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Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual Cat Version 12th Edition Marieb Smith Instructors Manual

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Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual Cat Version 12th Edition Marieb Smith Instructors Manual

ISBN-13: 978-0321971357

ISBN-10: 0321971353

 

Description

Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual Cat Version 12th Edition Marieb Smith Instructors Manual

ISBN-13: 978-0321971357

ISBN-10: 0321971353

 

 

 

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9
E xEr cciisE
Renal System Physiology
Advance Preparation/Comments
1. Prior to the lab, suggest to the students that they become familiar with the exercise before coming to class.
If students have a home computer, or access to a computer on campus, they can become familiar with
the general operation of the simulations before coming to class. In particular, they should examine the
structure of the nephron in the .
2. A good working knowledge of diffusion, filtration, and osmosis is important in understanding renal
function. Suggest to the students that they review those concepts before coming to class.
3. A short introductory presentation with the following elements is often helpful:
• Review the basics of nephron anatomy and basic renal physiology, focusing on the major concepts such
as glomerular filtration and the movement of substances due to passive and active forces.
• Reinforce the idea of how changing the arteriole diameter influences the filtration pressure in the
glomerulus.
• Use the analogy of a coffee filter when describing the filtration that takes place in the glomerulus.
• If the students have not been exposed to the concept of carrier transport, a short introduction using
glucose as an example might be helpful.
• Encourage students to make the transition from what they see in the simulation to what they see under
microscopic examination.
• Remind students that they are manipulating a single nephron that represents the function of the entire
kidney, but that the living kidney contains many nephrons.
Answers to Questions/Experimental Data
Pre-lab Quiz in the Lab Manual
1. urochrome
2. 6.0
3. False
4. Albumin
5. Hematuria
6. bilirubinuria
7. Casts
8. A precipitate is an insoluble substance that forms.
Activity 1: The Effect of Arteriole Radius on Glomerular Filtration (pp. PEx-132–135)
Predict Question 1: When the radius of the afferent arteriole is decreased, the pressure and filtration rate will
both decrease.
Predict Question 2: When the radius of the afferent arteriole is increased, the pressure and filtration rate will
both increase.
Predict Question 3: When the radius of the efferent arteriole is decreased, the pressure and filtration rate will
both increase.
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Chart 1: Effect of Arteriole Radius on Glomerular Filtration
Afferent arteriole
radius (mm)
Efferent arteriole
radius (mm)
Glomerular capillary
pressure (mm Hg)
Glomerular filtration
rate (ml/min)
0.50
0.45
55.08
124.99
0.45
0.45
51.54
81.06
0.40
0.45
48.52
43.66
0.35
0.45
46.16
14.35
0.55
0.45
58.94
172.86
0.60
0.45
62.88
221.69
0.50
0.45
55.08
124.99
0.50
0.40
56.10
137.69
0.50
0.35
56.84
146.82
0.50
0.30
57.34
152.96
Activity Questions:
1. Activation of the sympathetic nerves serves to decrease the radius of the afferent arteriole.
2. The benefit is that urine output will decrease. The kidneys are a blood filter so slowing down the rate of
filtration for long periods could lead to abnormal blood composition.
Activity 2: The Effect of Pressure on Glomerular Filtration (pp. PEx-135–PEx-137)
Predict Question 1: Glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate will increase when you increase the beaker
pressure.
Predict Question 2: If you close the one-way valve, pressure will increase in the Bowman’s capsule and
filtration rate will decrease.
Chart 2: Effect of Arteriole Radius on Glomerular Filtration
Blood pressure
(mm Hg)
Valve
(open or closed)
Glomerular capillary
pressure (mm Hg)
Glomerular filtration
rate (ml/min)

