Sale!

Human Development A Cultural Approach 1st Edition Arnett Test Bank

$80.00 $12.99

Human Development A Cultural Approach 1st Edition Arnett Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205595266

ISBN-10: 020559526X

 

Description

Human Development A Cultural Approach 1st Edition Arnett Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205595266

ISBN-10: 020559526X

 

 

 

Be the best nurse you can be:

Nursing test banks are legit and very helpful. This test bank on this page can be downloaded immediately after you checkout today.

Here is the definition of nursing

Its true that you will receive the entire legit test bank for this book and it can happen today regardless if its day or night. We have made the process automatic for you so that you don’t have to wait.

We encourage you to purchase from only a trustworthy provider:

Our site is one of the most confidential websites on the internet. We maintain no logs and guarantee it. Our website is also encrypted with an SSL on the entire website which will show on your browser with a lock symbol. This means not a single person can view any information.

Have any comments or suggestions?

When you get your file today you will be able to open it on your device and start studying for your class right now.

Remember, this is a digital download that is automatically given to you after you checkout today.

Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

Chapter 9 Emerging Adulthood

 

Section 1 Physical Development……………………………………………………………………… 988

Test Item File……………………………………………………………………………………………… 988

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………… 988

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………. 1018

Essay Questions……………………………………………………………………………………… 1019

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank………………………………………………………………. 1021

Pre-Test………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1021

Post-Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1023

Chapter Exam………………………………………………………………………………………… 1025

Quick Review………………………………………………………………………………………… 1028

Video Guide Questions………………………………………………………………………………… 1031

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………. 1031

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………… 1031

Section 2 Cognitive Development…………………………………………………………………… 1034

Test Item File……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1034

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………… 1034

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………. 1058

Essay Questions……………………………………………………………………………………… 1059

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank………………………………………………………………. 1061

Pre-Test………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1061

Post-Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1063

Chapter Exam………………………………………………………………………………………… 1065

Quick Review………………………………………………………………………………………… 1068

Video Guide Questions………………………………………………………………………………… 1071

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………. 1071

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………… 1071

Section 3 Emotional and Social Development…………………………………………………. 1070

Test Item File……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1070

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………… 1070

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………. 1107

Essay Questions……………………………………………………………………………………… 1108

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank………………………………………………………………. 1107

Pre-Test………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1107

Post-Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1109

Chapter Exam………………………………………………………………………………………… 1111

Quick Review………………………………………………………………………………………… 1113

Video Guide Questions………………………………………………………………………………… 1116

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………. 1116

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………… 1116

 

 

 

Section 1 Physical Development

 

 

Test Item File

 

Difficulty

1=Easy; 2=Moderate; 3=Difficult

 

Learning Objective number refers to the ’s learning objectives.

 

MDL Parallel Question ID refers to the correlating question found in MyDevelopmentLab. For your convenience, the MyDevelopmentLab items for this chapter are included in this document after the Test Item File.

Pre=Pre-Test

Post=Post-Test

CE=Chapter Exam

QR=Quick Review

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. In the past, the transition to young adulthood occurred when people were married, entered parenthood, and started stable work. Around what age does this happen for most people today who live in developed countries?
  2. 20 years
  3. 25 years
  4. 30 years
  5. 35 years

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 401

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.1

 

  1. What are the typical ages for emerging adulthood?
  2. 12 to 17 years
  3. 18 to 25 years
  4. 26 to 30 years
  5. 31 to 35 years

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 401

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.1.1

 

  1. What was the median age of marriage for women in most developed countries in 1960?
  2. 18 years
  3. 21 years
  4. 24 years
  5. 27 years

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 401

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.1

 

  1. What was the median age of marriage for men in most developed countries in 1960?
  2. 20 years
  3. 23 years
  4. 27 years
  5. 30 years

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 401

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.1

 

  1. What is the median age of marriage for women in most developed countries today?
  2. 20 years
  3. 23 years
  4. 27 years
  5. 30 years

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 401–2

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the median age of marriage for men in most developed countries today?
  2. 22 years
  3. 25 years
  4. 29 years
  5. 32 years

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 401–2

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What are five characteristics that distinguish emerging adulthood from other age periods?
  2. It is the age of identity explorations, instability, being self-focused, feeling in-between, and possibilities.
  3. It is the age of stability, being other-focused, identity diffusion, feeling in-between, and stagnation.
  4. It is the age of identity moratorium, stability, feeling marginalized, being self-focused, and developing a global worldview.
  5. It is the age of instability, being other-focused, identity foreclosure, feeling marginalized, and possibilities.

Answer: a

Page: 403

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.2

% correct  89     a= 89  b= 0  c= 11  d= 0      r = .66

 

  1. Characteristics that distinguish emerging adulthood from other periods begin to develop ____ emerging adulthood and ____.
  2. before; cease to develop afterward
  3. before; continue to develop afterward
  4. after; cease to develop afterward
  5. after; continue to develop afterward

Answer: b

Page: 403

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is one explanation for the dramatic rise in the typical ages of entering marriage and parenthood today in developing countries?
  2. marriage is not necessary for sexual relationships

Correct. Since the 1960s, it has become more acceptable for sexual relationships to exist without marriage. The press for marriage at an early age, therefore, is no longer valid.

  1. parents today discourage early marriage
  2. fear of divorce

Incorrect. Since the 1960s, it has become more acceptable for sexual relationships to exist without marriage. The press for marriage at an early age, therefore, is no longer valid.

  1. emerging adults cannot make decisions

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 402

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  72     a= 72  b= 11  c= 6  d= 11      r = .44

 

  1. The age of ____ is an age when people explore various possibilities in love and work as they move toward making enduring choices.
  2. instability
  3. feeling in-between
  4. possibilities
  5. identity explorations

Answer: d

Page: 403

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following best captures the characteristics of the age of identity explorations?
  2. an understanding of one’s multifaceted self, to possess instability in one’s occupational field, to understand one’s biological heritage, and to reflect on one’s life with high integrity

Incorrect. The traits described here are closer to later adulthood, Erikson’s stage of integrity versus despair.

  1. an understanding of one’s gender identity, to possess stability in one’s career, to understand one’s ethnic heritage and biological beginnings
  2. an understanding of who one is, what one’s capabilities and limitations are, what one’s beliefs and values are, and how one fits into the society around them

Correct. Erik Erikson first developed the idea of identity and asserted that the majority of individuals explore during adolescence; however, contemporary perspectives propose that identity development reaches into adulthood.

  1. an understanding of who others are, what a person’s temperament is, how the genetic lineage affects longevity, and to have a shaky global view

Answer: c

Page: 403

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.1

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.1.2

 

  1. Patrick is an emerging adult. For a time period he lived with a group of friends from high school, then he moved back home with his parents, and now he has an apartment of his own. Which of the following characteristics of emerging adulthood best describes Patrick’s situation?
  2. age of identity explorations
  3. age of possibility

Incorrect. One could conceive that Patrick has greater possibilities of residence, but Patrick’s situation demonstrates instability much more than possibility.

  1. age of instability

Correct. Having frequent residential changes is common for emerging adults in America and the phenomenon is best described as instability. At no other time in life is residential movement as great.

  1. self-focused age

Answer: c

Page: 404

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.1

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is one explanation for the dramatic rise in the typical ages of entering marriage and parenthood today in developing countries?
  2. the difficulty in finding employment
  3. the increase in the number of years to complete formal education

Correct. Since the 1960s, the number of years to complete formal education past secondary education has steadily increased and many people are not getting married until their education has been completed.

  1. the difficulty in finding someone with whom to be romantic

Incorrect. Since the 1960s, the number of years to complete formal education past secondary education has steadily increased and many people are not getting married until their education has been completed.

  1. society does not encourage early marriage

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 403

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.2, CE 9.1.3

 

  1. What is the best way to describe the occupational possibilities for young women today?
  2. good, but there are still gender-specific occupations
  3. about what it was in the 1960s
  4. virtually unlimited

Correct. Today, occupational possibilities are nearly unlimited for young women.

  1. improving, but problematic

Incorrect. Today, occupational possibilities are nearly unlimited for young women.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 403

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.2

 

  1. What is the most distinctive characteristic of emerging adulthood? It is the age of ____.
  2. identity exploration

Correct. According to the text, the most distinctive feature of emerging adulthood is that it is the age of identify exploration.

  1. instability

Incorrect. According to the text, the most distinctive feature of emerging adulthood is that it is the age of identify exploration.

  1. self-focusing
  2. possibilities

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 403

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In American society, what age group moves from one residence to another the most frequently?
  2. 8- to 12-year-olds
  3. 13- to 18-year-olds
  4. 18- to 29-year-olds
  5. 30- to 35-year-olds

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 404

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of Americans will move back into their parents’ home at least once during emerging adulthood?
  2. 10%
  3. 30%

Incorrect. About 50% of Americans will move back into their parents’ home at least once during emerging adulthood.

  1. 50%

Correct. About 50% of Americans will move back into their parents’ home at least once during emerging adulthood.

  1. 70%

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 404

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The goal of emerging adults’ self-focusing is learning to stand alone as a self-sufficient person, but emerging adults ____.
  2. are not able to meet this goal
  3. do not see self-sufficiency as a permanent state

Correct. Emerging adults do not see self-sufficiency as a permanent state. They view it as a necessary step before committing themselves to lasting relationships with others in love and work.

  1. need nearly total assistance from their parents during this time

Incorrect. Emerging adults do not see self-sufficiency as a permanent state. They view it as a necessary step before committing themselves to lasting relationships with others in love and work.

  1. have very little cognitive or financial resources to make this happen

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 404

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 26-year-old brother finished college and is working and living by himself. You asked him how it feels to be on his own and he told you he feels like ____.
  2. an adult now
  3. he is not quite an adult yet, but certainly not a kid

Correct. Emerging adults feel like they are in between adolescence and adulthood.

  1. he is still an adolescent, but living alone

Incorrect. Emerging adults feel like they are in between adolescence and adulthood.

  1. he is fearful of failure

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 404

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When asked, “Do you feel that you have reached adulthood?” the majority of emerging adults respond: ____.
  2. Yes.
  3. No.
  4. In some ways.

Correct. Emerging adults feel like they are in between adolescence and adulthood and generally respond that “in some ways” they feel like they have reached adulthood.

  1. I’ve felt like an adult for years.

Incorrect. Emerging adults feel like they are in between adolescence and adulthood and generally respond that “in some ways” they feel like they have reached adulthood.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 404

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.4

% correct  72     a= 6  b= 22  c= 72  d= 0      r = .21

 

  1. You overhear your brother, who is 32, talking to his friends who are about the same age as he is. They are speaking about how they feel about adulthood. The consensus is that they all felt like adults around what age?
  2. they still do not feel like adults
  3. when they were 20 years old
  4. when they were 25 years old

Incorrect. Most individuals today do not feel like they are officially adults until they are in their late 20s or early 30s.

  1. when they were 30 years old

Correct. Most individuals today do not feel like they are officially adults until they are in their late 20s or early 30s.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 404

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In America, which of the following time periods has the greatest degree of residential change or changing where a person lives?
  2. childhood
  3. emerging adulthood
  4. middle adulthood
  5. late adulthood

Answer: b

Page: 404

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.1.3

% correct 96      a= 4  b= 96  c= 0  d= 0      r = .21

 

 

  1. In one national survey of 18- to 24-year-olds in the United States, nearly all—96%—agreed with the statement: ____.
  2. “I have chosen a career path that brings satisfaction and stability to my life.”
  3. “I am financially independent and emotionally mature.”
  4. “I am who I am and that is never going to change.”
  5. “I am very sure that someday I will get to where I want to be in life.”

Answer: d

Page: 405

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.3

 

  1. The time period of emerging adulthood is more likely to be seen in ____.
  2. developed countries
  3. developing countries
  4. collective cultures
  5. individualistic cultures

Answer: a

Page: 406

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.3

 

  1. The time period of emerging adulthood is more likely to be seen in which of the following countries?
  2. Afghanistan, Chad, and Ethiopia
  3. the United States, Australia, and Japan
  4. South Africa, Papa New Guinea, and Cambodia
  5. Zimbabwe, Liberia, and Brazil

Answer: b

Page: 406

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The time period of emerging adulthood is more likely to be a part of ____, and absent in ____.
  2. developed countries; undeveloped countries
  3. undeveloped countries; developed countries
  4. collective cultures; individualistic cultures
  5. individualistic cultures; collective cultures

Answer: a

Page: 405

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  94     a= 94  b= 0  c= 0  d= 6      r = .35

 

  1. In a national survey of 18- to 24-year-olds (Hornblower, 1997), what percentage agree with the statement “I am very sure that someday I will get to where I want to be in life?”
  2. 50%
  3. 62%
  4. 84%
  5. 96%

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 405

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.5

 

  1. What is required for emerging adulthood to exist?
  2. a relatively high median age of entering marriage and parenthood

Correct. Emerging adulthood represents the post-adolescent phase before starting a family.

  1. an economy that has high interest rates
  2. a population that exceeds 150 million

Incorrect. Population is not a causative factor with regard to emerging adulthood.

  1. a population in which there is large ratio of males to females

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 405

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.2.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are talking to your roommate who is European and you ask about when people in Europe expect to get married and to start a family. How does your roommate respond? The median age when people in most European countries enter marriage and parenthood is ____.
  2. late teens
  3. early 20s
  4. near 30

Correct. The median age for entering into marriage and parenthood in Europe is near 30 years of age.

  1. after 35

Incorrect. The median age for entering into marriage and parenthood in Europe is near 30 years of age.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 405

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.2.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  89     a= 0  b= 0  c= 89  d= 6      r = .23

 

  1. Which of the following regions of the world has the longest and most leisurely experience for emerging adulthood?
  2. Australia
  3. Europe
  4. South America
  5. Southeast Asia

Answer: b

Page: 406

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.2

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following emerging adults have a high degree of pressure to develop an identity that places an emphasis on obligation to parents and others?
  2. Asian

Correct. Asian emerging adults pursue identity explorations and self-development during emerging adulthood, like their American and European counterparts, but within narrower boundaries set by their sense of obligations to others, especially their parents.

  1. European
  2. North American

Incorrect. Emerging adulthood in North America is more self-focused than in many other cultures, most notably in Asian cultures where a strong sense of obligation to others is reinforced.

  1. Australian

Answer: a

Page: 406

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.1.4

 

  1. In the United States and Europe the most important criteria is for becoming an adult is ____, whereas in Asia it is ____.
  2. financial independence; the capacity to support one’s parents financially
  3. the capacity to support one’s parents financially; financial independence
  4. emotional maturity; behavioral and cognitive majority
  5. behavioral and cognitive maturity; emotional maturity

Answer: a

Page: 406

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States, which of the following is the most cited criterion as a marker of adulthood?
  2. financial independence
  3. the capacity to support one’s parents financially
  4. emotional and cognitive maturity
  5. behavioral and spiritual maturity

Answer: a

Page: 406

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.2

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.4, CE 9.1.6

 

  1. In Asia, which of the following is the most cited criterion as a marker of adulthood?
  2. financial independence
  3. the capacity to support one’s parents financially
  4. emotional and cognitive maturity
  5. behavioral and spiritual maturity

Answer: b

Page: 406

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.4

 

  1. Your developmental class is having an interesting discussion about what it means to be an adult. Most of the class includes individuals who are emerging adults. What is the consensus of your class? The most important marker for adulthood is ____.
  2. financial independence

Correct. For emerging adults, financial independence is the most important marker for adulthood in the United States and Europe.

  1. when they are capable of supporting their parents financially
  2. when people get married

Incorrect. For emerging adults, financial independence is the most important marker for adulthood in the United States and Europe.

  1. when people start having children

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 406

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your developmental class is having an interesting discussion about what it means to be an adult. Most of the class includes individuals who are emerging adults from various Asian countries. What is the consensus of your class? The most important marker for adulthood is ____.
  2. financial independence
  3. when they are capable of supporting their parents financially

Correct. For emerging adults in Asian cultures, the ability to support one’s parents financially is the most important marker for adulthood.

  1. when people get married

Incorrect. For emerging adults in Asian cultures, the ability to support one’s parents financially is the most important marker for adulthood.

  1. when people start having children

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 406

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In developing countries, in what areas is emerging adulthood most likely to be experienced?
  2. near the borders of developed countries
  3. urban

Correct. In developing countries, emerging adulthood is most likely to be experienced in urban areas.

  1. rural

Incorrect. In developing countries, emerging adulthood is most likely to be experienced in urban areas.

  1. in places where universities exist

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 406

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ reflects the ability of the body to take in oxygen and transport it to various organs.
  2. Maximum oxygen uptake
  3. Minimum oxygen absorption
  4. Mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  5. Microscopic oxygen use

Answer: a

Page: 407

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Cardiac output peaks in which of the following time periods of life?
  2. childhood
  3. adolescence
  4. emerging adulthood
  5. middle adulthood

Answer: c

Page: 407

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.7

 

  1. At which of the following time periods of life is one likely to see a peak in grip strength, cardiac output, maximum oxygen uptake, and bone density?
  2. teens
  3. 20s

Correct. Cardiac output, the quantity of blood flow from the heart, peaks at age 25. Reaction time is also faster in the early 20s than at any other time of life. Studies of grip strength among men show the same pattern, with a peak in the 20s followed by a steady decline.

