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Human Biology Concepts and Current Issues 7th Edition Johnson Test Bank

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Human Biology Concepts and Current Issues 7th Edition Johnson Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321821652

ISBN-10: 0321821653

 

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Human Biology Concepts and Current Issues 7th Edition Johnson Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321821652

ISBN-10: 0321821653

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Human Biology, 7e (Johnson)

Chapter 7   Blood

 

7.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) All of the following are ways in which blood functions to maintain homeostasis in the human body EXCEPT which one?

  1. A) moving carbon dioxide away from cells following completion of aerobic metabolism
  2. B) conducting action potentials that originate in the nervous system to help with cell-cell communication
  3. C) transporting amino acids and other nutrients derived from digestion to all tissues in the body
  4. D) transporting hormones and other chemical messengers throughout the body from their point of secretion to their targets
  5. E) regulating the pH of body fluids

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) About 55% of whole blood is ________, which is/are mostly made up of water.

  1. A) plasma
  2. B) hemoglobin
  3. C) white blood cells
  4. D) clotting proteins
  5. E) hematocrit

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) Albumin proteins in human blood function

  1. A) to initiate blood clotting
  2. B) to transport oxygen to target cells
  3. C) to maintain blood volume
  4. D) as electrolytes
  5. E) to attack foreign organisms that enter the blood

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) Albumin, alpha globulin, beta globulin, and gamma globulin are all examples of

  1. A) plasma proteins
  2. B) antibodies
  3. C) white blood cells
  4. D) clotting factors
  5. E) hormones

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) When oxygen availability drops, certain cells in the kidney respond by producing erythropoietin, which in turn stimulates an increase in red blood cells. This cellular response represents

  1. A) the clotting mechanism
  2. B) negative feedback
  3. C) positive feedback
  4. D) all-or-none response
  5. E) aerobic metabolism

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) Which one of the following is a component of blood plasma?

  1. A) collagen
  2. B) hemoglobin
  3. C) bone
  4. D) water
  5. E) mitochondria

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7) When the hormone erythropoietin is released in response to low oxygen levels, where is it transported to stimulate red blood cell production?

  1. A) kidney
  2. B) spleen
  3. C) red bone marrow
  4. D) liver
  5. E) throughout plasma

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) An increased risk for cardiovascular health problems is associated with

  1. A) an elevated level of hemoglobin
  2. B) high blood levels of HDLs
  3. C) decreased production of albumins
  4. D) high blood levels of LDLs
  5. E) low blood levels of LDLs

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

9) Which one of the following population of cells is most markedly increased during bacterial infections?

  1. A) neutrophils
  2. B) red blood cells
  3. C) platelets
  4. D) lymphocytes
  5. E) monocytes

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) Histamine is released from which one of the following types of leukocyte to stimulate the inflammatory response?

  1. A) lymphocyte
  2. B) basophil
  3. C) eosinophil
  4. D) neutrophil
  5. E) monocyte

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

11) A damaged red blood cell is removed from circulation by

  1. A) phagocytosis by macrophages in the spleen
  2. B) basophils releasing histamine to stimulate breakdown of RBCs
  3. C) returning to red bone marrow and autolysing
  4. D) being actively transported into macrophages in the liver and spleen
  5. E) endocytosis directed by monocytes

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) Unlike white blood cells, red blood cells lose their ________ and ________ as they mature.

  1. A) nucleus, organelles
  2. B) nucleus, ATP
  3. C) organelles, plasma membrane
  4. D) nucleolus, cytoplasm
  5. E) flexibility, shape

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

13) A scientist is interested in doing a research project on hemoglobin. From which one of the following could he extract the hemoglobin for his study?

  1. A) globulins
  2. B) white blood cells
  3. C) platelets
  4. D) clotting proteins
  5. E) red blood cells

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

14) Removal of the heme group from hemoglobin would result in

  1. A) red blood cells not being able to reproduce
  2. B) white blood cells not being able to reproduce
  3. C) an inability for blood to clot
  4. D) red blood cells not being able to bind oxygen
  5. E) an inability of the spleen to remove worn-out red blood cells from circulation

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

15) Which one of the following is TRUE regarding deoxyhemoglobin?

