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Human Development 11th Edition Papalia Olds Feldman Test Bank

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Human Development 11th Edition Papalia Olds Feldman Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073370163

ISBN-10: 0073370169

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Human Development 11th Edition Papalia Olds Feldman Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073370163

ISBN-10: 0073370169

 

 

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14        PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

IN YOUNG ADULTHOOD

 

 

Guideposts

 

  1. What influences today’s varied paths to adulthood, and how do emerging adults develop a sense of adult identity and an autonomous relationship with parents?
  2. Does personality change during adulthood, and if so, how?
  3. How is intimacy expressed in friendship and love?
  4. When and why do young adults choose to remain single, form gay or lesbian relationships, cohabit, or marry, and how satisfying and stable are those lifestyles?
  5. When do most adults become parents, and how does parenthood affect a marriage?
  6. What are trends in divorce rates, and how do young adults adjust to divorce, remarriage, and step-parenthood?

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

  1. In the 1960s, young people in the United States typically finished school, left home, got a job, got married, and had children. By the 1990s, only __________ of emerging adults followed this sequence.
  2. 15%
  3. 25%
  4. 35%
  5. 45%

Answer: B

Page: 452

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Current research indicates that emerging adults with the highest well-being have all of the following EXCEPT
  2. attended college.
  3. had no children.
  4. did not get married.
  5. lived with parents.

Answer: D

Page: 453

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Recentering refers to the process
  2. of cognitive changes.
  3. that reflects personality formation.
  4. that underlies the shift to an adult identity.
  5. that underlies a shift to a personalized identity.

Answer: C

Page: 453

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Recentering is a three-stage process in which the young adult changes from her family of origin in the following ways EXCEPT
  2. power.
  3. financial independence.
  4. decision making.
  5. responsibility.

Answer: B

Page: 453

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Identity exploration among emerging adults has been found to be different for racial/ethnic minorities. What conclusion can we make about this group of youth?
  2. Many minority youth must take on adult responsibilities earlier than their peers.
  3. Minority youth are pressured to marry and have children later in life.
  4. Minority youth are less likely to assist their family financially.
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 454

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which statement below is FALSE with regards to the trend identified as “failure to thrive”?
  2. Emerging adults from low-income families are more likely to live at home than are those from high-income families.
  3. Emerging adults from high-income families are more likely to live at home than are those from low-income families.
  4. Emerging adults have trouble negotiating their relationships with parents when living at home.
  5. There are more emerging adult women living at home than emerging adult men.

Answer: B

Page: 455

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which personality model focuses on mental, emotional, temperamental, and behavioral attributes?
  2. timing-of-events model
  3. humanistic model
  4. trait model
  5. normative-crisis model

Answer: C

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Currently, developmentalists who ascribe to the normative-stage model believe that people
  2. experience no further development after adolescence.
  3. continue to develop through their thirties, but undergo only minimal changes thereafter.
  4. probably develop very little after age 50.
  5. continue to follow a sequence of age-related changes throughout adulthood.

Answer: D

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A young woman passes through adolescence without developing a strong sense of personal identity. According to Erikson, what difficulty will she experience during young adulthood?
  2. She will lack competitiveness.
  3. She will have problems with intimacy.
  4. She will become sexually promiscuous.
  5. She will fail to develop “the dream.”

Answer: B

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A sequence of age-related development that continues through the adult life span, identified by major, predictable life changes, describes the ______ model of personality.
  2. five-factor
  3. humanistic
  4. timing-of-events
  5. normative-stage

Answer: D

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which model describes human development as a universal sequence of age-related social and emotional changes?
  2. normative-stage
  3. normative age-graded
  4. normative history-graded
  5. timing-of-events

Answer: A

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Dr. Dunn says that she supports Erik Erikson’s model of development, which assumes that people pass through a universal sequence of age-related social and emotional changes during the life span. According to the text, Dr. Dunn supports the __________ model.
  2. idiosyncratic stage theory
  3. normative-sequential
  4. normative-stage
  5. nomothetic-longitudinal

Answer: C

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Bill, age 30, is searching for the right woman to share his life and future. According to Erikson’s theory, Bill is at the stage of
  2. identity versus identity confusion.
  3. industry versus inferiority.
  4. intimacy versus isolation.
  5. initiative versus guilt.

