors based on location in the body are exteroceptors,
interoceptors, and proprioceptors. (p. 429)
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
175
C. A second way to classify sensory receptors is by the kinds of stimuli that activate the
receptors; examples are mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors,
photoreceptors, and nociceptors. (p. 429)
D. The third way to classify general sensory receptors is by their structure (special senses
are covered in Chapter 16); the nerve endings of these receptors are structurally free
nerve endings (nonencapsulated) or encapsulated nerve endings. (pp. 429–432, Figs.
14.2, 14.3, Table 14.1)
1. Free nerve endings are present everywhere in the body and respond primarily to pain,
temperature, and itch.
2. Encapsulated nerve endings respond to a wide variety of individualized stimuli. Main
types of encapsulated nerve endings are tactile corpuscles, lamellar corpuscles,
bulbous corpuscles, and proprioceptors.
III. Cranial Nerves (pp. 432–444, Fig. 14.4, Table 14.2)
A. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves attach to the brain and innervate the head and neck; the
vagus nerves are the only pair that “wanders” into the thorax and abdomen. (p. 432)
B. The name, number, and brief function summary follows: (pp. 432–444, Fig. 14.4,
Table 14.2)
I. Olfactory—smell
II. Optic—vision
III. Oculomotor—eye movement (four of the six extrinsic eye muscles)
IV. Trochlear—eye movement (superior oblique eye muscle)
V. Trigeminal—general sensation of the face
VI. Abducens—eye movement (lateral rectus eye muscle)
VII. Facial—chief motor nerves of the face
VIII. Vestibulocochlear—hearing and equilibrium
IX. Glossopharyngeal—innervates part of the tongue and pharynx for swallowing and
taste
X. Vagus—innervates heart, lungs, and abdominal organs
XI. Accessory—moves structures associated with the head and neck (larynx, pharynx,
soft palate, trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid muscles)
XII. Hypoglossal—serves the tongue muscles
C. Cranial nerves are grouped according to function: Some are purely sensory (I, II, and
VIII); some are primarily (or exclusively) motor (III, IV, VI, XI, and XII); and some are
mixed (V, VII, IX, and X). (pp. 432–434, and Table 14.2)
D. Four cranial nerves (III, VII, IX, and X) also contain general visceral motor fibers of
the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). (p. 435 and
Table 14.2)
IV. Spinal Nerves (pp. 444–461, Figs. 14.5–14.16, Tables 14.3–14.6)
A. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves attach to the spinal cord, and names reflect point of
issue from the spinal cord. There are eight pairs of cervical spinal nerves (C1–C8), 12
pairs of thoracic spinal nerves (T1–T12), five pairs of lumbar spinal nerves (L1–L5), five
pairs of sacral spinal nerves (S1–S5), and one pair of coccygeal spinal nerves (Co1).
(p. 444, Fig. 14.5)
176 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
B. Roots are for attachment of a spinal nerve to the spinal cord; rami are branches of a
spinal nerve. (pp. 444–446, Fig. 14.6)
C. Muscles and skin of the back (posterior portion of the trunk—from the neck to the
sacrum) are innervated by dorsal rami. (p. 446, Fig. 14.7)
D. The anterior and lateral wall of the thorax and abdomen is innervated by ventral rami;
thoracic ventral rami do not form plexuses. (p. 446, Figs. 14.5, 14.7)
E. A nerve plexus is a network of nerves. (p. 446, Fig. 14.5)
F. The cervical plexus (C1–C4) innervates the muscles and skin of the shoulder; the most
important nerve issued from the cervical plexus is the phrenic nerve. (pp. 446–447,
Fig. 14.8, Table 14.3)
G. The brachial plexus (C5–C8 and part of T1) serves the muscles and skin of the upper limb,
including the shoulder; the main nerves from the brachial plexus are the musculocutaneous,
median,
ulnar,
radial, and
axillary.
(pp.
447–449, Figs.
14.9, 14.10, 14.11,
Table

14.4)

H.
The
lumbar
plexus
(L1–L4)
innervates the muscles
and
skin of the anterior
and medial

thigh;
the main
nerves issued from
the lumbar
plexus
are the femoral
and obturator
nerves.
(p. 455,
Figs. 14.12
and 14.13,
Table
14.5)
I.