  1. 30s

Incorrect. Emerging adulthood is a time of peak physical functioning. By the 30s, these indicators have leveled off or are beginning to decline.

  1. 40s

Answer: b

Page: 407

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.5

 

  1. For most sports, peak age of performance occurs during the ____.
  2. teens
  3. 20s
  4. 30s
  5. 40s

Answer: b

Page: 408

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 20-year-old brother is 5’10” tall. He claims that he is going to grow another two inches. Is this likely?
  2. Yes, most people grow taller until bone growth completion around age 24.
  3. Yes, most people grow taller until bone growth completion around age 21.
  4. No, most people are their full adult height by 18 years of age.

Correct. Most people reach their full adult height by 18 years of age.

  1. No, most people reach their full adult height by 14 years of age.

Incorrect. Most people reach their full adult height by 18 years of age.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 407

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.1.5

 

  1. What is the ability of the body to take in oxygen and transport it to various organs?
  2. aerobic ability
  3. anaerobic ability
  4. VO2 max

Correct. Max VO2 refers to the ability of the body to transport oxygen to various organs.

  1. peak physical conditioning

Incorrect. Max VO2 refers to the ability of the body to transport oxygen to various organs.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 407

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. At what age does cardiac output reach its peak?
  2. 15 years
  3. 20 years
  4. 25 years
  5. 30 years

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 407

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.5

 

  1. Your 20-year-old brother and your father are playing a game that requires quick responses and your brother is consistently winning. Why? Your brother ____.
  2. is just getting lucky
  3. is 20 years old and 20-year-olds have the fastest reaction times

Correct. 20-year-olds have the fastest reaction times.

  1. has more experience playing this game

Incorrect. 20-year-olds have the fastest reaction times.

  1. is cheating

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 407

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.8

% correct  83     a= 0  b= 83  c= 17  d= 0      r = .49

 

  1. At what age is peak bone mass generally reached?
  2. during the teenage years
  3. during the 20s
  4. during the 30s
  5. during the 40s

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 407

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. For which of the following time periods is an individual the least susceptible to physical illness?
  2. childhood
  3. adolescence
  4. emerging adulthood
  5. late adulthood

Answer: c

Page: 408

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Longitudinal studies in the U.S. and Finland have found that physical activity, sports participation, and exercise ____.
  2. plateau from adolescence to late adulthood
  3. plateau from emerging adulthood to late adulthood
  4. increase from adolescence to emerging adulthood
  5. decline from adolescence through emerging adulthood

Answer: d

Page: 408

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  63     a= 19  b= 19  c= 0  d= 63      r = .41

 

  1. ____ is a pattern of sleeping far longer on weekends and holidays than on school or work days, which leads to poor academic and job performance.
  2. A phased advanced delay
  3. Insomnia
  4. Hypersomnia
  5. Delayed sleep phase syndrome

Answer: d

Page: 408

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.4

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  89     a= 6  b= 0  c= 5  d= 89      r = .52

 

  1. ____ of college students report occasional sleep problems and ____ report frequent severe sleep disturbances such as insomnia and insufficient sleep.
  2. A majority; a minority

Correct. Two-thirds of college students report occasional sleep problems and one-quarter report frequently severe sleep disturbances.

  1. A minority; a majority
  2. All; a small handful

Incorrect. Most college students report occasional sleep disturbances; one quarter report severe disturbances.

  1. A small handful; all

Answer: a

Page: 408

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.4

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of college students report frequent severe sleep disturbances such as insomnia and insufficient sleep?
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%
  5. 100%

Answer: a

Page: 408

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.4

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.9

 

  1. Sleep disturbances are related to which of the following factors?
  2. diabetes, a difficult temperament, and anxiety
  3. hypertension, an insecure attachment, and concentration
  4. a difficult attachment, emotional instability, and memory
  5. deficits in attention, memory, and critical thinking

Answer: d

Page: 408

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.4

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Depression, anxiety, and deficits in attention, memory, concentration, and critical thinking are all related to ____.
  2. sleep disturbances
  3. diabetes
  4. temperament
  5. hypertension

Answer: a

Page: 408

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.4

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. As cited in the text, which of the following might be related to whether or not a person can be classified as high in morningness or eveningness, that is, their preference for either going to bed early and waking up early or going to bed late and waking up late?
  2. growth hormone

Correct. A study of more than 55,000 Europeans from childhood through late adulthood concluded that children tend toward morningness, but in the course of adolescence and the early part of emerging adulthood the balance shifts toward eveningness; which coincides with increased levels of growth hormone.

  1. melatonin

Incorrect. Melatonin is known to affect an individual’s circadian rhythms; however, this is not discussed in the text.

  1. caffeine
  2. acetylcholine

Answer: a

Page: 408–9

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.4

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.1.6

 

  1. What are the major health risks for emerging adults?
  2. cardiovascular disease and diabetes
  3. sexually transmitted infections
  4. carelessness
  5. automobile accidents and substance abuse

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 408

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When is the immune system the most efficient?
  2. during the teenage years
  3. during emerging adulthood
  4. during early adulthood
  5. during middle adulthood

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 408

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.10

 

  1. You are very interested in research regarding sleep. You are an emerging adult who is in college, and your sleep patterns include occasional bouts of insomnia, as well as a tendency to sleep very late on weekends and during holiday breaks while still attending 8 a.m. classes during the week. Research suggests that these sleep patterns are distinctive during emerging adulthood in ways that provide the ____.
  2. best support of your cognitive functioning and emotional well-being
  3. best support of your immune system
  4. worst support of your immune system

Incorrect. College students’ sleep patterns generally provide the worst support of their cognitive functioning and emotional well-being.

  1. worst support of your cognitive functioning and emotional well-being

Correct. College students’ sleep patterns generally provide the worst support of their cognitive functioning and emotional well-being.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 408

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your roommate sleeps quite a bit during the late afternoon. According to research (Brown et al., 2002), college students are more than twice as likely as other adults to report ____.
  2. taking naps
  3. delayed sleep phase syndrome

Correct. College students are more than twice as likely to report delayed sleep phase syndrome as other adults.

  1. insomnia

Incorrect. College students are more than twice as likely to report delayed sleep phase syndrome as other adults.

  1. serious night terrors

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 408

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.6

 

  1. When your little sister, who is a freshman in college, comes home to visit, she sleeps all weekend. Why? She has accumulated ____.
  2. a sleep debt

Correct. Your little sister has accumulated a sleep debt from not sleeping properly during the week.

  1. a sleeping disorder
  2. an exhaustive sleep disorder

Incorrect. Your little sister has accumulated a sleep debt from not sleeping properly during the week.

  1. a very bad sleeping habit

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 408

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Sleep researchers have established that people vary in their morningness and eveningness. These preferences change with age due to ____.
  2. testosterone levels
  3. growth hormone levels

Correct. Morningness and eveningness change across age due to the waxing and waning of human growth hormone.

  1. neurotransmitter levels

Incorrect. Morningness and eveningness change across age due to the waxing and waning of human growth hormone.

  1. estrogen levels

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 408–9

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.6

 

  1. Which of the following is one recommendation to promote positive sleep hygiene?
  2. sedative use
  3. watch television
  4. limit caffeine intake
  5. caffeinated green tea

Answer: c

Page: 409

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.4

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.1.7

 

  1. A very large study (Rosenneberg et al., 2007) of 55,00 Europeans from childhood through late adulthood found that eveningness peaked at what age?
  2. 10 to 11 years
  3. 20 to 21 years

Correct. Eveningness peaks at 20 to 21 years of age and then moves toward morningness over the rest of the lifespan.

  1. 30 to 31 years

Incorrect. Eveningness peaks at 20 to 21 years of age and then moves toward morningness over the rest of the lifespan.

  1. 40 to 41 years

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 409

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your roommate seems to have a bit of a problem with time management and ends up studying all night for an exam or writing a paper. Is this unusual behavior for a college student?
  2. Yes, only 20% of college students ever pull an all-nighter.
  3. Yes, only 40% of college students ever pull an all-nighter.
  4. No, 60% of college students pull an all-nighter at least once.

Correct. About 60% of college students pull all-nighters.

  1. No, 80% of college students pull all-nighters.

Incorrect. About 60% of college students pull all-nighters.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 409

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.7

 

  1. Your roommate seems to have a bit of a problem with time management and ends up studying all night or an exam or writing a paper. She usually tells you that she did great on her exam after studying all night. From your knowledge, is she accurate in her assessment? Students who pull all-nighters generally perform ____.
  2. worse than their initial assessment

Correct. Students who pull all-nighters generally perform much worse than their initial evaluations of their performances.

  1. about how they thought they would

Incorrect. Students who pull all-nighters generally perform much worse than their initial evaluations of their performances.

  1. much better than their initial assessment
  2. the data are equivocal so there really is no answer

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 409

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States young people aged ____ have the highest rates of automobile accidents, injuries, and fatalities of any age group?
  2. 16–24
  3. 18–28
  4. 20–30
  5. 22–32

Answer: a

Page: 410

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.11

 

  1. In the United States which of the following groups have the highest rates of automobile accidents, injuries, and fatalities of any age group?
  2. adolescents and emerging adults

Correct. From ages 16 to 24, these individuals have the highest rate of automobile accidents, injuries, and fatalities.

  1. aging adults

Incorrect. The rate of car injuries and fatalities decreases steadily with age.

  1. children and young adolescents
  2. middle adults and aging adults

Answer: A

Page: 410

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.7

 

  1. Which of the following is a leading cause of death for emerging adults?
  2. motor vehicle injuries
  3. cancer
  4. suicide
  5. accidental falls

Answer: a

Page: 410

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.5

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following best explains why the United States has a higher rate of death for emerging adults from motor vehicle accidents than other Western countries?
  2. other countries have a higher minimum driving age and have less access to automobiles
  3. other countries have stronger drivers’ education programs and have fewer automobiles
  4. other countries promote automobile responsibility at a very young age and have a higher minimum driving age
  5. other countries have comprehensive mandatory drivers’ education programs and require all drivers to prove that they are extremely skilled at handling an automobile

Answer: a

Page: 410

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following are two major contributing factors of why young drivers have a greater incidence of accidents and deaths?
  2. inexperience and risk-taking behaviors

Correct. Inexperience is a large contributing factor, and young drivers are more likely to drive at excessive speeds, follow too closely to another vehicle, and violate traffic signs.

  1. difficult temperament and an inability to foresee future consequences

Incorrect. This could be a possibility for a minority of drivers, but studies have concluded that inexperience and risk-taking behaviors are the major contributing factors.

  1. egocentrism and a lower degree of personal fables
  2. hyperactivity and hormone imbalances

Answer: a

Page: 410

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  100     a= 100  b= 0  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. Which of the following individuals are more likely to drive at excess speeds, follow too closely to other vehicles, violate traffic signs and signals, and take more risks while driving a motorized vehicle?
  2. a female who is in her late teens

Incorrect. Teenage drivers are more inexperienced; however it is males who are more likely to drive aggressively.

  1. a male who is in his early 20s

Correct. Young drivers, especially males, are more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors.

  1. a female who is in her early 30s
  2. a male who is in his early 40s

Answer: b

Page: 410

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.5

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.8

% correct  100     a= 0  b= 100  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. What are the restraints on behavior imposed by social obligations and relationships called?
  2. social modification
  3. social control

Correct. Restraints on behavior imposed by social obligations and relationships are known as social control.

  1. social pressure

Incorrect. Restraints on behavior imposed by social obligations and relationships are known as social control.

  1. social skills

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 410

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.12

% correct  89     a= 5  b= 89  c= 6  d= 0      r = .16

 

  1. In the United States who has the highest rates of automobile accidents, injuries, and fatalities of any age group?
  2. 16 to 24 year olds
  3. 26 to 34 year olds
  4. 46 to 54 year olds
  5. 66 to 74 year olds

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 410

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Across developing countries, what is the leading cause of death during emerging adulthood?
  2. cardiovascular disease
  3. cancer
  4. motor vehicle injuries
  5. infections

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 410

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Nearly ____ of American college students report driving while intoxicated within the past year.
  2. 25%
  3. 50%

Correct. Unfortunately, about 50% of college students report driving while intoxicated during the past year.

  1. 75%

Incorrect. Unfortunately, about 50% of college students report driving while intoxicated during the past year

  1. 100%

Answer: b

Page: 411

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.8

 

  1. Young people are less likely than older drivers to wear seat belts. In serious car crashes, occupants not wearing seat belts are ____ likely to be killed and ____ as likely to be injured compared with those wearing seat belts.
  2. 25% more; twice
  3. twice as; three times
  4. 75% more; six times
  5. half as; eight times

Answer: b

Page: 411

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.5

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following are two interventions that can reduce the rate of automobile accidents and fatalities for young drivers?
  2. law enforcement monitoring of young drivers

Incorrect. Mandatory drivers’ education can specifically reduce automobile accidents and fatalities.

  1. increased mandatory drivers’ education and a period of restricted license driving

Correct. These are two components of graduated driver licensing programs, which have been proven to be the most effective way to reduce automobile accidents among young drivers.

  1. increased probationary time for a learner’s permit and mandatory drivers education
  2. increased automobile safety and laws that require all occupants of a vehicle to wear a seatbelt

Answer: B

Page: 412

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.5

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 56      a= 0  b= 56  c= 39  d= 5      r = .33

 

  1. Which of the following interventions have been shown to have the greatest effect on reducing automobile injuries and fatalities for young drivers in the United States?
  2. graduated driver licensing

Correct. By far the most effective approach is a program of restricted driving privileges called graduated driver licensing (GDL).

  1. mandatory drivers education
  2. increasing the minimum driving age

Incorrect. Increased minimum driving age is a reason why fatalities due to motor vehicle accident is lower in other Western countries than it is the United States.

  1. parental monitoring

Answer: a

Page: 412

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.6

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.13

 

  1. You are very angry with your brother who is in a fraternity in college. After speaking with him, he confessed that he has driven several times during the past few months while he was intoxicated, but insists that most of his friends do it, too. What percentage of college students report having driven intoxicated within the past year?
  2. 70%
  3. 50%

Correct. Unfortunately, about 50% of college students report driving while intoxicated during the past year.

  1. 30%

Incorrect. Unfortunately, about 50% of college students report driving while intoxicated during the past year.

  1. 10%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 411

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.1.8

 

  1. At the time of the accident, drivers aged 21 to 24 involved in fatal accidents are most likely to have been ____.
  2. texting on their cell phones
  3. talking on their cell phones
  4. changing lanes without signaling
  5. driving while intoxicated

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 411

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Young people are less likely than older drivers to wear seat belts. In a serious automobile accident, occupants not wearing seat belts are ____.
  2. twice as likely to be killed

Correct. Not wearing a seat belt doubles the likelihood of death during a car accident.

  1. more likely to be thrown from the car where it is safer
  2. more likely to survive a water crash

Incorrect. Not wearing a seat belt doubles the likelihood of death during a car accident.

  1. more likely to be intoxicated

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 411

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the program in which young people obtain driving privileges gradually, contingent on a safe driving record?
  2. safety sure licensing
  3. graduated driver licensing

Correct. This program is called the Graduated Driver Licensing program. The driver does not become fully licensed until a specific time period with safe driving occurs.

  1. driver’s education licensing

Incorrect. This program is called the Graduated Driver Licensing program. The driver does not become fully licensed until a specific time period with safe driving occurs.

  1. automobile knowledge and skills licensing

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 411

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Substance use of all kinds rise through the late teens and peaks in the ____ then ____.
  2. early 20s; declines in the late 20s
  3. early 20s; plateaus in the late 20s
  4. early 30s; declines in the late 30s
  5. early 30s; plateaus in the late 30s

Answer: a

Page: 412

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.6

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.14

 

  1. Keith is meeting his friends at the lake for a camping trip. He bought a case of beer but only plans to drink half of it on Friday night and the other half on Saturday night. By the end of Friday night, to Keith’s surprise he only drank seven beers, all of which occurred after dinner while sitting by the campfire. From this scenario, Keith’s drinking behavior is best described as ____.
  2. binge drinking

Correct. Consuming five or more drinks in a row for men is considered binge drinking.

  1. social drinking

Incorrect. Although Keith drank fewer beers than he had planned, while socializing with friends, the quantity is still well within the definition of binge drinking.