Answer: C

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. According to Erikson, which of the following must people achieve before they can begin to form intimate relationships?
  2. mutuality of devotion
  3. a strong sense of personal identity
  4. generativity
  5. integrity

Answer: B

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Troy and Christa are young adults who have developed a high level of intimacy and commitment toward one another. They will marry soon. According to Erikson, Troy and Christa have developed the virtue of
  2. mutual devotion.
  3. compatibility.
  4. trust.
  5. generativity.

Answer: A

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Aspects of Erikson’s theory that have been criticized include all of the following EXCEPT
  2. the only lifestyle he considers healthy is a loving heterosexual relationship that produces children.
  3. he focuses on a male pattern of development.
  4. the theory assumes homosexuality is not normal.
  5. he places too much emphasis on sexual strivings.

Answer: D

Page: 457

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Levinson believes a man builds a provisional life structure as he identifies his
  2. identity.
  3. novice.
  4. individuality.
  5. dream.

Answer: D

Page: 457

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Levinson calls the underlying pattern of a person’s life
  2. psychosocial development.
  3. life structure.
  4. normative-crisis model.
  5. timing-of-events model.

Answer: B

Page: 457

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Levinson’s theory proposes that
  2. there are seven overlapping eras of development.
  3. eras of life are connected by transitional periods.
  4. most life structures are built primarily physical abilities and motor skills.
  5. failure to accomplish the tasks of one era makes the structure of the next era stronger in order to compensate.

Answer: B

Page: 457

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Troy is 22 years old and has just gotten a job as a bank teller. Troy envisions himself eventually becoming the president of the bank. According to Levinson’s view of adult development, Troy is expressing
  2. neurotic thinking.
  3. the “dream.”
  4. overcompensation.
  5. the need for a mentor.

Answer: B

Page: 457

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. During Levinson’s age-30 transition, men
  2. have a mid-life crisis.
  3. are likely to have few marital problems.
  4. take another look at their lives.
  5. are usually too busy to question their commitments.

Answer: C

Page: 457

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Dean is at Levinson’s age-30 transition. Which of the following would he be most likely to do?
  2. form a “dream”
  3. “become his own man”
  4. acquire a mentor
  5. reexamine his entry life structure

Answer: D

Page: 457

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. When men make deeper commitments to work, family, and other aspects of their lives at ages 33 to 40, they are at which of Levinson’s stages?
  2. forming a “dream”
  3. finding a mentor
  4. “settling down”
  5. mid-life crisis

Answer: C

Page: 457

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Predictable changes in adult personality are at the heart of the ______ model.
  2. timing-of-events
  3. trait
  4. normative-stage
  5. typological

Answer: C

Page: 456

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The researcher who studied 45 women and found that they went through similar patterns of their life structure to those of men is
  2. Erikson.
  3. Freud.
  4. Piaget.
  5. Levinson.

Answer: D

Page: 457

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Erikson identified ______ that need to be accomplished for successful adaptation to each stage of life.
  2. normative crises
  3. age-graded events
  4. history gradients
  5. developmental tasks

Answer: D

Page: 457-458

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Occurrences that people expect are called __________ life events.
  2. normative
  3. non-normative
  4. individual
  5. cultural

Answer: A

Page: 458

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The cultural expectations for the proper timing of life events, such as getting married or retiring, are called
  2. non-normative sequences.
  3. the social clock.
  4. temporal schemas.
  5. age-consciousness.

Answer: B

Page: 458

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The term used for society’s norms or expectations for the appropriate timing-of-life events is the
  2. social clock.
  3. cohort time.
  4. normative time.
  5. individual clock.