The sacral plexus (L4–S4) supplies muscles and skin of the posterior thigh and almost all
of the leg; its main branches are the sciatic nerve, tibial nerve, and common fibular nerve;
other branches of the sacral plexus innervate the pelvic girdle and perineum. (pp. 455–
459, Figs. 14.13 and 14.14, Table 14.6)
J. Joints of the body are innervated by branches of the nerves of the muscles that cross the
joint (Hilton’s law). (p. 459)
K. The area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches from a single spinal nerve is called
a dermatome. (pp. 459–460, Fig. 14.15)
V. Disorders of the Peripheral Nervous System (pp. 461–462)
A. Two disorders that involve sensory neurons are shingles and migraines. Peripheral
neuropathy affects sensory and motor innervation.
VI. The Peripheral Nervous System Throughout Life (pp. 462–463)
A. During embryonic development, each spinal nerve grows out between newly formed
vertebrae to provide the motor innervation of an adjacent myotome (future trunk muscle)
and the sensory innervation of the adjacent skin region (dermatome).
Lecture Hints
1. Review the overall organization of the nervous system, and make sure students understand
how information
flows
through the
system,
including
the difference
between nerve
and
tract, and nucleus and ganglion.
2. Stress the functional organization of the peripheral nervous system, and carefully
compare structural features.
3. List the 12 cranial nerves in a rostral-to-caudal sequence, including their Roman numeral
designations, and identify the structures innervated by each; stress that all cranial nerves
have ventral attachments except the trochlear cranial nerve. Review the foramina in the
skull through which each cranial nerve passes.
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 14 The Peripheral Nervous System 177
4. Offer students a fun way to remember the cranial nerves using a favorite mnemonic such
as, “Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet AH!” or, “Oh, Oh, Oh, To
Touch And Feel Very Green Vegetables AH!” Students may come up with their own
mnemonics, but suggest that any “unsavory” ones be kept private.
5. Point out the unique nature of the highly branched olfactory nerves (I).
6. Explain the difference between a tract and nerve using optic nerves (II) as examples.
7. Distinguish the location of spinal nerves; emphasize there are eight pairs of cervical
spinal nerves and seven cervical vertebrae; clearly distinguish root from ramus;
emphasize that spinal nerves are “short” and that their branches (rami) are “longer.”
8. Using skull figures or PowerPoint images from Chapter 7, identify/review each of the
cranial nerve passageways.
9. Identify the type of sensory receptor associated with 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves;
note the two cranial nerves that lack sensory receptor associations. Refer to this chapter’s
“Critical Reasoning” feature (p. 181 of this guide) for answers.
10. Define nerve plexus, and name four major nerve plexuses formed by ventral rami,
indicating the body region innervated by each.
11. Students enjoy the humorous reference to the brachial plexus as “armpit spaghetti.”
Classroom Discussion Topics and Activities
1. Using a skull and colored pipe cleaners, demonstrate the openings through which the
cranial nerves pass.
2. Using a preserved sheep brain or preserved human brain with the cranial nerves intact,
demonstrate where these nerves attach to the brain.
3. Demonstrate the distribution of the spinal nerves using a three-dimensional model of the
peripheral nervous system.
4. Invite a police officer to class to discuss field sobriety tests and motor and sensory
dysfunction caused by alcohol.
5. Discuss why injecting Novocain or other anesthetics used by dentists into just one point
in the lower jaw can anesthetize one entire side of the jaw and tongue.
6. Ask students how seat belts for both the front and back seat prevent serious neurological
damage in auto accidents. How can the use of lap belts without shoulder belts cause
severe damage?