  1. alcoholism
  2. irresponsible drinking

Answer: a

Page: 412

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.6

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.1.9

 

  1. Which of the following has the highest rate of alcohol use?
  2. late teens who are enrolled in high school
  3. late teens who are not enrolled in high school
  4. young adult who are enrolled in college
  5. young adults who are not enrolled in college

Answer: c

Page: 412

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.6

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.9

 

  1. Consuming five or more drinks in a row for men, and four in a row for women, is known as ____.
  2. binge drinking
  3. alcoholism
  4. social drinking
  5. risk-taking drinking

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 412

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.9

 

  1. According to Wayne Osgood (2009), all deviance can be explained on the basis of ____.
  2. propensity and opportunity for deviance
  3. personality for and inability to control deviance
  4. temperament for and social reinforcers for deviance
  5. genetics for and an environmental upbringing for deviance

Answer: a

Page: 413

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.6

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.1.10, Post 9.1.10

 

  1. Which of the following best illustrates Osgood’s notion of propensity for deviance?
  2. sufficient motivation

Correct. Sufficient propensity for deviance is determined by reinforcers, which in turn influence motivation.

  1. sufficient personality
  2. sufficient opportunity

Incorrect. Opportunity is the other half of Osgood’s theory explaining rates of deviance.

  1. sufficient justification

Answer: a

Page: 413

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.6

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Osgood, adolescents and young adults have a high rate of ____, which in turn allows them to engage in deviant behaviors such as alcohol and marijuana use.
  2. disregard for social norms

Incorrect. The great majority of adolescents and young adults are very confident of social norms; however, they do engage in deviant behaviors, alcohol and marijuana use being the two largest factors.

  1. testosterone
  2. unstructured socializing

Correct. Osgood explains deviance on the basis of propensity and opportunity; it is adolescent and young adults who have a high degree of unstructured socializing, which he uses to correlate marijuana and alcohol use for this group of individuals.

  1. antisocial tendencies

Answer: c

Page: 413

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.6

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  89     a= 5  b= 6  c= 89  d= 0      r = .33

 

  1. In the United States and Europe, fatal automobile crashes, unintended pregnancies, criminal activity, physical fights are all outcomes related to ____.
  2. binge drinking

Correct. The factor that is related to these outcomes is binge drinking.

  1. unemployment

Incorrect. The factor that is related to these outcomes is binge drinking.

  1. growth hormone in adolescence
  2. socioeconomic status

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 413

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.1.15

 

  1. What term does Osgood use to describe behavior including riding around in cars for fun, going to parties, visiting friends informally, and going out with friends?
  2. structured socialization
  3. friendliness

Incorrect. Osgood uses the term unstructured socializing to describe the above behaviors.

  1. social investment
  2. unstructured socializing

Correct. Osgood uses the term unstructured socializing to describe the above behaviors.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 413

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Osgood and others have found that there is a relationship between risk behavior such as crime and dangerous driving and ____.
  2. structured socialization
  3. friendliness

Incorrect. Osgood point to unstructured socializing as related to the above behaviors.

  1. social investment
  2. unstructured socializing

Correct. Osgood point to unstructured socializing as related to the above behaviors.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 413

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.6.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your little brother is 22 and is pretty wild. The biggest concern that your family has is that he seems to be involved in substance abuse. At what age is he likely to stop engaging in this type of risky behavior?
  2. mid to late 20s

Correct. Unless your little brother is addicted, his risky drug use and other risky behaviors are likely to end in a few years.

  1. early 30s

Incorrect. Unless your little brother is addicted, his risky drug use and other risky behaviors are likely to end in a few years.

  1. mid to late 30s
  2. early 40s

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 413

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.1.10

 

  1. Your sister’s roommate was recently married and now has a full-time job. Before that time, she partied a lot and was pretty crazy, wild, and engaged in quite a bit of risky behavior. According to Osgood, because of your sister’s roommate new role transition, she is engaging much less in ____.
  2. antisocial aggressive reactions
  3. delinquent behavior
  4. structured socialization

Incorrect. Unstructured socialization is related to risky behaviors and role transitions generally lead to less engagement in unstructured socialization.

  1. unstructured socialization

Correct. Unstructured socialization is related to risky behaviors and role transitions generally lead to less engagement in unstructured socialization.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 413

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Explain what Arnett meant when he described emerging adulthood as a self-focused age. Include how it differs from the self-focus of adolescence.

Answers: During this time, they are taking steps to learn the skills and knowledge they will need to succeed. They are striving to make independent decisions and to be able to stand on their own two feet. They are less egocentric than they were in adolescence because they are able to take the perspective of others and they are more realistic in their goals (and less likely to uphold a personal fable).

Page: 404

Learning Objective: 9.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Is emerging adulthood a universal period of human development? Why or why not?

Answer: No, emerging adulthood only exists in cultures where there is a high median age of marriage and parenting. It exists mainly in developed countries with a trend toward more people experiencing it in urban rather than rural areas.

Page: 405-406

Learning Objective: 9.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Describe at least one sleep problem of emerging adults. In your answer, include who most of the participants have been in this research.

Answer: Delayed sleep phase syndrome is a problem that entails sleeping a lot longer on week-ends or school breaks than on school days or work days. There is no way to “catch up on sleep;” it only leads to poor academic and poor job performance because of the sleep deprivation during times when there are high demands placed on these individuals. Most of this research has been conducted on students in developed countries.

Page: 408

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Looking back on the days when you first started driving, what aspects, if any, of a graduated driver licensing program (GDL) would have made you a better/safer driver? Explain.

Answer: Students could mention having a driving curfew except to go to work, taking driver’s ed, or at least having to drive supervised for a number of hours before driving alone.

Page: 411-412

Learning Objective: 9.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. How do researchers operationalize binge drinking, and is it merely an American phenomenon? Why or why not?

Answer: Binge drinking refers to drinking five or more drinks on one occasion (four for women). It is not unique to Americans. Emerging adults in Europe also engage in binge drinking, most likely because of propensity and opportunity.

Page: 411-412

Learning Objective: 9.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understanding

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Although emerging adulthood is a very healthy time of life for most, there are certainly a number of factors that can undermine health and safety. Drawing upon research, describe at least one of risk factors.

Answer: Sleep deprivation is one problem common among college students. It is associated with negative physical (decreased immunity) and psychological (depression, anxiety) health. It can also compromise cognitive performance. Research has shown that over half of college students have pulled an “all nighter” and compared to those who have not done this, they get lower scores on exams.

Page: 408-409

Learning Objective: 9.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Your friend with an adolescent the same age as yours (16 years) stated, “I don’t know why they don’t just let kids drive after nine and without an adult; I don’t have time to be in the car with my son all the time. Besides, the only way he will get to be a good driver is to drive more and without all these ridiculous restrictions.” Does the research support her claim? Why or why not?

Answer: Inexperience is not the only factor to explain why motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death among individuals in this age period. Emerging adults are more likely to take risks (driving too fast, following too closely, driving while under the influence of alcohol, not wearing seatbelts) and to be driving in a car with friends who may increase the chances that they engage in these risky tendencies.

Page: 410-411

Learning: 9.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 9.2.1.          Although Piaget proposed that cognitive development reaches full maturity at formal operations, many contemporary researchers believe that cognitive maturity extends into ____.

  1. preformal thinking
  2. postformal thinking
  3. metacognitive thinking
  4. analytic thinking

Answer: b

Page: 415

 

Pre 9.2.2.          What involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and two opposing strategies or points of view may each have merit?

  1. hypothetical-deductive reasoning
  2. egocentric thought
  3. dialectical though
  4. hypothesis testing

Answer: c

Page: 417

 

Pre 9.2.3.          What cognitive perspective allows for two or more sides to every story and two or more legitimate views to every issue?

  1. dualistic thinking
  2. multiple thinking
  3. preformal thinking
  4. concrete thinking

Answer: b

Page: 417

 

Pre 9.2.4.          Peng and Nisbett (1999) found that when students were presented with two apparently contradictory propositions, American students tended to ____.

  1. embrace one solution and reject the other
  2. use non-pragmatic logic
  3. prefer dialectical proverbs containing contradictions
  4. try to reconcile the two contradictory propositions

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

Pre 9.2.5.          What percentage of young people obtained tertiary education in any developed country one hundred years ago?

  1. nearly 100%
  2. more than 45%
  3. between 20 and 45%
  4. fewer than 10%

Answer: d

Page: 418

 

Pre 9.2.6.          In worldwide survey, in 83 out of 141 countries who was more likely to attend college?

  1. young men
  2. young women
  3. ethnic minorities
  4. individuals of low socio-economic status

Answer: b

Page: 419

 

Pre 9.2.7.          In Europe, university education traditionally lasted six or more years because it culminated in a degree that was equivalent to a(n) ____.

  1. advanced degrees in the United States
  2. undergraduate degree in the United States when remedial classes were required
  3. undergraduate degree in the United States
  4. degree from a technical college

Answer: a

Page: 420

 

Pre 9.2.8.          Your stepbrother is in his sixth year of college and your father is very upset with this situation. What is something that you could tell your father to help your stepbrother out? What is the average length of time to complete an undergraduate degree in the United States?

  1. 4 years
  2. 6 years
  3. 8 years
  4. 10 years

Answer: b

Page: 419

 

Pre 9.2.9.          When you were in high school, you spent a great deal of time determining if attending college was going to be beneficial to you. After examining a considerable amount of research dealing with this issue you decided that college was a good investment. Which of the following findings are supported by research? College graduates have ____.

  1. higher earnings, occupational status, and career attainment over the long run
  2. mediocre job success, a greater sense of identity, and higher sense of self-worth
  3. milder temperament, more secure attachments, and happier long-lasting marriages
  4. higher earnings, mellow temperaments, and a greater sense of identity

Answer: a

Page: 420

 

Pre 9.2.10.        According to Pascarella and Terenzini, during the course of the college years, an individual’s ____.

  1. temperament becomes more easy-going
  2. attachments become more secured
  3. self-concept and psychological well-being improves
  4. physiological responses increase for the better

Answer: c

Page: 422

 

Post-Test

 

Post 9.2.1.        Formal operations is fully attained and cognitive maturation is complete by ____.

  1. at least age 12
  2. at least age 20
  3. at least age 30
  4. at least age 40

Answer: b

Page: 416

 

Post 9.2.2.        Adolescents and many young adults are confined to formal operations and do not possess post-formal operational thought because, according to Gisela Labouvie-Vief, they lack ____.

  1. the better coordination of sensory input with motor skills
  2. the disappearance of egocentric thought and animism.
  3. a greater recognition and incorporation of practical limitations to logical thinking
  4. a greater use of hypothetical and inductive reasoning for concrete problems

Answer: c

Page: 416

 

Post 9.2.3.        What type of thinkers do emerging adults tend to be since they realize that the problems of real life often involve a great deal of complexity and ambiguity?

  1. preformal
  2. postformal
  3. formal
  4. prescripted-formal

Answer: b

Page: 416–417

 

Post 9.2.4.        You and your cousin are discussing ethical behavior. He believes that stealing from another is wrong and there is no reason for a person to steal. Even if a person were starving and near death, a person should not steal food. Which of the following best describes your cousin’s cognitive pattern?

  1. dualistic thinking
  2. situational judgments
  3. relative-hypothesis testing
  4. concrete thought

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

Post 9.2.5.        When does multiple thinking develop into relativism?

  1. early 50s
  2. early 40s
  3. early 30s
  4. early 20s

Answer: d

Page: 417

 

Post 9.2.6.        Chinese culture traditionally advocates an approach to knowledge that strives to reconcile contradictions and combine opposing perspectives by seeking a middle ground. According to Peng and Nisbett (1999), what type of thinking is this?

  1. pragmatic thought
  2. dialectical thought
  3. formal operational thought
  4. concrete thought

Answer: b

Page: 417

 

Post 9.2.7.        When a person’s thinking involves understanding that there are two or more legitimate views for each issue and comparing the merits of competing views, he or she is engaging in what type of thinking?

  1. relativism
  2. committed thinking
  3. multiple thinking
  4. dualistic thinking

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

Post 9.2.8.        Compared to the average amount of time that a Japanese student spends doing homework during junior high or high school, how much time they spend on homework during college?

  1. 25%
  2. 50%
  3. 200%
  4. 400%

Answer: b

Page: 420

 

Post 9.2.9.        Pascarella and Terenzini found what differences between individuals who attended college and to those who did not attend college? Those who attended college had ____.

  1. increased critical thinking skills
  2. greater egocentric thought
  3. decreased analytical skills
  4. improved working memory

Answer: a

Page: 421

 

Post 9.2.10.      You met a friend of your younger sister’s whom you have not seen since he was in high school about four years ago. You are amazed at how “grown up” her friend seems to be now.  He is more confident socially, is less dogmatic, and is less ethnocentric in his political and social views. After examining the developmental literature, what is likely responsible for these changes?

  1. He has matured.
  2. He has moved away form home.
  3. He has graduated from college.
  4. He has found a romantic partner.

Answer: c

Page: 422

 

Chapter Exam

 

CE 9.2.1.          Adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations refers to ____.

  1. practicality
  2. concrete thinking
  3. pragmatism
  4. applied logic

Answer: c

Page: 416

 

CE 9.2.2.          What involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations?

  1. concrete thought
  2. hypothetical and deductive reasoning
  3. pragmatism
  4. reflective judgments

Answer: c

Page: 416

 

CE 9.2.3.          According to Labouvie-Vief, how would an adolescent who is in formal operations respond to the following scenario? “A man who was a heavy drinker, especially at parties, was warned by his wife that if he came home drunk one more time, she would leave him and take the children. Sometime later he went to an office party and came home drunk. What will she do?”

  1. “Did he apologize and beg her not to leave? Did she really mean it when she said she would leave him?”
  2. “She said she would leave if he came home drunk once more, he came home drunk, therefore she will leave.”
  3. “Does she have some place to go? Has she considered the possible effects on the children?”
  4. “Does she really want him to leave? Because if he does is she really going to start the separation or divorce process? It was most likely just a threat.”

Answer: b

Page: 416–417

 

CE 9.2.4.          What is often defined as seeing situations and issues in polarized terms-an act is either right or wrong, with no in-between; a statement is either true or false, regardless of the nuances of the situation?

  1. dualistic thinking
  2. situational judgments
  3. relative-hypothesis testing
  4. concrete thought

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

CE 9.2.5.          When a person develops relative thought, he or she is ____.

  1. able to perform mental operations on tangible problems, but lack abstract thought
  2. able to view the world in terms of right or wrong, and in terms of black or white
  3. limited to one perspective, and interview situations is only having one outcome.
  4. able to recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view

Answer: d

Page: 417

 

CE 9.2.6.          Peng and Nisbett (1999) found that Chinese college students were more likely than American college students to prefer ____.

  1. non-pragmatic solutions
  2. dialectical proverbs containing contradictions
  3. pragmatic solutions
  4. formal operational thought containing no contradictions

Answer: b

Page: 417

 

CE 9.2.7.          What is tertiary education?

  1. education or training programs beyond secondary school
  2. education or training programs beyond elementary school
  3. professional education or training programs beyond college
  4. education or training programs that are mandatory for all citizens of a nation

Answer: a

Page: 418

 

CE 9.2.8.          What percentage of individuals in industrialized countries obtained post-secondary education one hundred years ago?

  1. 5%
  2. 10%
  3. 15%
  4. 20%

Answer: b

Page: 418

 

CE 9.2.9.          You are talking to an international student in one of your classes. She told you that before she was admitted to a university in her native country, she had to determine her course of study before she arrived on campus. On which of the following continents is she most likely to have attended college?

  1. Europe
  2. South America
  3. Asia
  4. Africa

Answer: a

Page: 420

 

CE 9.2.10.        Why does it take much longer to complete an undergraduate degree than it did a few decades ago?

  1. Students are not academically prepared for university training and must take remedial coursework.
  2. Students lack focus and change their majors quite a few times, which adds time on to their academic programs.
  3. Financial concerns require that students also work, which increases the time to complete the degree.
  4. There are many students who transfer to a different institution that does not accept all of their previous credits.

Answer: c

Page: 420

 

CE 9.2.11.        The college or university experience for many Japanese students taking courses in Japan can be best described as ____.

  1. four years of university-sanctioned leisure to think and explore
  2. four years of university-mandated grueling hard work
  3. four years of commitment and dedication to professional job training
  4. four years of university-required coursework to pass his or her professional job training exams

Answer: a

Page: 419

 

CE 9.2.12.        When economic growth in a world economy is increasingly based on information, technology and services, what is required?

  1. a high number of laptops per capita
  2. a banking system willing to fund experimental projects
  3. an educated population
  4. a government that keeps tariffs low

Answer: c

Page: 421

 

CE 9.2.13.        In the United States, tertiary education is mainly paid for by ____, whereas in other industrialized countries it is paid for by ____.

  1. students and their parents; the government
  2. the government; students and their parents
  3. students and their parents; corporate endowments
  4. corporate endowments; students and their parents

Answer: a

Page: 421

 

CE 9.2.14.        Research has discovered that as individuals spend more time in college, the goal of college becomes ____.

  1. less satisfying and more job orientated
  2. less vocational and more self-enhancing
  3.          less enjoyable and more career-focused
  4. less job oriented more career training

Answer: b

Page: 422

 

CE 9.2.15.        Research by Pascarella and Terenzini (1991, 2005, 2006) examining the benefits of tertiary education in the United States has found ____.