Answer: A

Page: 458

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Vanna has just found out that a wealthy distant relative has died and unexpectedly left her $2 million. According to the text, this sort of event would be classified as
  2. normative.
  3. unexpected event.
  4. a life-transition event.
  5. a timing event.

Answer: B

Page: 458

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. The five-factor model of personality emphasizes
  2. personality changes that occur during middle childhood.
  3. five crises that adolescents and young adults experience that produce instability in personality.
  4. normative influences on adaptive mechanisms in mid-life.
  5. stability of personality characteristics over much of adult life.

Answer: D

Page: 458-459

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A cluster of the traits of anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability is called
  2. extraversion.
  3. neuroticism.
  4. the sixth factor.
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 459

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. All of the following personality types reflect the typological model of personality EXCEPT
  2. ego-resilient.
  3. overcontrolled.
  4. conflicted.
  5. undercontrolled.

Answer: C

Page: 460

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In the typological model, undercontrolled children, who are depicted as impulsive, stubborn, and easily distracted may
  2. have a very difficult time forming intimate relationships in early adulthood.
  3. show serious neuroticism between ages 16 and 21.
  4. become shy, quiet, and dependable as adults.
  5. get along better as adults when they find niches where their energy and spontaneity are considered a plus.

Answer: D

Page: 461

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. People who are observed as having adaptability under stress and are well adjusted and self-confident are seen as having ______ personalities.
  2. ego-resilient
  3. ego-controlled
  4. overcontrolled
  5. undercontrolled

Answer: A

Page: 461

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. People who are shy, quiet, anxious, and dependable exhibit ______ personalities.
  2. ego-resilient
  3. ego-controlled
  4. overcontrolled
  5. undercontrolled

Answer: C

Page: 461

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a factor in successful, satisfying intimate relationships?
  2. an increased standard of a living
  3. self-awareness
  4. empathy
  5. conflict resolution

Answer: A

Page: 461

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Sternberg describes love as a ____________, a concept that people create out of their own cultural influences and perceptions of reality.
  2. personal construct
  3. personal story
  4. psychological need
  5. integration of the social order

Answer: B

Page: 462

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Friendships during young adulthood tend to center around the following topics EXCEPT
  2. parenting.
  3. sharing confidences.
  4. technology.
  5. advice.

Answer: C

Page: 462

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. For many young adults, friends are combined into chosen family networks. These close relationships are considered to be
  2. supportive kin.
  3. harmonious kin.
  4. fictive kin.
  5. time-honored kin.

Answer: C

Page: 462

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Compared with men, women tend to have
  2. more friendships.
  3. more intimate, nurturing friendships.
  4. satisfying friendships with other women.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 462

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In Sternberg’s triangular theory, the three elements of love are
  2. intimacy, passion, and commitment.
  3. intimacy, passion, and companionship.
  4. passion, companionship, and commitment.
  5. intimacy, companionship, and commitment.

Answer: A

Page: 462

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Sternberg, the ultimate pattern of love is __________ love, in which all three components of the triangular theory of love are present.
  2. romantic
  3. fatuous
  4. consummate
  5. companionate

Answer: C

Page: 463

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. While doing a report for his psychology class, Brandon found that a majority of today’s single adults
  2. intensely dislike their single status.
  3. are routinely “looking” for a partner and are not satisfied with their status.
  4. are too depressed to be busy and active.
  5. feel secure about themselves and their status.

Answer: B

Page: 454

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. According to the text, gay and lesbian couples are more likely than heterosexual couples to
  2. negotiate household chores.
  3. resolve conflicts.
  4. to be less stable.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 464-465

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. What country was the first to legalize same-sex marriages?
  2. Netherlands
  3. Belgium
  4. France
  5. England

Answer: A

Page: 465

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Compared to heterosexual relationships, the ingredients for long-term satisfaction in homosexual relationships are
  2. very similar.
  3. somewhat different.
  4. very different.
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 464

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Leigh and David have decided to cohabitate. The outlook for this lifestyle includes all EXCEPT
  2. they are more likely to divorce if they marry.
  3. they are more likely to have an unhappy marriage.
  4. this relationship will be less satisfying.
  5. this relationship will be less stable than marriage.