7. Ask students what neural damage can result from some overly enthusiastic parents
swinging their infants around by the hands.
8. Discuss why pregnant women often experience numbness in their interphalangeals.
9. Ask students what benefit is knowledge of dermatomes to a physician. (Some benefits
were mentioned in the , but there are more.)
Clinical Questions
1. While working in the emergency room, you receive two patients who were in an auto
collision. One is dead on arrival, having sustained a transection of the spinal cord at the
level of C2. The other patient suffered a similar injury, but at the level of C6, and is still
178 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
alive. Explain briefly, in terms of the origin and function of the phrenic nerves, why one
injury was fatal and the other was not.
Answer: Cell bodies of the motor neurons whose axons contribute to the phrenic nerves
lie in the C3–C5 segments of the spinal cord. Transection of the cord above this level—at
C2 in the first victim of the auto accident—cuts the axons from the respiratory centers in
the brain stem that signal these motor neurons, thereby inactivating them and halting the
respiratory movements of the diaphragm. This leads to death. Transection of the cord
inferior to the C3–C5 does not interrupt this respiratory nervous pathwayRemember, the phrenic
nerves are still functional and ventilation remains normal.
2. Rodney sustained a leg injury in a bowling accident and had to use crutches. Unfortunately,
he
did
not take the time
to learn how
to use them
properly.
After
two weeks of
use,
he noticed his interphalangeals
were
becoming
numb.
Shortly
after
this, the entire
upper
limbs
were
getting weaker and tingling.
What could
be his problem?
Answer: Simply speaking, he is probably compressing the brachial plexus, thus affecting
the sensory and motor innervation of the upper limbs.
3. Dominic, a minor-league baseball player, was struck on the left side of his face with a
fast pitch while batting. His zygomatic arch was crushed, and the left ramus of his mandible
was broken. Following
the incident
and reconstructive surgery, he noticed
that his
left
lower eyelid
was still drooping and that
the corner of his mouth
sagged.
What nerve
had
been damaged?
Answer: He suffered damage to the left facial nerve, which caused paralysis to the
muscles of facial expression.
Art Resources
Transparencies Index/Instructor Resource DVD
Figure 14.1
Functional organization of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Figure 14.2
Structure of free and encapsulated general sensory receptors.
Figure 14.3
Structure of proprioceptors: muscle spindles and tendon organ.
Figure 14.4
The cranial nerves.
Figure 14.5
Spinal nerves, posterior view.
Figure 14.6
Formation of spinal nerves and rami distribution.
Figure 14.7
The functional components of a spinal nerve, anterior view.
Figure 14.8
The cervical plexus, anterior view.
Figure 14.9
The brachial plexus, anterior view.
Figure 14.10 Focus Figure: Innervation of the upper limb.
Figure 14.11 Course of the axillary and radial nerves.
Figure 14.12 The lumbar plexus.
Figure 14.13 Focus Figure: Innervation of the Lower Limb.
Figure 14.14 The sacral plexus.
Figure 14.15 Map of dermatomes.
Table 14.1
General Sensory Receptors Classified by Structure and Function
Table 14.2
Cranial Nerves
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 14 The Peripheral Nervous System 179
Table 14.3
Branches of the Cervical Plexus
Table 14.4
Branches of the Brachial Plexus to Trunk and Shoulder Muscles
Table 14.5
Branches of the Lumbar Plexus
Table 14.6
Additional Branches of the Sacral Plexus
Teaching with Art
Figure 14.4
The cranial nerves.
Table 14.2
Cranial Nerves
pp. 434–443; transparencies; Instructor Resource DVD.
Checklist of Key Points in the Figure
• Differentiate the cranial nerves from the spinal nerves.
• Emphasize that cranial nerves are part of the PNS, not the CNS.
• Point out that the cranial nerves are numbered using Roman numerals I–XII in a rostral-tocaudal
order of attachment.