Urine volume (ml)
70
49.72
58.57
161.76
80
52.40
91.78
186.23
90
55.08
124.99
200.44
100
57.76
158.20
209.72
70
open
49.72
58.57
161.76
70
closed
49.72
31.97
0
100
closed
57.76
114.20
0
100
open
57.76
158.20
209.72
Activity Questions:
1. Based upon this activity, increased blood pressure should increase the glomerular filtration rate.
2. High blood pressure can damage the blood vessels in the kidneys leading to reduced kidney function and
kidney failure.
Activity 3: Renal Response to Altered Blood Pressure (pp. PEx-137–PEx-139)
Predict Question 1: If both arteriole radii changes are implemented (increasing the afferent and decreasing the
efferent), glomerular filtration rate and pressure will rise above baseline values.
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Chart 3: Renal Response to Altered Blood Pressure
Afferent arteriole
radius (mm)
Efferent arteriole
radius (mm)
Blood pressure
(mm Hg)
Glomerular capillary
pressure (mm Hg)
Glomerular filtration
rate (ml/min)
0.50
0.45
90
55.08
124.99
0.50
0.45
70
49.72
58.57
0.60
0.45
70
54.25
114.72
0.50
0.35
70
51.24
77.41
0.60
0.35
70
55.58
131.15
Activity Questions:
1. Increased blood pressure can be a result of increased blood volume. For this reason, an increase in urine
volume would stabilize blood volume.
2. Diuretics increase the amount of urine output thus decreasing the blood volume. A decrease in blood
volume should result in a corresponding decrease in blood pressure.
Activity 4: Solute Gradients and Their Impact on Urine Concentration (pp. PEx-139–PEx-140)
Predict Question 1: When the solute concentration gradient in the interstitial space is increased, the urine
volume will decrease and the concentration of the urine will increase.
Chart 4: Solute Gradients and Their Impact on Urine Concentration
Urine volume (ml) Urine concentration (mOsm) Concentration gradient (mOsm)
80.57
300
300
40.28
600
600
26.86
900
900
16.86
1200
1200
Activity Questions:
1. Since desert rats have limited water supply, their urine volume will decrease due to an increased solute
gradient thus concentrating their urine significantly.
2. Diuretics could work by inhibiting ADH or by altering the solute gradient.
Activity 5: Reabsorption of Glucose via Carrier Proteins (pp. PEx-140–PEx-142)
Predict Question 1: As glucose carriers are added, the glucose concentration in the bladder will increase.
Chart 5: Reabsorption of Glucose via Carrier Proteins
Glucose concentration (mM)
Bowman’s capsule Distal convoluted tubule Urinary bladder Glucose carriers
6.00
6.00
6.00
0
6.00
4.29
4.29
100
6.00
2.57
2.57
200
6.00
0.86
0.86
300
6.00
0.00
0.00
400
Exercise 9
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Activity Questions:
1. A physician might taste urine to detect increased glucose in the urine which could indicate diabetes
mellitus.
Activity 6: The Effect of Hormones on Urine Formation (pp. PEx-142–PEx-143)
Predict Question 1: When aldosterone is added, the urine volume will decrease.
Predict Question 2: When ADH is added, the urine volume will increase.
Predict Question 3: In the presence of ADH and aldosterone, urine volume will decrease and the concentration
will increase.
Chart 6: The Effect of Hormones on Urine Formation
Potassium
concentration (mM)
Urine volume
(ml)
Urine concentration
(mOsm)

Aldosterone

ADH
6.25
201.00
100
absent
absent
10.42
180.90
100
present
absent
62.37
16.86
1200
absent
present
65.37
12.67
1200
present
present
Activity Questions:
1. Ethanol is a diuretic that works by inhibiting ADH. Inhibition of ADH increases urine output.
2. ACE catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II has a variety of effects
that all result in an increase in blood volume and decreased urine output. Therefore, inhibiting this enzyme
would increase urine output.
392
Exercise 9
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r Ev iEw shE Et
NAME ____________________________________
LAB TIME/DATE ______________________
ExErcisE