  1. verbal and quantitative skills increase as a function of attending college
  2. oral and written communication skills do not change from high school
  3. unfortunately, critical thinking skills decrease
  4. over the course of college, students place more emphasis on college as a pathway to a better job

Answer: a

Page: 422

 

Quick Review

 

QR 9.2.1.         What are two of the most notable aspects of postformal thinking in emerging adulthood?

  1. animism and personal fables
  2. pragmatism and reflective judgment
  3. hypothetical and deductive reasoning
  4. egocentrism and reality testing

Answer: b

Page: 416

 

QR 9.2.2.         What is the capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments?

  1. dualistic thinking
  2. relative-hypothesis testing
  3. reflective judgment
  4. concrete judgment

Answer: c

Page: 417

 

QR 9.2.3.         When does reflective judgment begin to develop for most people, according to Perry?

  1. early teens
  2. around age 20
  3. late 20s
  4.         mid 30s

Answer: b

Page: 417

 

QR 9.2.4.         What type of thinking develops in emerging adulthood that involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and two opposing strategies or points of view may each have some merit?

  1. dialectical though
  2. formal operational thought
  3. concrete thought
  4. pragmatic thought

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

QR 9.2.5.         Which of the following types of education is considered tertiary education?

  1. daycare
  2. elementary school
  3. middle school
  4. college or university

Answer: d

Page: 418

 

QR 9.2.6.         In the United States what is one of the main reasons that it takes so much longer to complete an undergraduate degree than it did in the past?

  1. Students are not academically prepared for university training and must take remedial coursework.
  2. Financial concerns require that students also work, which increases the time to complete the degree.
  3. Students lack focus and change their majors quite a few times, which adds on to their academic programs.
  4. There are many students who transfer to a different institution that do not accept all of their previous credits.

Answer: b

Page: 420

 

QR 9.2.7.         When must students who are attending European colleges and universities declare a major?

  1. while still in high school
  2. before they enter university
  3. before their sophomore year
  4. before their junior year

Answer: b

Page: 420

 

QR 9.2.8.         Compared to individuals who did not attend college, individuals who did attend college have ____.

  1. greater egocentric thought
  2. increased critical thinking skills
  3. decreased analytic skills
  4. improved working memory

Answer: b

Page: 421

 

QR 9.2.9.         When individuals spent more time in college, Pascarella and Terenzini found that the goal of college became ____.

  1. less vocational and more self-enhancing
  2. less enjoyable and more career-focused
  3. less satisfying and more job-oriented
  4. less job-oriented and more career training

Answer: a

Page: 422

 

QR 9.2.10.        In the course of the college years, Pascarella and Terenzini found that individuals became _______ authoritarian, _________ ethnocentric, and saw ___________ to their self-concept and psychological well-being?

  1. More; more; decreases in
  2. More; less; decreases in
  3. Less; less; improvements to
  4. Less; more; improvement to

Answer: c

Page: 421

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. List and describe the common features of emerging adulthood that were represented across the cultures presented in this video.

Answer: There are several common features of emerging adulthood that were represented in this video.  A few of these features include being self-focused, not quite understanding where they fit in, as well as feeling in between adolescence and adulthood.  Most of the individuals interviewed here discussed talking to their parents regarding advice as opposed to following their rules.

Learning Objective: 9.1

 

  1. Emerging adulthood is described as an “unstable” time in one’s life. Based on this video, why would this be an accurate description?

Answer: It would be accurate to consider emerging adulthood as unstable according to this video because many of the people interviewed expressed that they have no real boundaries and they are uncertain about their futures. They have not fully committed to their futures and are at a point where things that they do now can impact their futures.

 

  1. How could a parent better prepare their children for this time in their life?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. According to the narrator of this video, emerging adults are often ____________ and have the feeling of being in between adolescence and adulthood.
  2. happy
  3. confused
  4. reliable
  5. self-focused

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 9.1

 

  1. In the life stage of emerging adulthood, most people are __________ their parents as they were in adolescence.
  2. not as dependent on
  3. much more dependent on
  4. not as detached to
  5. much more connected to

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 9.1

 

  1. According to this video, emerging adulthood is described as a(n) __________ time in one’s life.
  2. terrible
  3. low stress
  4. unstable
  5. consequential

Answer: C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 2 Cognitive Development

 

Test Item File

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. What concept involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations?
  2. pragmatism

Correct. Pragmatism involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations.

  1. practicality

Incorrect. Pragmatism involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations.

  1. concrete thinking
  2. applied logic

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 416

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.1

  1. Labouvie-Vief (1990) presented a story that described a man who was a heavy drinker. His wife had warned him that if he came home drunk one more time, she would leave him and take the children. At a later time, he went to an office party and came home drunk. Labouvie-Vief asked adolescents what they thought the wife would do. How did the adolescents respond?
  2. Without much hesitation, they thought that she left.

Correct. Pragmatism involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations. So, the emerging adults recognized that the wife had many challenges that must be faced and that, as a result, she might be better off if she stayed.

  1. Without much hesitation, they thought that she stayed.

Incorrect. Pragmatism involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations. So, the emerging adults recognized that the wife had many challenges that must be faced and that, as a result, she might be better off if she stayed.

  1. They appreciated the situation that the wife was in and examined several possibilities rather than just one potential solution.
  2. They examined multiple scenarios and definitely thought that the wife would stay.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 416

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Piaget, formal operations is fully attained and cognitive maturation is complete by ____.
  2. at least age 12
  3. at least age 20
  4. at least age 30
  5. at least age 40

Answer: b

Page: 416

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.2.1

 

  1. Jean Piaget proposed that cognitive development reaches full maturity at formal operations; however, contemporary researchers propose that case, but rather that cognitive maturity extends into ____.
  2. postformal thinking

Correct. Postformal thinking goes beyond Piaget’s notion of adult thought to encompass pragmatism and reflective judgment.

  1. preformal thinking
  2. metacognitive thinking

Incorrect. Metacognition, or the ability to think about thinking, appears in adolescence.

  1. analytical thinking

Answer: a

Page: 415

Skill: C

Learning Objective: : 9.7

Difficulty: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.1

 

  1. Two of the most notable aspects of postformal thinking in emerging adulthood are ____.
  2. animism and personal fables
  3. egocentrism and reality testing
  4. hypothetical and deductive reasoning
  5. pragmatism and reflective judgment

Answer: d

Page: 416

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.2.1

% correct  78     a= 0  b= 11  c= 11  d= 78      r = .43

 

  1. ____ involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations.
  2. Concrete thought
  3. Hypothetical and deductive reasoning
  4. Pragmatism
  5. Reflective judgments

Answer: c

Page: 416

Skill: F

Learning Objective: : 9.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.2

 

  1. According to Gisela Labouvie-Vief, cognitive development in emerging adulthood is distinguished from adolescent thinking by ____.
  2. the better coordination of sensory input with motor skills
  3. the disappearance of egocentric thought and animism
  4. a greater recognition and incorporation of practical limitations to logical thinking
  5. a greater use of hypothetical and inductive reasoning for concrete problems

Answer: c

Page: 416

Skill: F

Learning Objective: : 9.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.2.2

 

  1. According to Gisela Labouvie-Vief, adolescents and many young adults are confined to formal operations and do not possess postformal operational thought because they ____.
  2. are often limited by their egocentrism and concrete-operational thoughts

Incorrect. Many young (9–12-year-old) individuals are not in formal operations as Piaget proposed, but are within concrete operational thought; Gisela Labouvie-Vief discusses postformal operational thought for late adolescence and young adulthood.

  1. often lack the ability to coordinate their sensory modalities with motor skills
  2. often exaggerate the extent to which logical thinking can be applied to real-life situations

Correct. A hallmark of postformal operational thought is pragmatism; often adolescents cannot apply logical thought to real-life situations.

  1. are often cognitively unaware of how personal fables and an imaginary audience affects egocentric thought

Answer: c

Page: 416

Skill: C

Learning Objective: : 9.7

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following best describes pragmatism as a component of postformal operational thought?
  2. an awareness of how sensory input and motor skills can be incorporated to solve situational problems that are more concrete
  3. an awareness of how social factors and factors specific to a given situation must be taken into account in approaching most of life’s problems

Correct. Individuals who are high in postformal thought are high in pragmatics. Pragmatics involves adapting logical thinking to solve practical real-life situations.

  1. an awareness of how logic can be used to solve all of life’s problems

Incorrect. Formal operations uses logic to solve problems; however, it lacks pragmatism.

  1. an awareness of how one’s internal state affects his or her physiological response

Answer: b

Page: 416

Skill: C

Learning Objective: : 9.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following best describes pragmatism?
  2. using language and mental images as a basis for problem-solving on tangible concrete items
  3. coordinating sensory modalities with motor skills as a basis for an individual’s perception of his or her world
  4. applying rigid logical thought to solve real-life situations that contain complexities and inconsistencies
  5. adapting logical thought to solve practical real-life situations that contain complexities and inconsistencies

Answer: d

Page: 415

Skill: F

Learning Objective: : 9.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When presented with the following story, according to Labouvie-Vief, how would an adolescent who is in formal operations respond? “Jim was a heavy drinker, especially at parties. His wife had warned him that if he came home drunk one more time, she would leave him and take the children. Sometime later he went to an office party and came home drunk. What did his wife do?”
  2. “She said she would leave if he came home drunk once more; he came home drunk, therefore she will leave.”

Correct. Adolescents’ thought processes are limited to logical sequencing and lack the ability to apply pragmatic thought

  1. “Did he apologize and beg her not to leave? Did she really mean it when she said she would leave him?”
  2. “Does she have some place to go? Has she considered the possible effects on the children?”
  3. “Does she really want him to leave? Because if he does is she really going to start the separation or divorce process? It was most likely just a threat.”

Incorrect. Although this is a more simplistic analysis that appears closer to logical sequencing, it still involves more pragmatic thought that Labouvie-Vief observed in adolescents.

Answer: a

Page: 416–7

Skill: A

Learning Objective: : 9.7

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.3

% correct  61     a= 61  b= 0  c= 28  d= 11     r = .43

 

  1. Emerging adults tended to be ____ thinkers in the sense that they realized that the problems of real life often involve a great deal of complexity and ambiguity.
  2. preformal
  3. formal

Incorrect. Piaget proposes that adolescents are in formal operational thought.

  1. postformal

Correct. A hallmark of postformal thought is pragmatic thinking, a component of cognition that adolescents lack.

  1. prescripted-formal

Answer: c

Page: 416–7

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.2.3

 

  1. ____ involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and two opposing strategies or points of view may each have merit.
  2. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
  3. Egocentric thought
  4. Hypothesis testing
  5. Dialectical thought

Answer: d

Page: 417

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.2

% correct  78     a= 6  b= 11  c= 5  d= 78      r = .38

 

  1. ____ is the capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments.
  2. Dualistic thinking
  3. Reflective judgment
  4. Relative-hypothesis testing
  5. Concrete judgment

Answer: b

Page: 417

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.2.2

 

  1. ____ is often seeing situations and issues in polarized terms—an act is either right or wrong, with no in-between; a statement is either true or false, regardless of the nuances or the situation to which it is being applied.
  2. Dualistic thinking
  3. Situational judgments
  4. Relative-hypothesis testing
  5. Concrete thought

Answer: a

Page: 417

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.4

 

  1. Caleb believes that stealing from another is wrong and there is no reason for a person to steal. Even if a person were starving and near death, he or she should not steal food. Which of the following best describes Caleb’s cognitive pattern?
  2. dualistic thinking

Correct. Dualistic thinking means seeing situations and issues in polarized terms—an act is either right or wrong, with no in-between

  1. multiple thinking

Incorrect. Multiple thinking tends to be more aware that there are two or more sides to every story, two or more legitimate views of every issue, and that it can be difficult to justify one position as the only true or accurate one.

  1. hypothesis testing
  2. deductive reasoning

Answer: a

Page: 417

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.2.4

% correct  50     a= 50  b= 11  c= 0  d= 39      r = .20

 

  1. Which of the following best describes dualistic thinking?
  2. often seeing situations and issues in polarized terms—an act is either right or wrong, with no in-between
  3. an awareness that that are two or more sides to every story and that it can be difficult to justify one position as the only true or accurate one
  4. the ability to see an issue from one’s own perspective and the perspectives of others around them
  5. an awareness of one’s own thought patterns and the thought patterns of others

Answer: b

Page: 417

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Perry, reflective judgment begins to develop for most people ____.
  2. in their early teens
  3. around age 30
  4. around age 20
  5. in their late 20s

Answer: b

Page: 417

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.2.3

 

  1. ____ is an awareness that there are two or more sides to every story, two or more legitimate views of every issue, and that it can be difficult to justify one position as the only true or accurate one.
  2. Dualistic thinking
  3. Multiple thinking
  4. Hypothesis testing
  5. Deductive reasoning

Answer: b

Page: 417

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Nellie is a teenager who would like to believe that abortion is wrong and should not be tolerated in any situation. However, she also knows that if the fetus has no chance of survival and the mother’s life is in jeopardy, this may be a situation in which an abortion is justified. She does not believe that one particular stance is correct for all situations but that each situation must be evaluated independently. Which of the following best describes Nellie’s cognitive pattern?
  2. dualistic thinking

Incorrect. Dualistic thinking means seeing situations and issues in polarized terms—an act is either right or wrong, with no in-between; a statement is either true or false, regardless of the nuances or the situation to which it is being applied.

  1. multiple thinking

Correct. Young people engaged in multiple thinking tend to be more aware than dualists that there are two or more sides to every story, two or more legitimate views of every issue, and that it can be difficult to justify one position as the only true or accurate one.

  1. realistic thinking
  2. hypothesis thinking

Answer: b

Page: 417

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Perry, multiple thinking develops into relativism by the ____.
  2. early teens
  3. late teens
  4. early 20s
  5. late 20s

Answer: c

Page: 417

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.2.5

 

  1. Individuals who possess relative thought ____.
  2. are able to perform mental operations on tangible problems and lack abstract thought
  3. view the world in terms of right or wrong and black or white
  4. are limited to one perspective, and interview situations is only having one outcome
  5. are able to recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view

Answer: d

Page: 417

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.5

 

  1. ____ is a cognitive perspective in which solutions are either right or wrong with no in-between, whereas ____ is a cognitive perspective that allows for two or more sides to every story and two or more legitimate views to every issue.
  2. Dualistic thinking; multiple thinking
  3. Multiple thinking; dualistic thinking
  4. Concrete thinking; preformal thinking
  5. Preformal thinking; concrete thinking

Answer: a

Page: 417

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.3

 

  1. Before entering college Grant was very stringent in his beliefs. Many of life’s issues were clear-cut and could be explained with one definitive answer. However, throughout the years, Grant has noticed that he is better able to see other perspectives and find many sides to one argument. He is now at a place where he can recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view and compare their merits. Which of the following postformal operational terms best describes Grant’s cognitive perspective?
  2. dualistic thinking
  3. multiple thinking
  4. commitment

Incorrect. The final stage of multiple thinking, commitment, is when an individual adopts a particular stance but is open to modifying his or her perspective if presented with valid arguments

  1. relativism

Correct. After dualistic thinking, relativism is a cognitive stage in which individuals can recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view.

Answer: d

Page: 417

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.8

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. According to Basseches, what type of thinking develops in emerging adulthood that involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and two opposing strategies or points of view may each have some merit?
  2. Pragmatic thought

Incorrect. Pragmatism involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations.

  1. dialectical thought

Correct. Dialectical thought involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution.

  1. formal operational thought
  2. concrete thought

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 417

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.2.4

  1. Peng and Nisbett (1999) proposed that Chinese culture traditionally advocates an approach to knowledge that strives to reconcile contradictions and combine opposing perspectives by seeking a middle ground. What type of thinking is this?
  2. Pragmatic thought

Incorrect. Pragmatism involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations.

  1. dialectical thought

Correct. Dialectical thought involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solutions, and two opposing solutions may both have some merit.

  1. formal operational thought
  2. concrete thought

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 417

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.2.6

  1. Peng and Nisbett (1999) conducted studies comparing Chinese and American college students. They found that Chinese students were more likely than the Americans to prefer ____.
  2. non-pragmatic solutions

Incorrect. Chinese students preferred dialectical proverbs containing contradictions.

  1. pragmatic solutions
  2. formal operational thought containing no contradictions
  3. dialectical proverbs containing contradictions

Correct. Chinese students preferred dialectical proverbs containing contradictions.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 417

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.6

 

  1. Peng and Nisbett (1999) conducted studies comparing Chinese and American college students. They found that when students were presented with two apparently contradictory propositions, American students tended to ____.
  2. use non-pragmatic logic

Incorrect. American students embraced one solution and rejected the other rather than accepting both propositions and trying to reconcile them.

  1. embrace one solution and reject the other

Correct. American students embraced one solution and rejected the other rather than accepting both propositions and trying to reconcile them.