Note that almost all cranial nerves attach to the ventral side of the brain, pointing out the
trochlear nerves as exceptions.
• Note that all cranial nerves serve the structures of the head and neck except for the vagus
nerve (X), and describe the structures innervated by each.
• Explain the unique anatomical features of the first two pairs of cranial nerves—the
olfactory nerve (I) and the optic nerve (II).
• Display Table 14.2, and for each cranial nerve, describe the sensory function, motor
function, or mixed function.
• Note the cranial nerves that have parasympathetic fibers, and briefly explain the
significance.
Common Conceptual Difficulties Interpreting the Art
• Distinguish the forebrain from the brain stem when noting attachments.
• Distinguish a tract from a nerve, including the optic chiasma in the discussion.
• Explain that each cranial nerve passes through specific skull openings, describing the
origin and pathway of fibers.
Art Exercises
1. Provide students with unlabeled copies of Figure 14.4 with instructions to color and
label the 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Encourage students to devise a mnemonic to aid in
learning the cranial nerves.
2. Provide students with unlabeled copies of Figure 7.7, Inferior aspect of the skull. Instruct
students to label the foramina responsible for the passage of cranial nerves, along with
the name and number of the nerve that passes through each opening.
180 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Critical Reasoning
1. Sensory receptors are classified according to their location in the body or the location of
the stimuli to which they respond. Ask students to identify the type of sensory receptor
(exteroceptors, interoceptors, proprioceptors, or none) associated with each of the 12
cranial nerves.
Answer:
I. Olfactory—exteroceptors
II. Optic—exteroceptors
III. Oculomotor—proprioceptors
IV. Trochlear—proprioceptors
V. Trigeminal—exteroceptors and proprioceptors
VI. Abducens—proprioceptors
VII. Facial—interoceptors, proprioceptors, and exteroceptors (bit of skin on ear)
VIII. Vestibulocochlear—exteroceptors
IX. Glossopharyngeal—interoceptors, proprioceptors, and exteroceptors (bit of skin
on ear)
X. Vagus—interoceptors, proprioceptors (laryngeal muscles), and exteroceptors
(bit of skin on ear)
XI. Accessory—none
XII. Hypoglossal—none
2. Why might certain smells trigger strong emotions?
Answer: The olfactory cortex is part of a brain area called the rhinencephalon, and the
rhinencephalon connects to the limbic system, which is known as the “emotional brain.”
Some fibers of the olfactory nerve terminate at the limbic system. Thus, when a smell is
associated with a particularly strong emotional memory, the same smell experienced
again may evoke a similar emotional response or, at least, the recollection of the original
response.
Supplemental Course Materials
Library Research Topics
1. How does the placement of acupuncture needles relate to the distribution of spinal
nerves?
2. Will all victims of polio be rendered paralyzed? What different forms of polio are there?
3. How has microsurgery been used to reconnect severed peripheral nerves?
4. What are the standard tests by which clinicians evaluate the functions of the 12 cranial
nerves?
5. Some people who have lost a limb experience a phenomenon called phantom limb pain.
What is the basis of this phenomenon, and what methods are available to treat it?
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 14 The Peripheral Nervous System 181
Media
See Appendix A of the Instructor Resource Guide for “Key to Audiovisual Distributors.”
DVDs
1. The Anatomy and Physiology Series: The Nervous System (NIMCO; 27 min.). Topics in
this program include nerve interaction, the brain and its parts, cranial nerves, and the
ANS.
2. Breaking the Wall of Paraplegia: How Neuroscience Can Help Spinal- and BrainInjured
Patients
(FHS; 16 min.,
2009).
Experimental
therapies have begun helping
in the