Answer: A

Page: 465

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about cohabitation?
  2. Rates of cohabitation are declining in the United States.
  3. U.S. rates have increased dramatically since 1960.
  4. Living together is universally considered a “trial marriage.”
  5. Cohabitation seems to improve the chances of successful marriage.

Answer: B

Page: 465

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. What proportion of U.S. couples who marry have lived together first?
  2. One-fifth
  3. One-fourth
  4. One-third
  5. One-half

Answer: D

Page: 466

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Compared to those who do not live together, couples who cohabitate before marriage experience all of the following EXCEPT
  2. unhappier marriages.
  3. greater risk of breaking up.
  4. better marriages for having lived together before marriage.
  5. older cohabitors who have plans to report more satisfaction with the relationship than younger cohabitors.

Answer: C

Page: 466

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Historically and across cultures, the most common way of getting a mate has been
  2. arrangement by a third party, such as parents or a professional matchmaker.
  3. free choice of mates on the basis of love.
  4. the dating and courtship process.
  5. falling in love and subsequent marriage.

Answer: A

Page: 467

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In which of the following countries is the usual “marrying age” lowest?
  2. France
  3. Canada
  4. United States
  5. Germany

Answer: B

Page: 468

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Couples entering marriage need to be concerned about all of the following EXCEPT
  2. redefining the connection with their original families.
  3. balancing intimacy with autonomy.
  4. deciding whether or not to acquire pets.
  5. establishing a fulfilling sexual relationship.

Answer: C

Page: 468

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which group engages in the highest level of sexual activity?
  2. single adults
  3. married couples
  4. cohabiting couples
  5. no difference in frequency

Answer: C

Page: 468

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. About what percentage of people 18 to 59 reported in a recent study that they engaged in sexual intercourse two or more times a week?
  2. 20
  3. 33
  4. 50
  5. 75

Answer: B

Page: 468

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to one source, about __________ percent of men and __________ percent of women who were ever married had extramarital sex.
  2. 41; 19
  3. 33; 33
  4. 8; 6
  5. 4; 2

Answer: D

Page: 469

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is an important factor for marital success?
  2. partners’ sense of commitment and obligation to their spouse
  3. opinions of wedding guests about the success of the marriage
  4. amount of sex a couple has
  5. the income of the couple

Answer: A

Page: 470

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In comparison with the previous generation, women today tend to
  2. have more children.
  3. have children later in life.
  4. be less emotionally involved with their children.
  5. have more regrets about having children.

Answer: B

Page: 471

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Why do some couples decide not to have children?
  2. Some just postpone it waiting for the right time.
  3. Some enjoy the freedom of an adult lifestyle.
  4. Some want to concentrate on careers.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 471

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The percentage of U.S. households with children has fallen from 45% in 1970 to about________

today.

  1. 22%
  2. 32%
  3. 42%
  4. 12%

Answer: B

Page: 471

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Pregnancy and recovery from childbirth can affect a couple’s relationshipRemember,metimes
  2. decreasing barriers.
  3. increasing intimacy.
  4. decreasing commitment to parenthood.
  5. increasing the value of parenthood.

Answer: B

Page: 471

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When parenthood experience does not meet expectations, women tend to show signs of
  2. greater commitment to parenting.
  3. lesser commitment top parenting.
  4. poor adjustment to parenthood.
  5. signs of depression.