9
Renal System Physiology
A ccttiivviittyy 1 The Effect of Arteriole Radius on Glomerular Filtration
1. What are two primary functions of the kidney?
The two primary functions of the kidney are excretion and regulation.
2. What are the components of the renal corpuscle?
The two components of the renal corpuscle are the Bowman’s capsule and the
glomerular capillaries (glomerulus).
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Starting at the renal corpuscle, list the components of the renal tubule as they are encountered by filtrate.
1. Proximal
convoluted tubule, 2. loop of Henle, 3. Distal convoluted tubule
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Describe the effect of decreasing the afferent arteriole radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate. How well
did the results compare with your prediction?
When the radius of the afferent arteriole was decreased, the pressure and filtration
rate both decreased.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Describe the effect of increasing the afferent arteriole radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate. How well
did the results compare with your prediction?
When the radius of the afferent arteriole was increased, the pressure and filtration
rate both increased.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Describe the effect of decreasing the efferent arteriole radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate. How well
did the results compare with your prediction?
When the radius of the efferent arteriole was decreased, the pressure and filtration
rate both increased.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Describe the effect of increasing the efferent radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate.
When the radius of
the efferent arteriole was increased, the pressure and filtration rate both decreased.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
A ccttiivviittyy 2 The Effect of Pressure on Glomerular Filtration
1. As blood pressure increased, what happened to the glomerular capillary pressure and the glomerular filtration rate? How
well did the results compare with your prediction?
When you increase the blood pressure, glomerular capillary pressure and
filtration rate will increase.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Compare the urine volume in your baseline data with the urine volume as you increased the blood pressure. How did the
As the pressure increased, the urine volume increased proportionally.
urine volume change? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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3. How could the change in urine volume with the increase in blood pressure be viewed as being beneficial to the body?
Increased blood pressure can be a result of increased blood volume. For this reason, an increase in urine volume would stabi-
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
lize blood volume.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. When the one-way valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder was closed, what happened to the filtrate pressure
in Bowman’s capsule (this is not directly measured in this experiment) and the glomerular filtration rate? How well did the
If you close the one-way valve, pressure will increase in the Bowman’s capsule and
results compare with your prediction? ______________________________________________________________________
filtration rate will decrease.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. How did increasing the blood pressure alter the results when the valve was closed?
With increased pressure and the valve
closed, the filtration rate decreased but the glomerular pressure stayed the same. Urine output was zero.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
A ccttiivviittyy 3 Renal Response to Altered Blood Pressure
1. List the several mechanisms you have explored that change the glomerular filtration rate. How does each mechanism specifically
Both increasing the afferent arteriole radius and decreasing the efferent arteriole resulted in an
alter the glomerular filtration rate? __________________________________________________________________________
increase in glomerular filtration rate.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Describe and explain what happened to the glomerular capillary pressure and glomerular filtration rate when both arteriole
radii changes were implemented simultaneously with the low blood pressure condition. How well did the results compare
When both arteriole radii changes were implemented, glomerular filtration rate and pressure rose above
with your prediction? __________________________________________________________________________________
baseline values.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. How could you adjust the afferent or efferent radius to compensate for the effect of reduced blood pressure on the glomerular
Increasing the afferent radius or decreasing the efferent would compensate for lowered blood pressure.
filtration rate? __________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Which arteriole radius adjustment was more effective at compensating for the effect of low blood pressure on the glomerular
filtration rate? Explain why you think this difference occurs.
Increasing the afferent radius had a greater effect than decreasing
the efferent radius because there was a greater increase in glomerular pressure.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. In the body, how does a nephron maintain a near-constant glomerular filtration rate despite a constantly fluctuating blood
Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms result in changes to the afferent and efferent arterioles to maintain glomerular
pressure? ____________________________________________________________________________________________
filtration rate.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
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A ccttiivviittyy 4 Solute Gradients and Their Impact on Urine Concentration