recovery
and regeneration
of nerve
fibers in rats, mice,
and monkeys
with spinal cord and
brain
injuries. Martin E. Schwab discusses
the presence
of proteins in the spinal cord
and
brain
that have
an inhibitory
effect on the
growth of nerve
fibers.

3.
Decision
(FHS;
26 min.).
This program explains how
the brain assesses
incoming

information
and
sends messages
to muscles,
how
nerve cells operate,
and how individual

nerve
cells function.

4.
Migraines
(FHS;
28 min.,
2007).
This program
describes the newest understanding
of the

biomechanics
and causes of migraine.
The
program
further
discusses treatment
with

biofeedback,
beta
blockers, and
nutritional
supplements.

5.
The
Nervous System
(NIMCO; 30 min.).
This comprehensive
program
shows the
complex
interactions between afferent and
efferent
neurons, includes
a discussion of
cranial
nerves,
and investigates the ANS.

6.
The
Nervous System
and the
Senses
(FHS; 21 min.,
2009).
This
program
describes how
the
nervous system
and periperhal nerves develop
and
function.
Part of the series The

Human
Body:
How it Works.

7.
The
Spine
(FHS;
13 min.,
2002).
This program
examines
the design and function
of the
spinal
cord. Includes a section
on how damage
to the cord affects body
movements
and
advances
in treatments
for
spinal cord injury.
Software
1. McMinn’s Interactive Clinical Anatomy CD-ROM (DGI; 2001). Includes a complete
three-dimensional human body showing dermatomes.
2. Practice Anatomy Lab 3.0 (PAL) (BC; DVD, website) is a comprehensive program that
students can access from www.myaandp.com or from the DVD. The Self-Review section
of the Nervous System section of the Human Cadaver and Anatomical Models modules
guides students through learning names of specific structures of the PNS. The Quiz and
Lab Practical sections offer in-depth practice in test taking. Teachers will also find the
PAL Instructor Resource DVD helpful for creating online quizzes.
3. The Ultimate Human Body (see p. 8 of this guide for full listing).
Suggested Readings
Binder, D. K., D. C. Sonne, and N. J. Fischbein. Cranial Nerves: Anatomy, Pathology,
Imaging. Thieme Medical Publishers, 2010.
Gillespie, P. G. and R. G. Walker. “Molecular Basis of Mechanosensory Transduction.”
Nature 413 (6852) (September 2001): 194–202.
182 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Goldberg, S. Clinical Neuroanatomy Made Ridiculously Simple. 4th ed. Miami: MedMaster
Publishing Company, 2010.
Haines, D. Neuroanatomy: An Atlas of Structures, Sections, and Systems. 8th ed.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011.
Martin, J. H. Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2012.
Monkhouse, S. Cranial Nerves: Functional Anatomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2005.
Moore, K. L. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, 2009.
Purves, D. Neuroscience. 5th ed. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates, 2010.
Zuker, C. S. “A Cool Ion Channel.” Nature 416 (6876) (March 2002): 27–28.
Answers to Questions
Answers for multiple-choice and matching questions 1–10 are located in Appendix B of the
.
Short Answer and Essay Questions
11. The capsules consist of connective tissue (connective tissue proper). (p. 431)
12. (a) Spinal nerves form from dorsal and ventral roots that unite at the dorsal root ganglion
in the intervertebral foramen to form the spinal nerve. Spinal nerves contain both sensory
and motor fibers. (b) These roots are outside the spinal cordRemember, they are in the PNS. (c)
Major branches of each spinal nerve are the ventral and dorsal rami, which supply the
somatic region of the body. The ventral rami and their branches supply the lateral and
anterior body regions (including limbs), and the dorsal rami supply the dorsal body
region (the back). (pp. 444–446)
13. (a) A plexus is a branching, interlacing network of nerves. The nerve plexuses considered
in this chapter (cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral) are formed by interconnecting
branches from ventral rami. (b) Cervical plexus, C1–C4, innervates the neck, diaphragm,
and other structures (Table 14.3); brachial plexus, C5–T1, innervates the upper limb and
other structures (pp. 446–453, Table 14.4); lumbar plexus, L1–L4, innervates the anterior
thighRemember,me of the abdominal wall, and other structures (p. 455, Table 14.5); sacral
plexus, L4–S4, innervates the perineum and most of the lower limb except the anterior
thigh. (pp. 454–459, Table 14.6)
14. The upper trunk of the brachial plexus forms from the junction of the C5 and C6 rami, the
middle trunk is at C7, and the lower trunk forms from C8 and T1. (Figs. 14.9, 14.10)
15. Abdul is correct: The facial nerve got its name because it crosses the face to innervate
muscles of facial expression. The trigeminal nerve, not the facial nerve, innervates the
skin of the face. (pp. 437–439)
16. The correct answer is (c) just superior to S1. Except in the neck, every spinal nerve exits
through the intervertebral foramen directly inferior to its correspondingly numbered
vertebra. Nerve L5, therefore, exits just inferior to vertebra L5, or just superior to S1.
(pp. 455–458)
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 14 The Peripheral Nervous System 183
17. Because the spinal cord usually ends between vertebrae L1 and L2, the highest roots in the
cauda equina must belong to L2. Thus, the cauda equina contains the roots of L2, L3, L4,
L5, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and Co1. That is 10 nerves per side, multiplied by two sides (right
and left), multiplied by two roots per nerve (dorsal and ventral). That comes to 40 roots.
(Figs. 14.12, 14.13, Tables 14.5, 14.6)
Critical Reasoning and Clinical Applications Questions
1. He had stretched the brachial plexus, damaging and tearing its nerves. (p. 449)
2. The right hypoglossal nerve. Muscles waste away when denervated like this. (p. 443)
3. The correct answer is (a) a few dorsal (sensory) roots in the cauda equina. All the other
choices would have produced motor disorders as well as sensory disorders and are,
therefore, impossible in this case. (pp. 455–459, Table 14.6)
4. He cannot dorsiflex his foot and will experience footdrop because the deep fibular nerve
to the anterior compartment extensors is functionless. (Table 14.6.) Furthermore, he
cannot evert his foot, because the superficial fibular nerve to the fibular muscles is
functionless.
5. (1) Median nerve (Chapter 8). (2) See Related Clinical Terms, under Nerve Injuries.
(p. 463) (3) If an axon grows back at 1 cm per week and the hand is 17 cm long, recovery
will take about four months.
6. (1) Because the elbow is crossed by the biceps brachii, the triceps brachii, and many
flexor muscles on the forearm (including the flexor carpi ulnaris), the nerves that innervate
the elbow joint are the musculocutaneous,
radial, median, and ulnar nerves. (Fig.
14.10)
(2) Because the hip joint is crossed by
the iliopsoas, gluteus maximus,
gluteus
medius,
biceps femoris,
the adductors, and
other
muscles,
the nerves
that innervate
the
hip
joint
are the femoral,
superior and inferior
gluteal, sciatic, and obturator nerves.