Answer: D

Page: 471

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to recent research, which of the following statements about the effect of the transition to parenthood on marriage is TRUE?
  2. Overall, most marriages improve after the arrival of the first baby.
  3. Couples whose first baby is a boy are more likely to have marital problems.
  4. Couples who have a second child before the first is 3 years old are more likely to have marital problems.
  5. The overall quality of the marriage may suffer.

Answer: D

Page: 472

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. During young adulthood, working couples face extra demands on time and energy. According to the text, the family is most demanding when
  2. women are employed full time and they have young children.
  3. women are not employed and they have young children.
  4. men are employed part time and women are employed full time.
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 473

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Pressures on dual-income families vary by country. According to the text, which of the following statements is NOT true?
  2. Proposals for paid family leave have been introduced in the U.S. Congress.
  3. In 34 countries, but not in the United States, there is a set length for the workweek.
  4. Fathers in 65 countries, but not in the United States, get paid paternity leave.
  5. Fathers in the United States get paid paternity leave.

Answer: D

Page: 473

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Overall, researchers have found that combining work and family roles is
  2. generally beneficial to women.
  3. generally beneficial to men.
  4. beneficial to both men and women and adds to the strength of the relationship.
  5. likely to cause irreparable harm to a relationship if partners are not highly educated.

Answer: C

Page: 473

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Factors that contribute to the overall success of multiple roles for dual-earner couples include all of the following EXCEPT
  2. increased opportunity for greater resources within the family.
  3. more equal relationships between the husband and wife.
  4. greater self-esteem for women.
  5. increased mood swings that challenge diverse thinking in relationships.

Answer: D

Page: 473

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The sharpest drop in divorce has occurred among
  2. younger cohorts.
  3. older cohorts.
  4. There has not been a drop in divorce rate.
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 474

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Marsha is a 28-year-old college graduate and has married recently. Which of the following factors apply to her chances for divorce?
  2. She has permissive attitudes about cohabitation.
  3. She has waited later to marry.
  4. She is has parental support.
  5. She married her high school boyfriend.

Answer: B

Page: 474

Guidepost: 6

Type: Application

 

  1. Monroe and Louise have recently divorced. Which of the following will help them in adjusting emotionally to the divorce?
  2. detachment from the former spouse
  3. avoiding friends who will want to talk about the divorce
  4. refraining from entering another relationship for at least several years
  5. All of these.

Answer: A

Page: 476

Guidepost: 6

Type: Application

 

  1. Half of those who remarry after a divorce do so within how many years?
  2. 6–7
  3. ­5–6
  4. 4–5
  5. 3­–4

Answer: D

Page: 476

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Compared to first marriages, remarriages tend to be __________ stable.
  2. slightly more
  3. less
  4. as
  5. far more

Answer: B

Page: 476-477

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following statements about step-parenthood is true?
  2. Parents tend to side with their own biological children in disputes.
  3. Women seem to adjust to the raising of stepchildren better than men.
  4. Stepparents seem to experience more marital conflict than people in intact families.
  5. Stepchildren are no more difficult to rear than biological children.

Answer: A

Page: 477

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Paula and her roommate, Krystal, spend a great deal of time talking about finding “just the right” men. While they both dated have extensively, they have finished college without finding the perfect partner and now need to reflect on those areas that may need to be changed in order to find the relationship they want. Define intimacy and explain the steps that you would suggest Paula and Krystal take in order to experience more emotional and physical intimacy in their lives. Discuss the possibilities of the Internet in their search and explain why it may or may not be a good idea for these young women.

 

  1. Your son, Damian, wants to move in with his girlfriend so that they can see if they are compatible enough to commit to a permanent relationship. Without being critical of his choice, explain to Damian what you have learned from the research on cohabitation about the idea of “checking out the situation before making things permanent.” Offer Damian some specific methods he and his girlfriend can use to get some assurance that each is “the one” without moving in together.

 

  1. Describe the shift in home life from past generations, when many mothers stayed in the home, to the present situation where more women are working outside the home, either part or full time. What are the factors that can cause the most conflict in the homes of dual-earner families?

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