  1. accept both propositions
  2. try to reconcile the two contradictory propositions

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 417

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.4

% correct 33      a= 22  b= 33  c= 6  d= 39      r = .27

  1. What type of thinking involves seeing situations and issues in polarized terms (e.g., an act is either right or wrong)?
  2. Dualistic thinking

Correct. Dualistic thinking refers to seeing situations in polarized terms.

  1. Multiple thinking

Incorrect. Multiple thinking involves awareness that there are two or more legitimate views of every issue.

  1. Relativism
  2. Committed thinking

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 417

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What type of thinking involves understanding that there are two or more legitimate views for each issue?
  2. Dualistic thinking

Incorrect. Multiple thinking involves awareness that there are two or more legitimate views of every issue. Dualistic thinking involves seeing issues as polarized—either correct or incorrect, right or wrong.

  1. Multiple thinking

Correct. Multiple thinking involves awareness that there are two or more legitimate views of every issue.

  1. Relativism
  2. Committed thinking

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 417

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. What type of thinking involves understanding that there are two or more legitimate views for each issue and comparing the merits of competing views?
  2. Dualistic thinking

Incorrect. Relativism involves awareness that there are two or more legitimate views of every issue and that ability and willingness to compare the merits of many views. Dualistic thinking involves seeing issues as polarized—either correct or incorrect, either right or wrong.

  1. Multiple thinking
  2. Relativism

Correct. Relativism involves awareness that there are two or more legitimate views of every issue and that ability and willingness to compare the merits of many views.

  1. Commited thinking

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 417

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.2.7

 

  1. Tertiary education is best described as any kind of ____.
  2. education or training program beyond elementary school
  3. education or training program beyond secondary school
  4. professional education or training program beyond college
  5. education or training program that is mandatory for all citizens of a nation

Answer: b

Page: 418

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.7

 

  1. One hundred years ago ____ of young people obtained tertiary education in any industrialized country.
  2. less than 10%
  3. between 20% and 45%
  4. more than 45%
  5. almost 100%

Answer: a

Page: 418

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.5

 

  1. Which of the following would be considered tertiary education?
  2. an elementary school
  3. a middle school

Incorrect. A middle school is considered secondary education.

  1. a college or university

Correct. Tertiary education is any kind of education or training program beyond secondary school.

  1. a daycare center

Answer: c

Page: 418

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.2.5

  1. By the end of their college years, many young people reach a stage in which they adhere to certain points of view they believe to be the most valid, while being open to re-evaluating their views if new evidence is presented to them. What stage is this?
  2. Dualistic thinking
  3. Multiple thinking

Incorrect. This stage is referred to as commitment.

  1. Relativism
  2. Commitment

Correct. This stage is referred to as commitment.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 417

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. The gains in reflective judgment that take place in emerging adulthood appear to be due more to ____.
  2. maturation

Incorrect. The gains occur seem to take place as a function of education rather than maturation (King & Kitchener, 2002, etc.).

  1. experience
  2. education

Correct. The gains occur seem to take place as a function of education (King & Kitchener, 2002, etc.).

  1. social correction

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 417

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. What type of education or training program takes place beyond secondary school?
  2. primary education
  3. tertiary education
  4. quaternary education
  5. technical education

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 418

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. One hundred years ago, what percentage of individuals in industrialized countries obtained post-secondary education?
  2. 10%
  3. 20%
  4. 30%
  5. 40%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 418

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.8

  1. Currently, what can be stated regarding the obtainment of post-secondary education?
  2. only the elite and privileged have access to it
  3. it is a normative experience
  4. it is a male-dominated experience
  5. only individuals who are interested in trade schools experience post-secondary education

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 419

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to a worldwide survey there were more ____ in higher education in 83 of 141 countries.
  2. young women than young men
  3. first-generation college students than students whose parents possess a college degree
  4. ethnic minorities than those of European descent
  5. individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) than those of middle or high SES

Answer: a

Page: 419

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.6

  1. Generally, colleges in the Unites States, Canada, and Japan begin with two years that are devoted to ____.
  2. classes within the major
  3. classes devoted to the minor
  4. general education classes
  5. remedial classes

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  100     a= 0  b= 0  c= 100  d= 0      r = .00

  1. In what countries are students required to determine their course of study before they arrive and only study that subject while at the university?
  2. South American
  3. European
  4. Asian
  5. African

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. You are talking to an exchange student about the different styles of education that occur in the United States and her country. She told you that she had to determine her course of study before she was admitted to the university in her country. On what continent did her university education likely take place?
  2. South American
  3. European

Correct. In Europe students are required to determine their course of study before arriving at the university and can only study that particular subject.

  1. Asia

Incorrect. In Europe students are required to determine their course of study before arriving at the university and can only study that particular subject.

  1. Africa

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 420

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.9

  1. You are talking to an exchange student about the different styles of education that occur in the United States and her country. She told you that grades matter very little and standards for performance are very relaxed. In fact, they have four years of university-sanctioned leisure to think and to explore. What country is she most likely from?
  2. Great Britain
  3. France
  4. Japan

Correct. Japan has a very relaxed attitude regarding university training.

  1. Canada

Incorrect. Canadian universities are very much like those in the United States. It is Japan that has a very relaxed attitude regarding university training.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 420

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. The average homework time for Japanese college students is what percentage of the time junior high or high school students spend on homework?
  2. 300%
  3. 200%
  4. 100%
  5. 50%

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.2.8

  1. Traditionally, university education in Europe often lasted six or more years because it culminated in a degree that was equivalent to a(n):
  2. undergraduate degree in the United States when remedial classes were required
  3. undergraduate degree in the United States

Incorrect. European degrees were similar to advanced degrees in the United States.

  1. advanced degree in the United States

Correct. European degrees were similar to advanced degrees in the United States.

  1. degree from a technical college in the United States

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 420

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.7

  1. Your uncle and aunt are pretty unhappy with your cousin, who is taking six years to complete an undergraduate degree. What can you tell your aunt and uncle that would help your cousin? The average time to complete an undergraduate degree in the United States is ____.
  2. 4 years
  3. 5 years

Incorrect. The average time to complete an undergraduate degree in the United States is 6 years.

  1. 6 years

Correct. The average time to complete an undergraduate degree in the United States is 6 years.

  1. 7 years

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 419

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.8

  1. What is the main reason that it takes most students longer than four years to complete an undergraduate degree?
  2. Students are not academically prepared for university training and must take remedial coursework.
  3. Financial concerns require that students also work, which increases the time to complete the degree.

Correct. Financial concerns are the main reason. Some students must alternate between working and going to school, or they work and go to school simultaneously while taking fewer courses per semester.

  1. Students lack focus and change their majors quite a few times, which adds on to their academic programs.

Incorrect. Financial concerns are the main reason. Some students must alternate between working and going to school, or they work and go to school simultaneously while taking fewer courses per semester.

  1. Many students transfer to a different institution that does not accept all of their previous credits.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 420

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.10, QR 9.2.6

  1. How much has tuition increased from 1982 to 2007 even when taking into account inflation?
  2. 200%
  3. 300%
  4. 400%
  5. 500%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In regards to what is required in secondary education, colleges in the United States, Canada, and Japan begin with ____.
  2. two years of general education
  3. two years of math and science
  4. two years of arts and humanities
  5. two years within a declared major

Answer: a

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Cameron is enrolled in college but has not decided on a major. For next semester she is scheduled to take College Composition II, Introduction to Psychology, College Algebra, Biology 101, and Cardio-funk Aerobics. Based upon the requirements of secondary education in the United States, it is safe to assume that Cameron is in her ____.
  2. first or second year of college

Correct. The requirements of secondary education in the United States are based upon fulfilling general education requirements for the first two years.

  1. third year of college

Incorrect. Generally within the third year college students must declare a major and begin taking courses within it.

  1. fourth or fifth year of college
  2. first year of graduate school

Answer: a

Page: 420

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States and Canada, students enrolled in secondary education must declare a major ____, whereas in European schools students must declare their major ____.
  2. before their freshman year of college; before the third year
  3. before their sophomore year of college; before the third year
  4. by their third year of college; before their freshman year
  5. by the fourth year of college; before their third year

Answer: c

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.2.7

 

  1. In many European nations, universities require students to declare a major ____.
  2. before they enroll

Correct. Students in European universities must decide on a specific field of study before they arrive, and they study only that subject.

  1. after their freshman year
  2. after their sophomore year

Incorrect. In the United States most colleges and universities require students to declare a major before their junior year.

  1. after their junior year

Answer: a

Page: 420

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, the college or university experience for many Japanese students can be best described as ____.
  2. “four years of university-sanctioned leisure to think and explore”

Correct. In Japan students in secondary education work tirelessly to perform academically; however, once enrolled in college they are granted a reprieve and allowed leisure time.

  1. “four years of university-mandated grueling hard work”

Incorrect. Many view academia for all Asian countries as grueling hard work; however, Japan tends to be an exception. Secondary education is where the Japanese place high academic emphasis.

  1. “four years of commitment and dedication to professional job training”
  2. “four years of university-required coursework to pass his or her professional job training exams”

Answer: a

Page: 419

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.11

 

  1. Traditionally, European college students began their majors upon enrollment for their freshman year and did not spend their first two years studying general education. For many European college students, it generally took ____ years to earn a college degree.
  2. 2
  3. 4
  4. 6
  5. 8

Answer: c

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. On average, for many college and university students in America, it takes ____ to earn a “four-year” degree.
  2. 4 years
  3. 5 years
  4. 6 years
  5. 7 years

Answer: c

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. Why are African Americans and Latinos less likely to obtain a college degree than Whites or Asian Americans? They struggle ____.
  2. academically
  3. being away from home
  4. to fund their college education
  5. balancing their family responsibilities with being a college student

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 421

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  100     a= 0  b= 0  c= 100  d= 0      r = .00

  1. A key to economic growth in a world economy that is increasingly based on information, technology, and services is ____.
  2. an educated population
  3. the number of laptops per capita
  4. a banking system willing to fund experimental projects
  5. a government that keeps tariffs low

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 421

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.12

  1. Who tends to have considerably higher earnings, occupational status, and career attainment over the long run?
  2. high school dropouts
  3. adults who inherit wealth
  4. adults who acquire tertiary education
  5. graduates of high school

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 421

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. Pascarella and Terenzini found that in the course of college, students become more ____.
  2. vocational
  3. academic
  4. focused on grades and not learning
  5. interested in non-academic endeavors

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 422

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Tuition rates were ____ in 2007 than they were in 1982 in both public and private colleges and universities.
  2. twice as high
  3. three times higher
  4. four times higher
  5. five times higher

Answer: c

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Tertiary education in the United States is mainly paid for by ____, whereas in other industrialized countries it is paid for by ____.
  2. students and their parents; the government
  3. the government; students and their parents
  4. students and their parents; corporate endowments
  5. corporate endowments; students and their parents

Answer: a

Page: 421

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.13

 

  1. According to the textRemember,cieties are willing to make large financial investments in tertiary education because an educated population ____.
  2. is a key to economic growth in a world economy that is increasingly based on information, technology, and services
  3. is key to military defense and the development of arms
  4. is key to a democratic government and buffers a nation from radical thought
  5. allows for a greater degree of homogeneity, unity, and an appreciation of diversity

Answer: a

Page: 421

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  100     a= 100  b= 0  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. Compared to those who do not attend college, emerging adults who obtain tertiary education tend to have considerably ____.
  2. higher earnings, occupational status, and career attainment over the long run
  3. mediocre job success, a greater sense of identity, and higher sense of self-worth
  4. milder temperament, more secure attachments, and happier long-lasting marriages
  5. higher earnings, mellow temperaments, and a greater sense of identity

Answer: a

Page: 420

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.9

% correct  61.29     a= 61  b= 13  c= 16  d= 7      r = .26

 

 

  1. Ernest Pascarella and Patrick Terenzini’s research found that individuals who attended college had ____ as compared to those who did not attend college.
  2. increased critical thinking skills

Correct. Increased critical thinking skills are one of many cognitive skills that is cited from Pascarella and Terenzini’s research.

  1. greater egocentric thought
  2. decreased analytical skills
  3. improved working memory

Incorrect. Individuals’ capacity for working memory increases with brain development that occurs in middle childhood, as discussed in chapter 7.

Answer: a

Page: 421

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.2.9, QR 9.2.8

 

  1. From Ernest Pascarella and Patrick Terenzini’s research, which of the following are cited as cognitive benefits of attending college?
  2. increases in general verbal, oral, and written communication skills, and critical thinking
  3. increases in sensory memory, working memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
  4. increases in metacognition, creativity, frontal lobe functioning, and deductive reasoning
  5. increases in hypothetical reasoning, expressive communication, a faster fluid intelligence, and a higher general intelligence score

Answer: a

Page: 421–2

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.10

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Ernest Pascarella and Patrick Terenzini found that as individuals spent more time in college, the goal of college became ____.
  2. less vocational and more self-enhancing

Correct. Initially students place a high emphasis on college as a means of career training; progressively with time more students place emphasis on academics.

  1. less enjoyable and more career focused
  2. less satisfying and more job orientated

Incorrect. Initially students place a high emphasis on college as a means of career training; progressively with time more students place emphasis on academics.

  1. less job-oriented and more about career training

Answer: a

Page: 422

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.14

 

  1. As a part of his general education curriculum, Bryce reluctantly enrolled in Fundamentals of Music and Art Appreciation. After the first few weeks of class, Bryce began to notice and appreciate artistic beauty everywhere he went. He also began to experiment in his own artistic projects and related them to his personal areas of interest. In line with Pascarella and Terenzini’s findings, it is clear that the college experience has increased Bryce’s ____.
  2. aesthetic and intellectual values

Correct. Increased exposure to the arts and humanities has been demonstrated to correlate with increases in aesthetic and intellectual values.

  1. critical thinking and reasoning skills

Incorrect. Improved critical thinking and reasoning skills emerge with the development of  formal or postformal operational thought, and are not specifically correlated to the study of the arts and humanities.

  1. personal identity and social connectedness
  2. attachments and easy temperament

Answer: a

Page: 422

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Pascarella and Terenzini found that in the course of the college years, individuals become ____ dogmatic, ____ authoritarian, and ____ ethnocentric in their political and social views.
  2. less; less; less
  3. less; more; more
  4. more; more; more
  5. more; less; less

Answer: a

Page: 422

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.10

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Pascarella and Terenzini found that in the course of the college years, a student’s ____.
  2. self-concept and psychological well-being improves

Correct. Beyond cognitive and financial benefits, Pascarella and Terenzini found that many individuals had improved self-concepts and psychological well-being

  1. temperament became more easy-going

Incorrect. There is strong evidence that temperament is more biologically based and is very stable.

  1. attachments became more secure
  2. physiological responses increased for the better

Answer: a

Page: 422

Skill: C

Learning Objective:

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.2.10

 

  1. Pascarella and Terenzini found that in the course of the college years, individuals became ___ authoritarian, ____ ethnocentric, and saw ____ their self-concepts and psychological well-being.
  2. more; more; decreases in
  3. less; less; decreases in
  4. more; more; improvements to
  5. less; less; improvements to

Answer: d

Page: 421

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.10

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.2.10

% correct  44     a= 0  b= 6  c= 50  d= 44      r = .43

 

  1. Pascarella and Terenzini (1991, 2005, 2006) have conducted research in the United States on the benefits of tertiary education. What have they discovered?
  2. Oral and written communication skills do not change from high school.
  3. Verbal and quantitative skills increase as a function of attending college.

Correct. Nearly all academic and intellectual skills increase as a function of attending college, including critical thinking skills.

  1. Unfortunately, critical thinking skills decrease.

Incorrect. Nearly all academic and intellectual skills increase as a function of attending college, including critical thinking skills.

  1. Over the course of college, students place more emphasis on college as a pathway to a better job.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 422

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.2.15

 

  1. You have not seen your 22-year-old cousin in quite some time. After a brief visit, you are impressed that she is more confident socially, is less dogmatic, and is less ethnocentric in her political and social views than she had been as a teenager. Given what you know about development, you guess that she has ____.
  2. matured
  3. graduated from college

Correct. These qualities are nonacademic benefits of attending college found by Pascarella and Terenzini (2006).

  1. moved away from home

Incorrect. These qualities are nonacademic benefits of attending college found by Pascarella and Terenzini (2006).

  1. found a romantic partner

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 422

Skill: A

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. According to Piaget, abstract thinking and logic are the hallmarks of the most advanced stage of cognitive development: formal operational thinking. What is postformal thinking and why is it considered more advanced than formal operational thinking?

Answer: Postformal thinking is considered more advanced than formal operational thinking because it involves the ability to successfully solve every day problems that require more than merely a reliance on logic.

Page: 415

Learning Objective: 9.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Using Perry’s theory, describe how your friend might think about her parents getting a divorce at age 13 compared to later, when she graduates from college, at age 20.

Answer: When an adolescent enters the formal operational stage, she is engages in dualistic thinking, seeing situations as either right or wrong, with no in-between. She might see divorce as her mom’s fault, perhaps thinking that she was too mean to her father when he did something wrong. By age 20, individuals develop reflective judgment and realize that there are two sides to every story. She might realize that her parents grew apart or were never really that compatible in the first place.