(p.
457,
Figs. 14.13,
14.14)

7.

Inability to extend the wrist indicates that the radial nerve was damaged in the humeral
break. (p. 452)
8. Cranial nerves that innervate the tongue are the trigeminal (V) (pp. 437–438), the facial
(VII) (pp. 439–440), the glossopharyngeal (IX) (p. 441), and the hypoglossal (XII)
(p. 443).
184 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Supplemental Student Materials
to Human Anatomy, Seventh Edition
Chapter 14: The Peripheral Nervous System
To the Student
Chapter 14 introduces you to the peripheral nervous system and its sensory and motor
connections that enable you to interact with the outside environment. Without these structures
that lie outside the CNS, you would have no links to the real world. Material covered includes
peripheral sensory receptors, peripheral motor endings, cranial nerves, and spinal nerves.
Chapter 14 focuses on somatic functions, and Chapter 15 addresses the visceral nervous
system. It is important to review any material that is unclear and to ask questions if you do
not grasp a concept.
You will also find that incorporating Practice Anatomy Lab 3.0 (PAL) (BC; DVD, website)
into your
studies of the peripheral nervous
system
will
improve
your understanding.
For

a
comprehensive
review of peripheral nervous system
structures,
refer to the Nervous
System

sections
in the Human
Cadaver
and Anatomical
Models modules.
You may
also access
PAL
3.0
through
the
DVD or the www.myaandp.com
website.
Step 1: Understand the PNS and peripheral sensory receptors.
__ Define peripheral nervous system, and draw a flowchart representing the functional
organization of the PNS.
__ Distinguish efferent (motor) from afferent (sensory) divisions.
__ Distinguish somatic from visceral.
__ Distinguish branchial from brachial.
__ Classify peripheral sensory receptors by location in the body or the location of the
stimuli to which they respond.
__ Classify peripheral sensory receptors by the kind of stimuli to which they respond.
__ Classify peripheral sensory receptors by structure.
Step 2: Understand cranial nerves.
__ List the 12 cranial nerves, including their Roman numeral designations.
__ Distinguish rostral from caudal.
__ Identify structures innervated by each cranial nerve.
__ Describe the origin and course followed by each nerve, including skull foramina.
__ Explain the classification of cranial nerves as sensory, motor, or mixed.
__ Identify the types of sensory receptors (exteroceptors, interoceptors, proprioceptors,
or none) associated with each cranial nerve.
Step 3: Understand spinal nerves.
__ Distinguish cranial nerves from spinal nerves.
__ Describe the location of spinal nerves.
__ Distinguish roots from rami.
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHAPTER 14 The Peripheral Nervous System 185
__ Identify the cauda equina.
__ Describe the somatic innervation of the neck, trunk, and limbs.
__ Define nerve plexus.
__ Name four main plexuses formed by ventral rami, including body regions innervated.
__ Name major nerves originating from each plexus, including structures innervated.
__ Define dermatomes.
186 INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR HUMAN ANATOMY, 7e
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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