1. What happened to the urine concentration as the solute concentration in the interstitial space was increased? How well did
When the solute concentration gradient in the interstitial space was increased, the urine
the results compare to your prediction?
volume decreased.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. What happened to the volume of urine as the solute concentration in the interstitial space was increased? How well did the
When the solute concentration gradient in the interstitial space was increased, the concentration
results compare to your prediction?
of the urine increased.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. What do you think would happen to urine volume if you did not add ADH to the collecting duct? ____________________
The urine volume will
increase in the absence of ADH in the collecting duct.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Is most of the tubule filtrate reabsorbed into the body or excreted in urine? Explain. _______________________________
Most of the tubular filtrate is reabsorbed
to prevent fluid loss and maintain homeostasis.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Can the reabsorption of solutes influence water reabsorption from the tubule fluid? Explain. ________________________
Yes, the reabsorption of solutes
affects water reabsorption because water will follow the solutes by osmosis.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
A ccttiivviittyy 5 Reabsorption of Glucose via Carrier Proteins
1. What happens to the concentration of glucose in the urinary bladder as the number of glucose carriers increases? _________
As glucose
carriers were added, the glucose concentration in the bladder increased.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. What types of transport are utilized during glucose reabsorption and where do they occur?
Glucose is first reabsorbed by
secondary active transport at the apical membrane of PCT cells and then via facilitated diffusion along the basolateral membrane.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Why does the glucose concentration in the urinary bladder become zero in these experiments? _______________________
When the number of glucose
carriers becomes great enough all of the glucose is reabsorbed.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. A person with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin in the pancreas, and a person with untreated type 2 diabetes does not
respond to the insulin that is made in the pancreas. In either case, why would you expect to find glucose in the person’s urine?
The absence of insulin or decreased sensitivity to the hormone, leads to excess glucose in the blood so the carriers reach their
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
maximum transport levels.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Review Sheet 9
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A ccttiivviittyy 6 The Effect of Hormones on Urine Formation
1. How did the addition of aldosterone affect urine volume (compared with baseline)? Can the reabsorption of solutes influence
water reabsorption in the nephron? Explain. How well did the results compare with your prediction? ___________________
When aldosterone was
added, the urine volume decreased. Aldosterone results in increased sodium and water reabsorption and increased potassium
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
secretion.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. How did the addition of ADH affect urine volume (compared with baseline)? How well did the results compare with your
prediction? Why did the addition of ADH also affect the concentration of potassium in the urine (compared with baseline)?
When ADH was added, the urine volume increased. The addition of ADH resulted in the potassium being more concentrated because
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
the volume of urine decreased.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. What is the principal determinant for the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex? ___________________________
Aldosterone release is stimulated
by production of angiotensin II which is under control of the body’s renin-angiotensin system.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. How did the addition of both aldosterone and ADH affect urine volume (compared with baseline)? How well did the results
When ADH was added, the urine volume increased.
compare with your prediction? _________________________________________________________________________
5. What is the principal determinant for the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland? Does ADH favor the formation
of dilute or concentrated urine? Explain why. _________________________________________________________________
An increase in body fluid osmolarity will stimulate the release of more ADH. ADH
favors dilute urine.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Which hormone (aldosterone or ADH) has the greater effect on urine volume? Why? ______________________________
ADH has the greater effect on urine
volume. ADH is responsible for fluid retention. Aldosterone is primarily increasing sodium uptake and potassium secretion.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. If ADH is not available, can the urine concentration still vary? Explain your answer.
The urine concentration will not vary in
the absence of ADH.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Consider this situation: you want to reabsorb sodium ions but you do not want to increase the volume of the blood by reabsorb-
ing large amounts of water from the filtrate. Assuming that aldosterone and ADH are both present, how would you adjust the
In order to reabsorb sodium without affecting urine volume, you would need to increase the
hormones to accomplish the task?
amount of aldosterone and decrease ADH.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
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