Page: 416-417

Learning Objective: 9.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Discuss one factor that is associated with gains in reflective judgment during emerging adulthood.

Answer: The ability to accept shades of gray and appreciate the merits of differing points of view is more likely in cultures that value pluralism and encourage diversity in viewpoints. One might expect less reflective judgment in communist countries.

Page: 417

Learning Objective: 9.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Describe the college educational system in a country other than the U.S. Are there any aspects that you prefer over the system in which you are currently enrolled?

Answer: Students might choose the leisurely college experience of Japan or the focused system of Europe where students do not take any general education requirements, but begin by focusing on their specialized area.

Page: 419

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Carla is a divorced middle-age woman who lives in Florida, far from her only living parent and her only sibling and his children who live in different parts of the Northeast. She has a child entering 3rd grade and would really like to see her family more, especially so her son can grow closer to his cousins. However, she is not sure whether she should move, especially in such a bad economy. What would an adolescent predict she would do and why? What would an emerging adult predict she would do and why? Include their rationales.

Answer: An adolescent would say she will move because she misses her family and it is too hard to get to see them. She wants her son to get to know her family better and moving would be the best way to do this. They might even suggest that she move in with her father or brother. An emerging adult might wonder whether the father of the child would allow Carla to leave the state and whether he would want joint custody. They might also want to know what the job options are, what the cost of living is, and whether she could sell her house without losing too much money. They might wonder if she is leaving behind a good social support network and whether her relatives would have time to spend with her once she moved there due to their own schedules.

Page: 416-417

Learning Objective: 9.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Compare and contrast the college experience of the Japanese and those from one other country.

Answer: The college years are meant to be a time to relax and engage in leisure for the Japanese. Getting into college is extremely competitiveRemember, in many ways they have already proven themselves. Likewise, the working world is requires long hoursRemember, this time is meant to be a break in the responsibility and pressure that accompanies other periods of their lives. In Canada, depending upon the province, students may take an extra year to prepare for college (CEJEP). The first two years of college consist of taking general education courses. The cost of going to college is also much less, as it is subsidized by the government (note: some of this info on Canada was not in the text; students will draw from their experience and knowledge).

Page: 419

Learning Objective: 9.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Your best friend tells you that sending your daughter to college when she does not know exactly what she wants to do is a waste of money. Drawing upon research, how would you justify spending the time and money to obtain a college education?

Answer: She would say that in this increasingly technological society, a college education is a must and will lead to higher earnings over her career. It will also give her a chance to explore her talents and interests so that she has a better chance of finding a career that she enjoys rather than settling for a job that merely pays the bills without giving her a sense of purpose or enjoyment. They develop confidence and become appreciative of different points of view. They are also more likely to develop a love of learning–something that will increase their quality of life.

Page: 420-421

Learning Objective: 9.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 9.2.1.          Although Piaget proposed that cognitive development reaches full maturity at formal operations, many contemporary researchers believe that cognitive maturity extends into ____.

  1. preformal thinking
  2. postformal thinking
  3. metacognitive thinking
  4. analytic thinking

Answer: b

Page: 415

 

Pre 9.2.2.          What involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and two opposing strategies or points of view may each have merit?

  1. hypothetical-deductive reasoning
  2. egocentric thought
  3. dialectical though
  4. hypothesis testing

Answer: c

Page: 417

 

Pre 9.2.3.          What cognitive perspective allows for two or more sides to every story and two or more legitimate views to every issue?

  1. dualistic thinking
  2. multiple thinking
  3. preformal thinking
  4. concrete thinking

Answer: b

Page: 417

 

Pre 9.2.4.          Peng and Nisbett (1999) found that when students were presented with two apparently contradictory propositions, American students tended to ____.

  1. embrace one solution and reject the other
  2. use non-pragmatic logic
  3. prefer dialectical proverbs containing contradictions
  4. try to reconcile the two contradictory propositions

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

Pre 9.2.5.          What percentage of young people obtained tertiary education in any developed country one hundred years ago?

  1. nearly 100%
  2. more than 45%
  3. between 20 and 45%
  4. fewer than 10%

Answer: d

Page: 418

 

Pre 9.2.6.          In worldwide survey, in 83 out of 141 countries who was more likely to attend college?

  1. young men
  2. young women
  3. ethnic minorities
  4. individuals of low socio-economic status

Answer: b

Page: 419

 

Pre 9.2.7.          In Europe, university education traditionally lasted six or more years because it culminated in a degree that was equivalent to a(n) ____.

  1. advanced degrees in the United States
  2. undergraduate degree in the United States when remedial classes were required
  3. undergraduate degree in the United States
  4. degree from a technical college

Answer: a

Page: 420

 

Pre 9.2.8.          Your stepbrother is in his sixth year of college and your father is very upset with this situation. What is something that you could tell your father to help your stepbrother out? What is the average length of time to complete an undergraduate degree in the United States?

  1. 4 years
  2. 6 years
  3. 8 years
  4. 10 years

Answer: b

Page: 419

 

Pre 9.2.9.          When you were in high school, you spent a great deal of time determining if attending college was going to be beneficial to you. After examining a considerable amount of research dealing with this issue you decided that college was a good investment. Which of the following findings are supported by research? College graduates have ____.

  1. higher earnings, occupational status, and career attainment over the long run
  2. mediocre job success, a greater sense of identity, and higher sense of self-worth
  3. milder temperament, more secure attachments, and happier long-lasting marriages
  4. higher earnings, mellow temperaments, and a greater sense of identity

Answer: a

Page: 420

 

Pre 9.2.10.        According to Pascarella and Terenzini, during the course of the college years, an individual’s ____.

  1. temperament becomes more easy-going
  2. attachments become more secured
  3. self-concept and psychological well-being improves
  4. physiological responses increase for the better

Answer: c

Page: 422

 

Post-Test

 

Post 9.2.1.        Formal operations is fully attained and cognitive maturation is complete by ____.

  1. at least age 12
  2. at least age 20
  3. at least age 30
  4. at least age 40

Answer: b

Page: 416

 

Post 9.2.2.        Adolescents and many young adults are confined to formal operations and do not possess post-formal operational thought because, according to Gisela Labouvie-Vief, they lack ____.

  1. the better coordination of sensory input with motor skills
  2. the disappearance of egocentric thought and animism.
  3. a greater recognition and incorporation of practical limitations to logical thinking
  4. a greater use of hypothetical and inductive reasoning for concrete problems

Answer: c

Page: 416

 

Post 9.2.3.        What type of thinkers do emerging adults tend to be since they realize that the problems of real life often involve a great deal of complexity and ambiguity?

  1. preformal
  2. postformal
  3. formal
  4. prescripted-formal

Answer: b

Page: 416–417

 

Post 9.2.4.        You and your cousin are discussing ethical behavior. He believes that stealing from another is wrong and there is no reason for a person to steal. Even if a person were starving and near death, a person should not steal food. Which of the following best describes your cousin’s cognitive pattern?

  1. dualistic thinking
  2. situational judgments
  3. relative-hypothesis testing
  4. concrete thought

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

Post 9.2.5.        When does multiple thinking develop into relativism?

  1. early 50s
  2. early 40s
  3. early 30s
  4. early 20s

Answer: d

Page: 417

 

Post 9.2.6.        Chinese culture traditionally advocates an approach to knowledge that strives to reconcile contradictions and combine opposing perspectives by seeking a middle ground. According to Peng and Nisbett (1999), what type of thinking is this?

  1. pragmatic thought
  2. dialectical thought
  3. formal operational thought
  4. concrete thought

Answer: b

Page: 417

 

Post 9.2.7.        When a person’s thinking involves understanding that there are two or more legitimate views for each issue and comparing the merits of competing views, he or she is engaging in what type of thinking?

  1. relativism
  2. committed thinking
  3. multiple thinking
  4. dualistic thinking

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

Post 9.2.8.        Compared to the average amount of time that a Japanese student spends doing homework during junior high or high school, how much time they spend on homework during college?

  1. 25%
  2. 50%
  3. 200%
  4. 400%

Answer: b

Page: 420

 

Post 9.2.9.        Pascarella and Terenzini found what differences between individuals who attended college and to those who did not attend college? Those who attended college had ____.

  1. increased critical thinking skills
  2. greater egocentric thought
  3. decreased analytical skills
  4. improved working memory

Answer: a

Page: 421

 

Post 9.2.10.      You met a friend of your younger sister’s whom you have not seen since he was in high school about four years ago. You are amazed at how “grown up” her friend seems to be now.  He is more confident socially, is less dogmatic, and is less ethnocentric in his political and social views. After examining the developmental literature, what is likely responsible for these changes?

  1. He has matured.
  2. He has moved away form home.
  3. He has graduated from college.
  4. He has found a romantic partner.

Answer: c

Page: 422

 

Chapter Exam

 

CE 9.2.1.          Adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations refers to ____.

  1. practicality
  2. concrete thinking
  3. pragmatism
  4. applied logic

Answer: c

Page: 416

 

CE 9.2.2.          What involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations?

  1. concrete thought
  2. hypothetical and deductive reasoning
  3. pragmatism
  4. reflective judgments

Answer: c

Page: 416

 

CE 9.2.3.          According to Labouvie-Vief, how would an adolescent who is in formal operations respond to the following scenario? “A man who was a heavy drinker, especially at parties, was warned by his wife that if he came home drunk one more time, she would leave him and take the children. Sometime later he went to an office party and came home drunk. What will she do?”

  1. “Did he apologize and beg her not to leave? Did she really mean it when she said she would leave him?”
  2. “She said she would leave if he came home drunk once more, he came home drunk, therefore she will leave.”
  3. “Does she have some place to go? Has she considered the possible effects on the children?”
  4. “Does she really want him to leave? Because if he does is she really going to start the separation or divorce process? It was most likely just a threat.”

Answer: b

Page: 416–417

 

CE 9.2.4.          What is often defined as seeing situations and issues in polarized terms-an act is either right or wrong, with no in-between; a statement is either true or false, regardless of the nuances of the situation?

  1. dualistic thinking
  2. situational judgments
  3. relative-hypothesis testing
  4. concrete thought

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

CE 9.2.5.          When a person develops relative thought, he or she is ____.

  1. able to perform mental operations on tangible problems, but lack abstract thought
  2. able to view the world in terms of right or wrong, and in terms of black or white
  3. limited to one perspective, and interview situations is only having one outcome.
  4. able to recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view

Answer: d

Page: 417

 

CE 9.2.6.          Peng and Nisbett (1999) found that Chinese college students were more likely than American college students to prefer ____.

  1. non-pragmatic solutions
  2. dialectical proverbs containing contradictions
  3. pragmatic solutions
  4. formal operational thought containing no contradictions

Answer: b

Page: 417

 

CE 9.2.7.          What is tertiary education?

  1. education or training programs beyond secondary school
  2. education or training programs beyond elementary school
  3. professional education or training programs beyond college
  4. education or training programs that are mandatory for all citizens of a nation

Answer: a

Page: 418

 

CE 9.2.8.          What percentage of individuals in industrialized countries obtained post-secondary education one hundred years ago?

  1. 5%
  2. 10%
  3. 15%
  4. 20%

Answer: b

Page: 418

 

CE 9.2.9.          You are talking to an international student in one of your classes. She told you that before she was admitted to a university in her native country, she had to determine her course of study before she arrived on campus. On which of the following continents is she most likely to have attended college?

  1. Europe
  2. South America
  3. Asia
  4. Africa

Answer: a

Page: 420

 

CE 9.2.10.        Why does it take much longer to complete an undergraduate degree than it did a few decades ago?

  1. Students are not academically prepared for university training and must take remedial coursework.
  2. Students lack focus and change their majors quite a few times, which adds time on to their academic programs.
  3. Financial concerns require that students also work, which increases the time to complete the degree.
  4. There are many students who transfer to a different institution that does not accept all of their previous credits.

Answer: c

Page: 420

 

CE 9.2.11.        The college or university experience for many Japanese students taking courses in Japan can be best described as ____.

  1. four years of university-sanctioned leisure to think and explore
  2. four years of university-mandated grueling hard work
  3. four years of commitment and dedication to professional job training
  4. four years of university-required coursework to pass his or her professional job training exams

Answer: a

Page: 419

 

CE 9.2.12.        When economic growth in a world economy is increasingly based on information, technology and services, what is required?

  1. a high number of laptops per capita
  2. a banking system willing to fund experimental projects
  3. an educated population
  4. a government that keeps tariffs low

Answer: c

Page: 421

 

CE 9.2.13.        In the United States, tertiary education is mainly paid for by ____, whereas in other industrialized countries it is paid for by ____.

  1. students and their parents; the government
  2. the government; students and their parents
  3. students and their parents; corporate endowments
  4. corporate endowments; students and their parents

Answer: a

Page: 421

 

CE 9.2.14.        Research has discovered that as individuals spend more time in college, the goal of college becomes ____.

  1. less satisfying and more job orientated
  2. less vocational and more self-enhancing
  3. less enjoyable and more career-focused
  4. less job oriented more career training

Answer: b

Page: 422

 

CE 9.2.15.        Research by Pascarella and Terenzini (1991, 2005, 2006) examining the benefits of tertiary education in the United States has found ____.

  1. verbal and quantitative skills increase as a function of attending college
  2. oral and written communication skills do not change from high school
  3. unfortunately, critical thinking skills decrease
  4. over the course of college, students place more emphasis on college as a pathway to a better job

Answer: a

Page: 422

 

Quick Review

 

QR 9.2.1.         What are two of the most notable aspects of postformal thinking in emerging adulthood?

  1. animism and personal fables
  2. pragmatism and reflective judgment
  3. hypothetical and deductive reasoning
  4. egocentrism and reality testing

Answer: b

Page: 416

 

QR 9.2.2.         What is the capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments?

  1. dualistic thinking
  2. relative-hypothesis testing
  3. reflective judgment
  4. concrete judgment

Answer: c

Page: 417

 

QR 9.2.3.         When does reflective judgment begin to develop for most people, according to Perry?

  1. early teens
  2. around age 20
  3. late 20s
  4. mid 30s

Answer: b

Page: 417

 

QR 9.2.4.         What type of thinking develops in emerging adulthood that involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and two opposing strategies or points of view may each have some merit?

  1. dialectical though
  2. formal operational thought
  3. concrete thought
  4. pragmatic thought

Answer: a

Page: 417

 

QR 9.2.5.         Which of the following types of education is considered tertiary education?

  1. daycare
  2. elementary school
  3. middle school
  4. college or university

Answer: d

Page: 418

 

QR 9.2.6.         In the United States what is one of the main reasons that it takes so much longer to complete an undergraduate degree than it did in the past?

  1. Students are not academically prepared for university training and must take remedial coursework.
  2. Financial concerns require that students also work, which increases the time to complete the degree.
  3. Students lack focus and change their majors quite a few times, which adds on to their academic programs.
  4. There are many students who transfer to a different institution that do not accept all of their previous credits.

Answer: b

Page: 420

 

QR 9.2.7.         When must students who are attending European colleges and universities declare a major?

  1. while still in high school
  2. before they enter university
  3. before their sophomore year
  4. before their junior year

Answer: b

Page: 420

 

QR 9.2.8.         Compared to individuals who did not attend college, individuals who did attend college have ____.

  1. greater egocentric thought
  2. increased critical thinking skills
  3. decreased analytic skills
  4. improved working memory

Answer: b

Page: 421

 

QR 9.2.9.         When individuals spent more time in college, Pascarella and Terenzini found that the goal of college became ____.

  1. less vocational and more self-enhancing
  2. less enjoyable and more career-focused
  3. less satisfying and more job-oriented
  4. less job-oriented and more career training

Answer: a

Page: 422

 

QR 9.2.10.        In the course of the college years, Pascarella and Terenzini found that individuals became _______ authoritarian, _________ ethoncentric, and saw ___________ to their self-concept and psychological well-being?

  1. More; more; decreases in
  2. More; less; decreases in
  3. Less; less; improvements to
  4. Less; more; improvement to

Answer: c

Page: 421

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What role does family/parents play in an emerging adult’s views on higher education?

Answer: Parental influence plays a large role in an emerging adult’s view of education.  This is particularly true in developing countries where cultures may value working or raising a family over education. .

 

  1. The Mexican female states that she now regrets not gaining more education. What advice would you give to her now in dealing with this regret?

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

  1. Compare and contrast at least two of the individuals interviewed in this video regarding their views on higher education.