  1. A) Deoxyhemoglobin delivers oxygen to tissues that have a high oxygen demand.
  2. B) Deoxyhemoglobin has a bright red color.
  3. C) Deoxyhemoglobin found in blood returning to the heart from the lower extremities.
  4. D) Deoxyhemoglobin would form in organs with a high concentration of oxygen, such as the lungs.
  5. E) Deoxyhemoglobin is located in white blood cells, unlike oxyhemoglobin.

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

16) A researcher wants to produce antibodies by growing cells in the laboratory. What cell population would be necessary to accomplish this?

  1. A) neutrophils
  2. B) monocytes
  3. C) red blood cells
  4. D) lymphocytes
  5. E) eosinophils

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

17) When a blood vessel gets damaged, contractions of smooth muscle referred to as ________ help constrict the vessel to reduce blood flow.

  1. A) vascular spasms
  2. B) hemostasis
  3. C) homeostasis
  4. D) formed elements
  5. E) endocytosis

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 7.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) During the formation of a blood clot, conversion of prothrombin into the enzyme thrombin requires

  1. A) mitochondria
  2. B) transport of proteins from platelets
  3. C) calcium ions
  4. D) leukocytes
  5. E) albumin

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 7.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

19) Which one of the following is TRUE regarding the “recycling” of hemoglobin?

  1. A) The peptide chains are broken down into their constituent fatty acids.
  2. B) The iron atoms are returned to the red bone marrow.
  3. C) The heme groups are converted to urine by the kidneys.
  4. D) The peptide chains are transported intact to the bone marrow for reuse.
  5. E) The heme groups with their iron atoms are transported to the spleen.

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

20) A high hematocrit might indicate

  1. A) anemia
  2. B) too many white blood cells in circulation
  3. C) inadequate red blood cell production
  4. D) excessive production of platelets
  5. E) polycythemia

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

21) Blood doping, practiced by many athletes involved in the Tour de France as well as other sports, involves the illegal use of drugs to

  1. A) increase circulation
  2. B) increase the amount of oxygen carried in blood
  3. C) decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in blood
  4. D) elevate the rate of hemostasis
  5. E) increase red bone marrow production

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

22) As an erythroblast develops into an erythrocyte, it

  1. A) becomes filled with clotting proteins
  2. B) begins to manufacture platelets
  3. C) loses its ability to reproduce
  4. D) takes on the characteristics of an immature monocyte
  5. E) undergoes active aerobic metabolism

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

23) Foreign cells that enter human body have unique cell surface proteins, known as ________, which stimulate body’s defense to attack.

  1. A) leukocytes
  2. B) Rh factors
  3. C) antibodies
  4. D) platelets
  5. E) antigens

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

24) Dead and injured white blood cells are removed from circulation by the

  1. A) spleen
  2. B) tonsils
  3. C) red bone marrow
  4. D) kidney
  5. E) thymus

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

25) Which one of the following components of blood increase in number in response to the presence of an infectious agent?

  1. A) clotting factors
  2. B) albumins
  3. C) white blood cells
  4. D) red blood cells
  5. E) platelets

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

26) The inflammatory response is initiated by the release of ________ from basophils.

  1. A) histamine
  2. B) hemoglobin
  3. C) clotting factors
  4. D) granulosen
  5. E) erythropoietin

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

27) Blood displays a bright red color when

  1. A) oxygen is released by hemoglobin as blood travels through capillaries
  2. B) four oxygen molecules bind to hemoglobin to create oxyhemoglobin
  3. C) plasma albumin levels increase as blood goes through the lungs
  4. D) carbon dioxide binds to the heme group of hemoglobin
  5. E) deoxyhemoglobin is formed in blood plasma

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

28) Eosinophils are especially important in defending the human body from infection by

  1. A) bacteria
  2. B) viruses
  3. C) molds
  4. D) large parasites
  5. E) any type of microorganism

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

29) Which one of the following types of white blood cells is capable of phagocytosis?

  1. A) eosinophils
  2. B) basophils
  3. C) neutrophils
  4. D) B lymphocytes
  5. E) both eosinophils and B lymphocytes

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

30) Which one of the following formed element in the blood is not a cell, but actually a fragment of a cell?

  1. A) monocyte
  2. B) lymphocyte
  3. C) neutrophil
  4. D) platelet
  5. E) plasma

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

31) Which one of the following occurs first in the process of hemostasis?