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. According to the narrator of this video, _____________ has lead to the development of the life stage of emerging adulthood.
  2. fewer people attending college
  3. more people entering the workforce right out of college
  4. an increase in teenage mothers
  5. increased participation in post-secondary education

Answer: D

 

  1. The female (Rosie) from the rural Mexican village states that _________.
  2. she regrets not gaining more education
  3. she has completed college
  4. she wants to obtain a Master’s Degree
  5. she is interested in a degree in nursing

Answer: A

 

  1. How long has the Mexican male in this video been working in the internet cafe?
  2. 3 years
  3. 5 years
  4. 8 years
  5. 10 years

Answer: C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 3 Emotional and Social Development

 

Test Item File

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. What happens to self-esteem for most people during emerging adulthood?
  2. It declines abruptly.
  3. It declines slowly.
  4. It stays at the level it was during adolescence.
  5. It rises.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 423

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.1

 

  1. Compared to childhood, self-esteem ____ during adolescence, then ____ during emerging adulthood.
  2. plateaus; declines
  3. raises; plateaus
  4. declines; rises
  5. rises; declines

Answer: d

Page: 422

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.11

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.1

 

  1. Moving from adolescence, most individuals experience a slight increase in self-esteem as they enter into emerging adulthood. Which of the following is a physiological factor that boosts self-esteem?
  2. the ending of puberty

Correct. Puberty is a physiological phenomenon that comes to an end in emerging adulthood

  1. developing career goals
  2. an established self-concept
  3. graduating from secondary school

Incorrect. This is an event that relates to increased self-esteem for many students, but it is not a physiological factor.

Answer: a

Page: 424

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.11

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.1

% correct 92      a= 92  b= 4  c= 4  d= 0      r = .31

 

  1. Moving from adolescence, most individuals experience a slight increase in self-esteem as they enter into emerging adulthood. Which of the following is a social factor that boosts self-esteem?
  2. the ending of puberty

Incorrect. Puberty is a physiological phenomenon that comes to an end in emerging adulthood

  1. developing career goals
  2. an established self-concept
  3. the ending of secondary school

Correct. Entering emerging adulthood means leaving the social pressure cooker of secondary school, where peer evaluations are a part of daily life and can be harsh.

Answer: d

Page: 424

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.11

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.3.1

 

  1. Moving from adolescence, most individuals experience a slight increase in self-esteem as they enter into emerging adulthood. ____ is/are a physiological factor, whereas _____ is a social factor.
  2. An established self-concept; developing career goals
  3. Developed career goals; establishing one’s self-concept
  4. The ending of puberty; the ending of secondary school

Correct. Puberty is a physiological phenomenon of that comes to an end in emerging adulthood; entering emerging adulthood means leaving the social pressure cooker of secondary school, where peer evaluations are a part of daily life and can be harsh.

  1. The ending of secondary school; the ending of puberty

Incorrect. The opposite is true: the ending of puberty is a physiological factor, whereas the ending of secondary school is a social factor.

Answer: c

Page: 424

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  78     a= 17  b= 5  c= 78  d= 0     r = .51

 

  1. Moving from adolescence, most individuals experience ____ in self-esteem as they enter into emerging adulthood.
  2. an increase
  3. a leveling-off
  4. a decline
  5. no change

Answer: a

Page: 423

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.11

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In Erik Erikson’s theory of development, each stage of life has a central crisis, and in adolescence the crisis is ____.
  2. integrity versus despair
  3. identity versus identity confusion
  4. trust versus mistrust
  5. autonomy versus shame and doubt

Answer: b

Page: 424

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Silvia is 22 years old and lives an apartment with two friends. She’s thinking about her family and the changes that have occurred since she moved out of her parents’ house. During adolescence she and your parents got along fairly well, but there were times when there was quite a bit of conflict. Now that she has been out of the family house for a few years, her relationship with her parents has likely ____.
  2. improved and conflict has declined

Correct. For most people in emerging adulthood their relationships with their parents improve and conflicts decline.

  1. improved, but conflict has risen
  2. deteriorated and conflict has risen

Incorrect. For most people in emerging adulthood their relationships with their parents improve and conflicts decline.

  1. deteriorated, but conflict has declined

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 424

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Emerging adulthood is when most people move toward making definite, long-term choices in ____.
  2. areas in which to live
  3. love and work
  4. terms of which college to attend
  5. starting a family

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 424

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.2

 

  1. When do many of the most important steps in identity development take place?
  2. middle childhood
  3. adolescence

Incorrect. For many years theorists believed that adolescence was the time that most people create their identities. However, theorists today believe that emerging adulthood is when the most important steps in identity development take place.

  1. emerging adulthood

Correct. For many years theorists believed that adolescence was the time that most people create their identities. However, theorists today believe that emerging adulthood is when the most important steps in identity development take place.

  1. young adulthood

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 423

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In Erikson’s theory each stage of life has a central crisis. What is the central crisis for adolescents?
  2. industry versus inferiority
  3. identity versus identity confusion

Correct. The central crisis for adolescents is identity versus identity confusion.

  1. intimacy versus isolation

Incorrect. The central crisis for adolescents is identity versus identity confusion.

  1. Generativity versus stagnation

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 424

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 72      a= 0  b= 72  c= 28  d= 0      r = .48

 

  1. Erikson used the term identity crisis to describe the process through which young people construct their identity, but Marcia and other current scholars prefer what term?
  2. confusion
  3. exploration

Correct. Scholars today prefer the term exploration.

  1. emergency

Incorrect. Scholars today prefer the term exploration.

  1. development

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 425

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.2

 

  1. For most people, when does identity achievement occur?
  2. middle childhood
  3. adolescence
  4. emerging adulthood

Correct. Identity achievement occurs during emerging adulthood.

  1. late adulthood

Incorrect. Identity achievement occurs during emerging adulthood.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 425

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.2

 

  1. Erik Erikson’s term ____ is what James Marcia has termed ____.
  2. identity crisis; exploration
  3. exploration; identity crisis
  4. diffusion; foreclosure
  5. foreclosure; diffusion

Answer: a

Page: 425

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.12

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is James Marcia’s identity status in which the individual lacks exploration and commitment to an identity?
  2. foreclosure
  3. moratorium
  4. achievement
  5. diffusion

Answer: d

Page: 425

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.3.2

 

  1. Jacob has been pressured by his father to take over the family farm. Reluctantly, Jacob has agreed to this identity status because that is what is best for his parents. He has not explored his options but has passively accepted the identity his father imposed on him. From James Marcia’s model, which of the following identity statuses can Jacob’s be categorized as?
  2. foreclosure

Correct. Jacob’s identity lacks exploration, but a commitment has been made

  1. moratorium
  2. achievement

Incorrect. Achievement only occurs if Jacob’s decision had been preceded by exploration.

  1. diffusion

Answer: a

Page: 425

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  87     a=  87 b= 10  c= 3  d= 0      r = .24

 

  1. According to the text, limitations on exploration in both love and work are stronger for ____.
  2. boys in developed countries
  3. girls in developed countries
  4. boys in traditional cultures
  5. girls in traditional cultures

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 427

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.3

 

  1. Because of globalization, more young people around the world now have one part of their identity rooted in their local culture while another part stems from an awareness of their relation to the global culture. What do scholars call this type of identity?
  2. multicultural identity
  3. bicultural identity

Correct. Bicultural identity refers to an identity with

  1. hybrid identity

Incorrect. Hybrid identity is not a term used in the text.

  1. blended identity

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 427

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your roommate is from an urban area in Mexico. Culturally, she has a very strong commitment to her family. To stay in contact with her family she uses Facebook and her cell phone to talk and to text. In terms of identity, she has a ____.
  2. multicultural identity
  3. bicultural identity

Correct. A bicultural identity integrates local culture—a strong family commitment—with elements of the global culture—using social media and cell phones.

  1. hybrid identity

Incorrect. Hybrid identity is not a term used in the text.

  1. blended identity

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 427

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Because adolescents and emerging adults who are members of ethnic minorities have to confront ethnic identity issues, their identity development is likely to be more ____.
  2. disrupted
  3. simplified

Incorrect. Adolescents and emerging adults who are members of an ethnic minority are likely to have a complex identity development.

  1. confusing
  2. complex

Correct. Adolescents and emerging adults who are members of an ethnic minority are likely to have a complex identity development.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 428

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.3

 

  1. When you first met, your roommate told you that he was Native American. Other than him telling you that he was Native American, there really is little suggestion of his ethnicity. According to Phinney, what ethnic identity status has your roommate taken?
  2. assimilation

Correct. Assimilation involves adopting the way of life of the majority culture.

  1. marginality

Incorrect. Marginality is when one rejects his or her culture, but is also rejected by the majority culture.

  1. separation
  2. biculturalism

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 428

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are reading a story about an Aboriginal Native in Australia who rejected his ethnic culture to assimilate into the majority culture and is living in Melbourne. However, he is having difficulty in his new role since he is not being fully accepted by members of the majority culture. According to Phinney, what ethnic identity status has the character in this story taken?
  2. assimilation

Incorrect. Marginality is when one rejects his or her culture, but is also rejected by the majority culture.

  1. marginality

Correct. Marginality is when one rejects his or her culture, but is also rejected by the majority culture.

  1. separation
  2. biculturalism

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 428

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  44     a= 22  b= 44  c= 22  d= 11      r = .23

 

  1. A ____ is when an individual has one part of their identity rooted in their local culture while another part stems from an awareness of their relation to the global culture.
  2. split identity
  3. bicultural identity
  4. marginalized identity
  5. multi-identities

Answer: b

Page: 427

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.3

 

  1. An emerging adult who grows up in urban Mexico and combines the local culture, such as the importance of obligations to family, with elements of the global culture, such as using global media, is an example of ____.
  2. a hybrid identity

Incorrect. Hybrid identity is not a term that is used in the text.

  1. a bicultural identity

Correct. Is when an individual has one part of their identity rooted in their local culture while another part stems from an awareness of their relation to the global culture.

  1. a marginalized identity
  2. a multi-identities

Answer: a

Page: 427

Skill: B

Learning Objective: 9.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Phinney, what ethnic identity status involves associating only with members of one’s own ethnic group and rejecting the ways of the majority culture?
  2. assimilation

Incorrect. Marginality is when one rejects his or her culture, but is also rejected by the majority culture.

  1. marginality
  2. separation

Correct. Separation involves associating only with one’s own ethnic group.

  1. biculturalism

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 428

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.4, QR 9.3.3

 

  1. Which of the following terms best describe an ethnic group or ethnicity?
  2. African American, Chinese Canadian, Turkish Dutch

Correct. One’s ethnicity often includes his or her heritage as well as the culture in which he or she was raised.

  1. Black race, White race, and Asian race
  2. American citizen, Canadian citizen, Danish citizen

Incorrect. These terms describe one’s nationality, not ethnicity.

  1. genetic African, genetic Asian, genetic White

Answer: a

Page: 427

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ involves leaving behind the ways of one’s ethnic group and adopting the values and way of life of the majority culture, whereas ____ involves rejecting one’s culture of origin but also feeling rejected by the majority culture.
  2. Marginality; assimilation
  3. Assimilation; marginality
  4. Separation; biculturalism
  5. Biculturalism; separation

Answer: b

Page: 428

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.12

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your family is African American. Your brother is able to act in accordance with his ethnic background or with the majority culture when he deems it appropriate. He has developed a dual identity in this regard. According to Phinney, what ethnic identity status has your brother taken?
  2. assimilation
  3. marginality

Incorrect. Marginality is when one rejects his or her culture, but is also rejected by the majority culture. Your brother has a dual identity and both cultures accept him.

  1. separation
  2. biculturalism

Correct. Your brother has a dual identity and both cultures accept him.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 428

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Phinney, what ethnic identity status is the most common among Mexican Americans and Asian Americans, as well as some European minority groups such as Turkish individuals living in the Netherlands?
  2. assimilation
  3. marginality
  4. separation

Incorrect. Separation is when one only interacts with individuals from his or her own culture and rejects the ways of the majority culture.

  1. biculturalism

Correct. Biculturalism involves developing a dual identity, one based on the ethnic group of origin and one on the majority culture.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 428

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Phinney, what ethnic identity status is the most common among African American adolescents?
  2. assimilation
  3. marginality
  4. separation

Correct. Separation is most common among African American adolescents.

  1. biculturalism

Incorrect. Biculturalism is when one accepts both the ethnic and majority cultures. According to Phinney, the most common ethnic identity status for African American adolescents is separation.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 429

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Phinney, what ethnic identity status is the most common among Native American adolescents?
  2. assimilation
  3. marginality

Correct. Marginality is the most common identity status among Native American adolescents.

  1. separation
  2. biculturalism

Incorrect. Biculturalism is when one accepts both the ethnic and majority cultures. According to Phinney, the most common ethnic identity status for Native American adolescents is marginality.

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 429

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Recent research by Farver, Bhadha, and Narang (2002) found that adolescents from ethnic groups who are bicultural or assimilated have ____.
  2. higher self-esteem

Correct. Bicultural and assimilated ethnic adolescents have higher self-esteem.

  1. lower self-esteem
  2. difficulty with their own ethnic members

Incorrect. Bicultural and assimilated ethnic adolescents have higher self-esteem.

  1. difficulty fully engaging with the majority culture

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 429

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.4

 

  1. ____ is the approach that involves associating only with members of one’s own ethnic group and rejecting the ways of the majority culture, whereas _____ involves developing a dual identity, one based in the ethnic group of origin and one based in the majority culture.
  2. Marginality; assimilation
  3. Assimilation; marginality
  4. Separation; biculturalism
  5. Biculturalism; separation

Answer: c

Page: 428

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.5

 

  1. The results of the General Social Survey, an annual national survey of American adults, show a clear trend toward more ____ gender attitudes in recent decades.
  2. egalitarian
  3. polarized
  4. sexist
  5. discriminatory

Answer: a

Page: 429

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.13

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.4

 

  1. Results of the General Social Survey have found that what percentage of Americans believe that men should hold the power and be out in the world doing things while women should focus on caring for children and running the household?
  2. 15 to 20%
  3. 25 to 33%
  4. 40 to 45%
  5. 50 to 55%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 429

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.3.4

 

  1. You get irritated with some of your classmates during class discussions. Several of the males have attitudes that all women have specific characteristics, which you know is not accurate. What concept are they expressing?
  2. ignorance
  3. stereotype

Correct. Your male classmates are expressing a stereotype.

  1. gender Bias

Incorrect. Your male classmates are expressing a stereotype.

  1. sexism

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 430

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Gender schemas include beliefs about ____.
  2. objects
  3. people
  4. places
  5. groups

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: N/A

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Gender stereotypes include beliefs about ____.
  2. objects
  3. people
  4. places
  5. groups

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 430

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are a female college student in the late 1960s who participated in a study that asked you to evaluate the quality of several articles written by professionals in a variety of fields. Some of the articles were in stereotypically female fields and some were in stereotypically male fields. Even though the articles were exactly the sameRemember,me of them were stated to have been authored by men while others were authored by women. After the study was completed, you were able to view the results. What where they?
  2. Female authors were rated higher in stereotypically female fields.
  3. Male authors were rated higher in stereotypically male fields.
  4. Females were rated higher in all fields.

Incorrect. Even though the study participants were female, all of the supposedly male-authored articles were rated higher.

  1. Males were rated higher in all fields.

Correct. Even though the study participants were female, all of the supposedly male-authored articles were rated higher.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 430

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Current research has discovered that when rating a person’s behavior, if the behavior violates stereotypical gender expectations this may create a ____.
  2. “inconsistency effect”

Incorrect. If a person’s behavior violates stereotypical gender expectations, a “boomerang effect” may occur.

  1. “boomerang effect”

Correct. If a person’s behavior violates stereotypical gender expectations, a “boomerang effect” may occur.

  1. “gender-halo effect”
  2. “gender-compensation effect”

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: N/A

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A(n) _________ occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group.
  2. stereotype
  3. discrimination
  4. negative behaviors
  5. unconscious association

Answer: a

Page: 430

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.13

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.6

 

  1. Joe believes that females cannot be pilots and opposes the military’s use of women in combat. It is his belief that females are not strong enough, emotionally and physically, to perform the duties that are required to fly fighter jets. Joe’s belief that women are weak is ____.
  2. a stereotype

Correct. A stereotype occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group.

  1. a form of discrimination

Incorrect. Discrimination is an action or behavior based on a stereotype.

  1. a negative behavior
  2. an unconscious association

Answer: a

Page: 430

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.13

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.5

 

  1. According to the text, both religious participation and religious beliefs ____ throughout the teens and are ____ in the late teens and early twenties than at any other period of the life span.
  2. increase; higher
  3. increase; lower
  4. decline; higher
  5. decline; lower

Answer: d

Page: 431

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.14

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. From the research of Smith and Snell, which of the following best describes religious involvement for emerging adults in the United States?
  2. about 30% attended religious services at least once a month
  3. about 75% attended religious services at least once a month
  4. 50% attended religious services at least once a week
  5. 90% attended religious services at least once a week

Answer: a

Page: 431

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.14

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Smith and Snell found ____ among emerging adults to be related to ____ well-being and ____ rates of participation in a variety of risk behaviors.
  2. religious beliefs and participation; higher; lower
  3. religious beliefs and participation; lower; higher
  4. consistent moderate exercise; higher; lower
  5. consistent moderate exercise; lower; higher

Answer: a

Page: 431

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.14

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of American emerging adults reported that religious faith is “very” or “extremely” important in their lives?
  2. 22%
  3. 44%
  4. 66%
  5. 88%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 431

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.3.5

 

  1. What percentage of American emerging adults reported believing in God?
  2. 65%
  3. 75%
  4. 85%
  5. 95%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 431

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your roommate is Catholic and you and he have had some very involved and interesting conversations regarding religion. After many such discussions, you realize that although your roommate indicates that he is Catholic he really does not believe, practice, or adhere to much of Catholicism. From your knowledge of emerging adults, are his thoughts typical?
  2. No, most emerging adults’ religious thoughts are consistent with their denominations.