  1. A) blood clotting
  2. B) production of fibrin
  3. C) formation of a platelet plug
  4. D) vascular spasm
  5. E) destruction of calcium ions

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 7.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

32) Which one of the following is directly involved in the process of blood clotting?

  1. A) sodium ions
  2. B) antigen
  3. C) fibrin
  4. D) clotting factor XX
  5. E) globulins

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 7.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

33) Donating blood in the United States

  1. A) requires that the donor be at least age 17
  2. B) involves a rigorous physical examination
  3. C) though beneficial, may take several hours to complete
  4. D) depends on donors with no prior sexual history
  5. E) is easy and painless and many donors are allowed to give 5-10 units at a time

Answer:  A

Topic:  Health & Wellness

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

34) A physician finds that one of his patients has the following problems: Blood clots very slowly or not at all, and severe bruises result from even the most minor bumps. Which one of the following conditions would likely be diagnosed based on this information?

  1. A) polycythemia
  2. B) hemophilia
  3. C) AIDS
  4. D) anemia
  5. E) mononucleosis

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.2

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

35) Which one of the following is a human blood type?

  1. A) E+
  2. B) B-
  3. C) ABO-
  4. D) Rh
  5. E) Rh+

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

36) If an individual is O+, which of the following antigens are on the surface of his or her red blood cells?

  1. A) O and Rh
  2. B) A, B, and Rh
  3. C) Rh
  4. D) O
  5. E) A and B

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

37) Which one of the following blood types can a person with blood type B safely receive in a blood transfusion?

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) AB
  4. D) O
  5. E) B and O

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

38) Results of an ABO blood typing indicate agglutination reactions when anti-A and anti-B are added to the blood sample. The blood type of the individual would therefore be

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) O
  4. D) AB
  5. E) not enough information given to determine blood type

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

39) Hemolytic disease of the newborn could result from which one of the following situations?

  1. A) mother is Rh+; fetus is Rh-
  2. B) mother is Rh-; fetus is Rh+
  3. C) mother is Rh+; fetus is Rh+
  4. D) mother is Rh-; fetus is Rh-

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

40) The development of a blood substitute would be welcomed for all of the following reasons EXCEPT which one?

  1. A) Human blood may carry and transmit infectious agents.
  2. B) Human blood storage requires refrigeration, which might not be available in developing countries.
  3. C) The supply of donated human blood generally can’t keep up with the demand.
  4. D) Transfused blood rarely persists for more than a few days in the recipient.
  5. E) Typing and cross-matching is necessary with human blood, and the right type may not be available.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 7.4

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

41) Based on information in the figure above, why do individuals with kidney disease sometimes become anemic?

  1. A) The diseased kidneys destroy circulating red blood cells.
  2. B) The diseased kidneys do not secrete adequate erythropoietin.
  3. C) Excessive red blood cells are lost in the urine due to leaky filtration in the diseased kidneys.
  4. D) Kidney disease spreads to the bones and interferes with red blood cell production.

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

42) The Epstein-Barr virus can induce a contagious infection of lymphocytes referred to as

  1. A) toxemia
  2. B) septicemia
  3. C) leukemia
  4. D) anemia
  5. E) mononucleosis

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7.2   True/False Questions

 

1) The circulatory and lymphatic systems both serve major transport functions in the body, with contents of the lymphatic system essentially derived from the circulatory system.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 7.0

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) The circulatory system’s main function is to help maintain homeostasis of body fluids.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 7.0

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) Platelets function to engulf foreign cells by phagocytosis.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) “Blood is thicker than water” is a true statement since blood contains many components that are denser than water and the plasma is quite viscous.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

5) When drugs such as penicillin are transported in the blood, they are attached to globulins, a type of specialized hemoglobin molecule.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) If a person were to stay at high altitudes for a long period of time, his hematocrit would increase in order to compensate for the decrease in the amount of oxygen in the air he is breathing.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

7) Hemoglobin binds oxygen most efficiently in areas of the body where the pH is low and the concentration of carbon dioxide is high.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

8) Erythropoietin is a hormone secreted by the spleen that results in an increased production of red blood cells.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) Calcium must activate prothrombin to its enzyme form before it can participate in the clotting mechanism.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) Unlike red blood cells, white blood cells are capable of leaving blood vessels to enter the tissue fluid between cells.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

11) Most lipids need to be attached to transport proteins to move through blood.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) Oxygen, but not carbon dioxide, can bind to the heme group of hemoglobin.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 7.4

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

13) It is now possible for parents to bank the umbilical cord blood of their children; the cells in the cord would then be available for use later in the life of the child to treat a genetic disorder or cancer, should it develop.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Current Issue

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) Mature red blood cells have no nucleus or mitochondria.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

15) An athlete participating in blood doping would be expected to have a low hematocrit.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

 

16) An individual with hemophilia generally lacks or has very low numbers of platelets.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 7.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

17) Most of the time, Rh incompatibility between mother (Rh-) and fetus (Rh+) doesn’t cause fetal health problems with the woman’s first pregnancy.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) Blood substitutes currently being investigated focus on the oxygen-carrying capability of the substitutes as well as their ability to provide defenses similar to those of white blood cells.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 7.4

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

19) Blood poisoning (septicemia) is typically treated with transfusions.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

7.3   Matching Questions

 

Determine whether each of the following functions of blood is associated with a component of the blood plasma, the formed elements, or both.

 

  1. A) formed elements
  2. B) both blood plasma and formed elements
  3. C) blood plasma

 

1) transport of lipids

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) blood clotting

Topic:  Sec. 7.1, 7.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) transport of carbon dioxide

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) fighting infection

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

5) transport of urea

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) transport of most of the oxygen

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

Answers: 1) C 2) B 3) B 4) B 5) C 6) A

 

 

Match each of the following white blood cells to its description(s). Answers may be used more than once.

 

  1. A) neutrophil
  2. B) T lymphocyte
  3. C) B lymphocyte
  4. D) eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil
  5. E) macrophage
  6. F) basophil
  7. G) monocyte
  8. H) eosinophil

 

7) leukocyte that releases histamine

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

8) mature from a myeloblast

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

9) white blood cell that leaves the blood and becomes a macrophage

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) the first white blood cell to combat an infection

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

11) functions to phagocytize worn-out or damaged red blood cells

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) gives rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

13) an agranulocyte that targets and then destroys cancer cells and viral-infected cells

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) protects the body from parasitic infections

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

15) the most abundant type of white blood cell

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

16) the primary cell population attacked by HIV

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

Answers: 7) F 8) D 9) G 10) A 11) E 12) C 13) B 14) H 15) A 16) B

 

Match each of the following conditions with its description.

 

  1. A) leukemia
  2. B) thrombocytopenia
  3. C) anemia
  4. D) mononucleosis
  5. E) polycythemia
  6. F) multiple myeloma

 

17) a condition caused by a decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood; may be diagnosed by a low hematocrit

Topic:  Sec. 7.1, 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

18) a blood cancer characterized by overproduction of abnormal or immature white blood cells

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

19) a viral infection of lymphocytes in blood and lymph tissues

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

20) a disorder of the bone marrow, resulting in an unusually large number of red blood cells

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

21) disorder characterized by bruising and bleeding due to an inadequate number of platelets

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

22) a type of blood cancer characterized by uncontrolled production of abnormal plasma cells

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

Answers: 17) C 18) A 19) D 20) E 21) B 22) F

 

7.4   Short Answer Questions

 

1) In addition to the circulatory system, the ________ system is also characterized by possessing a series of fluid-filled vessels.

Answer:  lymphatic

Topic:  Sec. 7.0

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Nutrients are absorbed into the blood from the ________ system.

Answer:  digestive

Topic:  Sec. 7.0

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) The largest group of solutes in plasma is made up of ________.

Answer:  plasma proteins

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) The fluid portion of blood is known as blood ________; this portion constitutes approximately ________ % of the total blood volume.

Answer:  plasma, 55

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

Using the figure above, answer the following questions.

 

5) The blood component indicated by A is the ________.

Answer:  plasma

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) The blood components in B include ________ and ________.

Answer:  platelets, white blood cells (answers may go in any order)

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

7) The blood components in C are the ________.

Answer:  red blood cells

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) The osmotic balance between blood and interstitial fluid is maintained by plasma proteins called ________.

Answer:  albumins

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

9) Monocytes can mature into ________, which are phagocytic cells.

Answer:  macrophages

Topic:  Sec. 7.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) Hemoglobin is most likely to release oxygen to tissues when the pH of tissues is ________ and the temperature is ________.

Answer:  low, high

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

11) Cells located in red bone marrow that give rise to platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells are called ________ cells.

Answer:  stem

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) The percentage of red blood cells compared to blood volume is known as the ________.

Answer:  hematocrit

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

13) The hormone ________, secreted by the ________, stimulates the production of red blood cells when the level of oxygen in the body decreases.

Answer:  erythropoietin, kidney

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) The color changes associated with a healing bruise can be attributed to the breakdown of heme groups to ________.

Answer:  bilirubin

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

15) The practice by which athletes abuse commercial erythropoietin by injecting it to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is known as ________.

Answer:  blood doping

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

16) T lymphocytes mature in the ________.

Answer:  thymus gland

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

17) Granular and agranular describe types of ________ blood cells.

Answer:  white

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

18) The swelling, itching, and redness associated with injury to a tissue are known as ________.

Answer:  inflammation

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

19) Platelets are pieces of ________.

Answer:  megakaryocytes

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

20) The process by which certain white blood cells can engulf disease-causing organisms and digest them is ________.

Answer:  phagocytosis

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

21) Fragments of cells that are important in blood clotting are called ________.

Answer:  platelets

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

22) Vascular spasm, formation of a platelet plug, and coagulation are the three stages of ________.

Answer:  hemostasis

Topic:  Sec. 7.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

23) Cell surface proteins that are foreign to the body and therefore cause a response from the immune system are known as ________.

Answer:  antigens

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

24) Proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen are known as ________.

Answer:  antibodies

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

25) In order to be certain that blood transfusions are as safe as possible, medical laboratories not only conduct blood typing, but also ________.

Answer:  cross-matching

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

26) In order to prevent the onset of hemolytic disease of the newborn, an Rh- woman who is pregnant with an Rh+ child can be given ________ during pregnancy.

Answer:  Rh antibodies (RhoGAM)

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

27) The type of anemia that results from a deficiency of vitamin B12 is ________; the type of anemia that results from extreme blood loss is ________.

Answer:  pernicious anemia, hemorrhagic anemia

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

28) A condition resulting from a reduction in the number of platelets in the blood is ________.

Answer:  thrombocytopenia

Topic:  Sec. 7.5

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7.5   Essay Questions

 

1) Individuals involved in relatively minor accidents may suffer cuts and bruises, but generally do not suffer from excessive blood loss. What features does blood posses that limit blood loss during minor accidents?

Answer:  Blood loss can be limited by a process known as hemostasis. Hemostasis relies on vascular spasms, or muscular contractions of blood vessels in the region of the damage, formation of a platelet plug at the site of the damage to a blood vessel, and a multistage process of blood clot formation. Once blood loss is stopped, the blood vessels can be repaired, and blood volume returns to normal levels.

Topic:  Sec. 7.2

Skill:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) Humans may have one of four different blood types—A, B, AB, or O. Explain why a person with type O blood is referred to as the “universal donor,” yet can receive blood only from other individuals with type O blood.

Answer:  Like other cells in the body, red blood cells have surface proteins referred to as antigens. These antigens can be different and have been designated as A or B. The human body produces antibodies against any cell protein that is not self, or from its body. Therefore, if a person has type A antigens on his or her red blood cells, the person’s body is producing antibodies against B antigens. Type O blood has neither A or B antigens, and therefore can be donated to anyone with any blood type. However, the type O person produces antibodies against the antigens he or she lacks, which are A and B. Consequently, a person with type O blood can receive blood only from another type O individual.

Topic:  Sec. 7.3

Skill:  Application/Analysis

3) If red bone marrow can be surgically removed from an individual, what would happen to that person in terms of the formed elements of the blood?

Answer:  Red bone marrow produces stem cells, which are cells that have not matured or differentiated and that give rise to other cell types. The stem cells from bone marrow give rise to all red and white blood cells and platelets. If red bone marrow did not function properly or was removed, stem cells would not be produced, and therefore neither would any of the essential cells known as formed elements.

Topic:  Sec. 7.1

Skill:  Application/Analysis

 

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