Incorrect. Your roommate’s thoughts are similar to most American emerging adults in that religious denominations do not hold much meaning.

  1. No, most emerging adults have no interest in religion.
  2. Yes, most emerging adults who align themselves with a religion do not necessarily agree with all the beliefs of that denomination.

Correct. Your roommate’s thoughts are similar to most American emerging adults in that religious denominations do not hold much meaning.

  1. Yes, most emerging adults are very religious.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 431

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Smith and Snell, American emerging adults tend to believe that what is most important about religion is the ____.
  2. belief in God and the encouragement to be a good person

Correct. American emerging adults believe that the most important aspect of religion is belief in God and the encouragement to be a better person.

  1. belief in helping each other become better people
  2. belief in God and making sure that all people follow along a strict view of what is right and wrong

Incorrect. American emerging adults believe that the most important aspect of religion is belief in God and the encouragement to be a better person.

  1. belief in denominational dogma and rules to seek salvation

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 431

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.7

 

  1. From the text, which of the following is an explanation of why emerging adults in Europe have a low rate of political participation?
  2. They are not granted the right to vote until age 30.

Incorrect. Similar to the United States, many countries in Europe have established age 18 as the legal age to vote.

  1. Younger individuals are not exposed to and taught the political system.
  2. They possess low levels of trust in political authorities and the political system.

Correct. Hooghe and Wilkenfeld (2008) found that in young people in eight European countries, low levels of trust in political authorities and political systems were consistent from adolescence through emerging adulthood.

  1. Democracy and freedom are new to many European countries.

Answer: c

Page: 432

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.15

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following individuals is more likely to be involved in political extremes, including protests, revolutionary movements, and terrorism?
  2. an individual who is in their late teens

Incorrect. The leaders of politically extreme groups are usually in midlife or later, but many of their most zealous followers are emerging adults.

  1. an individual who is in the stage of emerging adulthood

Correct. Emerging adults have often been involved in movements at the political extremes, including protests, revolutionary movements, and terrorism. The leaders of politically extreme groups are usually in midlife or later, but many of their most zealous followers are emerging adults.

  1. an individual who is closer to middle adulthood
  2. an individual who is in late adulthood

Answer: b

Page: 432

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.15

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In most countries what is the age when people first receive the right to vote?
  2. 16 years old
  3. 18 years old
  4. 20 years old
  5. 22 years old

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 432

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.6

 

  1. Your 27-year-old sister has been very involved in volunteer work since she graduated from high school. She has been involved with several different organizations. Is her behavior considerably different than other emerging adults?
  2. Yes, only 21% of emerging adults engage in volunteer work.
  3. Yes, only 41% of emerging adults engage in volunteer work.
  4. No, about 61% of emerging adults engage in volunteer work.

Incorrect. About 81% of emerging adults participate in volunteer work.

  1. No, about 81% of emerging adults participate in volunteer work.

Correct. About 81% of emerging adults participate in volunteer work.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 432

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.5

 

  1. The leaders of politically extreme groups are usually in midlife or older. Who are their most zealous followers?
  2. adolescents
  3. emerging adults
  4. young adults
  5. middle adults

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 432

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The collapse of communism began in Eastern Europe in 1989 and was initiated by ____.
  2. individuals in their late teens
  3. individuals in emerging adulthood
  4. individuals in middle adulthood
  5. individuals in late adulthood

Answer: b

Page: 433

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.15

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In most Western majority cultures, most young people move out of their parents’ home sometime during ____. In the United States, leaving home typically takes place around ages ____.
  2. emerging adulthood; 18–19
  3. emerging adulthood; 20–24
  4. young adulthood; 25–26
  5. young adulthood; 27–29

Answer: a

Page: 433

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.16

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Typically, relationships between parents and emerging adults ____ once the young person leaves home. Numerous studies have confirmed that emerging adults report ____.
  2. improve; greater closeness toward their parents after moving out

Correct. The majority of young adults have a positive relationship with their parents and it becomes better when separation occurs; the squabbles from adolescence have decreased in emerging adulthood greater autonomy.

  1. deteriorate; greater distance from their parents after moving out

Incorrect. This may be the stereotypical view of why some individuals move from the parents home; conflict.

  1. become worse; a desire to be separated from their parents
  2. are unchanged; neutral feelings to being separated from the parents

Answer: a

Page: 434

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.16

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.8, QR 9.3.6

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the feelings of an emerging adult and his or her parent(s) as the young person leaves the home?
  2. “absence makes the heart grow fonder”

Correct. The majority of young adults have a positive relationship with their parents and it becomes better when separation occurs; the squabbles from adolescence have decreased as emerging adulthood brings greater autonomy.

  1. “storm and stress, resistance and rebellion”

Incorrect. Most young people move out of the parents’ home to attend school, cohabit with a partner, or simply to become more independent; conflict is not usually a primary reason.

  1. “relief and good-riddance”
  2. “joy and exhilaration”

Answer: a

Page: 434

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.16

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is one of the most common reasons for leaving home as stated by emerging adults?
  2. going to college
  3. too much conflict at home with their parents
  4. getting away from irritating younger siblings
  5. parents insisted that the emerging adult move out

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 434

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The emerging adults who reported the highest levels of closeness to their parents and valued their parents’ opinions most highly were those who lived ____.
  2. in the same town and had daily contact
  3. at least an hour away by car
  4. in a different region of the country
  5. in a different country

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 434

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of American emerging adults “return to the nest” to live at least once after they initially left?
  2. 20%
  3. 40%
  4. 60%
  5. 80%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 435

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You finished college last year and have not been able to find a job yet. As a result, you moved back home with your parents. At first, you were worried that the transition back would cause considerable conflict, but it has not. Although you know that this is only a temporary situation, what is one of the most likely reasons that it is going well?
  2. Your parents recognize that you are an adult and are treating you that way.

Correct. The more parents treat their children who have moved back in with them as adults, the more likely the transition will go well.

  1. Your parents have imposed quite a few “rules” that you have to follow.
  2. You like being treated like a child again.

Incorrect. The more parents treat their children who have moved back in with them as adults, the more likely the transition will go well.

  1. Your parents are just pretending; they really resent you coming back home to live.

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 435

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.7

 

  1. In what developed countries do emerging adults tend to live with their parents longer than in the United States?
  2. South American countries
  3. African countries
  4. Asian countries
  5. European countries

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 435

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of Italians aged 15 to 24 live with their parents?
  2. 94%
  3. 74%
  4. 54%
  5. 34%

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 436

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.3.7

 

  1. According to the text, about ____ of American emerging adults “return to the nest” to live at least once after they leave.
  2. 10%
  3. 20%
  4. 40%
  5. 60%

Answer: c

Page: 435

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.16

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.9

 

  1. Which of the following, willingly and happily, will most likely live with his or her parents until their late twenties or early thirties?
  2. an emerging adult from Italy
  3. an emerging adult from the United States
  4. an emerging adult from Canada
  5. an emerging adult from Germany

Answer: a

Page: 436

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.16

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.6

 

  1. During emerging adulthood most individuals describe their friendships with others as being ____.
  2. especially close

Correct. Emerging adults (ages 18–20) described their friendships as involving more self-disclosure than the friendships described by early adolescents.

  1. few and far between

Incorrect. Many of the cliques that individuals have during adolescence continue to exist into emerging adulthood.

  1. nonexistent
  2. limited and unsatisfying

Answer: a

Page: 437

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.17

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ promoted emotional closeness for young women, whereas for young men ____ was/were usually the basis of feeling emotional closeness.
  2. An easy temperament; a difficult temperament
  3. A difficult temperament; an easy temperament
  4. Self-disclosure; shared activities
  5. Shared activities; self-disclosure

Answer: c

Page: 437

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.17

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  61     a= 5  b= 6  c= 61  d= 28      r = .20

 

  1. Which of the following is a common activity that emerging adults engage in with their friends?
  2. unstructured socializing

Correct. Much of their time together is unstructured socializing, in activities such as visiting each other informally and going out together. Some drink alcohol or use drugs together, and as we have seen earlier, unstructured socializing and substance use often take place together.

  1. media related activities

Incorrect. This is also very common but second to unstructured socializing.

  1. outdoors and camping activities
  2. fitness and leisure activities

Answer: a

Page: 436

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.17

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When asked to describe a time when they felt especially close to a friend, emerging adults (ages 18–20) were more likely than early adolescents (ages 12–13) to report times in which there was ____.
  2. more self-disclosure and more shared activities
  3. more self-disclosure and fewer shared activities
  4. fewer self-disclosure and more shared activities
  5. fewer self-disclosure and fewer shared activities

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 436

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Amalyeh and her college roommate, Caitlin, have a lot in common. They both were very active in athletics in high school and not only play on intramural teams now, but watch quite a bit of sports on television together. Even though Amalyeh spends a lot of time with Caitlin, she rarely tells her much about herself in terms of what she is thinking. As an emerging adult, how does Amalyeh likely feel about this?
  2. She would prefer more self-disclosure than shared activities.

Correct. Female emerging adults are more likely to indicate that they would prefer more self-disclosure and fewer shared activities.

  1. She likes it. Emerging adults preferred shared activities rather than self-disclosure.

Incorrect. Female emerging adults are more likely to indicate that they would prefer more self-disclosure and fewer shared activities.

  1. She likes it. As an emerging adult, your sister does not care to engage in self-disclosure.
  2. She likes it. The most important aspect for emerging adults is shared actitivies.

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 437

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Overall, leisure activities with friends ____ in the course of the twenties as emerging individuals transition into young and middle adulthood.
  2. decline steadily
  3. decline sharply
  4. increase steadily
  5. increase sharply

Answer: a

Page: 437

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.17

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.8

 

  1. A key part of emerging adulthood involves moving away from one’s family. According to the text, which of the following are three ways in which emerging adult move away from the family?
  2. geographicallyRemember,cially, and emotionally
  3. cognitivelyRemember,cially, and behaviorally
  4. emotionally, physically, and geographically
  5. physiologically, geographically, and spiritually

Answer: a

Page: 437

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.10

 

  1. Kulika is a Cambodian American in his early 30s. For the last five years he has provided for and taken care of his mother, who was unemployed due to an economic recession. Being recently married, he is ready to begin his new life as a husband and father. It is quite clear that he is torn between his old life, which involved his mother, and his new life, which involves his wife. From Jennifer Tanner’s (2006) stance on emerging adulthood, which of the following best describes Kulika’s situation?
  2. recentering

Correct. For adults, the center of their emotional lives is usually with a new family constellation, mainly a romantic partner, usually children as well. Emerging adulthood is when the change takes place, as the center of emotional life is transferred from the original family to a long-term romantic partner.

  1. renegotiating
  2. reevaluating

Incorrect. Kulika is in the process that Tanner describes as recentering, when the center of one’s emotional life transfers from the original family to a long-term romantic partner.

  1. re-assessing

Answer: a

Page: 437

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.18

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following best describes Jennifer Tanner’s principle of recentering?
  2. The center of emotional life is transferred from the original family to a long-term romantic partner.
  3. The center of emotional frustration is transferred from its original source to a secondary nonrelated source.
  4. During infancy the center of development is located within an individual’s genotype, but as time passes, environment plays a larger role, therefore moving the center of development.
  5. The typical American emerging adult is likely move back into his or her parents’ home at least once, thus recentering their everyday activities back to their childhood home and away from a dorm or shared apartment.

Answer: a

Page: 437

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.7

 

  1. What does Jennifer Tanner (2006) call moving away from one’s family, not just geographically, but socially and emotionally, and moving toward a new love partner in marriage or another long-term romantic partnership?
  2. disengagement
  3. family independence

Incorrect. Tanner calls this “recentering.”

  1. recentering

Correct. Tanner calls this “recentering.”

  1. recalibrating

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 437

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.3.8

% correct  94     a= 6  b= 0  c= 94  d= 0      r = .77

 

  1. People like to find in others a match that reaffirms their own way of looking at the world. This is referred to as ____.
  2. commonality
  3. consensual validation

Correct. Scholars refer to this as consensual validation.

  1. re-invention

Incorrect. Scholars refer to this as consensual validation.

  1. recalibrating

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 438

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States and Canada as well as in northern European countries, cohabitation before marriage is now experienced by at least ____ of emerging adults.
  2. 1/4
  3. 1/3
  4. 2/3
  5. 3/4

Answer: c

Page: 438

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, about ____ of 18- to- 23-year-olds report having had two or more partners in the past year.
  2. 1/4
  3. 1/3
  4. 2/3
  5. 3/4

Answer: b

Page: 439

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, about ____ of 18- to- 23-year-olds report having not had sex at all in the past year.
  2. 1/4
  3. 1/3
  4. 2/3
  5. 3/4

Answer: a

Page: 439

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. At the beginning of emerging adulthood, age 18, about ____ of Americans have had intercourse at least once, and by age 25 nearly ____ emerging adults have had intercourse at least once.
  2. 1/4; 1/2
  3. 1/2; all
  4. 3/4; all
  5. 90%; all

Answer: b

Page: 438

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.11

 

  1. What percentage of emerging adults in the United States, Canada, and in Northern European countries cohabit before marriage?
  2. 88%
  3. 66%
  4. 44%
  5. 22%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 438

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.9

 

  1. Nearly what percentage of emerging adults in Scandinavian countries cohabit before marriage?
  2. 100%
  3. 80%
  4. 60%
  5. 40%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 438

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your parents are concerned because your younger sister, who just turned 18 years old, told them that she is sexually active. What would you tell them?
  2. Her behavior is very uncommon, only 10% of adolescents have had sexual intercourse before age 18.
  3. Her behavior is fairly uncommon, only 25% of adolescents have had sexual intercourse before age 18.

Incorrect. Approximately half of individuals have had sexual intercourse before age 18 years of age.

  1. Her behavior is fairly common in that 50% of adolescents have had sexual intercourse before age 18.

Correct. Approximately half of individuals have had sexual intercourse before age 18 years of age.

  1. Her behavior is very common in that 80% of adolescents have had sexual intercourse before age 18.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 439

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. By age 25 years nearly what percentage of emerging adults have had sexual intercourse at least once?
  2. 100%
  3. 90%
  4. 80%
  5. 70%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 439

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Those emerging adults who remain virgins because they have chosen to wait rather than because they had no opportunity for sex are referred to as ____.
  2. accidental abstainers
  3. active abstainers
  4. sexual objectors
  5. religious conservatives

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 438

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.8

 

  1. Paul et al. (2000) found that what percentage of American emerging adult college students reported having at least one episode of “hooking up” that included sexual intercourse?
  2. 10%
  3. 30%
  4. 50%
  5. 70%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 439

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.3.9

 

  1. What percentage of emerging adults reported having consumed alcohol before their most recent sexual encounter?
  2. 10 to 15%
  3. 25 to 50%
  4. 60 to 75%
  5. 85 to 90%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 439

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your parents have made several comments to you regarding contraception. They believe that emerging adults are constantly engaging in sexual behaviors. You agree that you are typical of most emerging adults, but what statistic from the text can you give to clarify their perception? You can tell them that you are aware of contraceptive devices and that, generally speaking, only ____ of emerging adults report never using contraception.
  2. 10%

Correct. Only 10% of emerging adults report never using contraception.

  1. 25%

Incorrect. Only 10% of emerging adults report never using contraception.

  1. 40%
  2. 55%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 439

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.12

 

  1. Your sister’s female roommate has never engaged in premarital sexual intercourse because it is very much discouraged in her culture. Which of these countries is she most likely from?
  2. Norway
  3. United Kingdom
  4. Liberia

Incorrect. Liberia has a high rate of premarital sex.

  1. Japan

Correct. Japan has a low rate of premarital sex.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 440

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following countries have the lowest rate of premarital sex for the time periods of adolescence and emerging adulthood?
  2. North American countries
  3. African countries
  4. Asian countries

Incorrect. Ethnographic studies indicate that rates of premarital sex in Arab countries are even lower than in Asia because of the severe penalties for girls who violate the prohibition.

  1. Arab countries

Correct. Ethnographic studies indicate that rates of premarital sex in those countries are even lower than in Asia because of the severe penalties for girls who violate the prohibition.

Answer: d

Page: 440

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.9

% correct  94     a= 6  b= 0  c= 0  d= 94      r = .19

 

  1. AIDS has been most devastating in ____ Africa, where 10 of every 11 new HIV infections worldwide takes place.
  2. western
  3. central
  4. northern
  5. southern

Answer: d

Page: 441

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of STIs in the United States occur in people who are aged 15 to 24 years?
  2. 10%
  3. 30%
  4. 50%
  5. 70%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 440

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 22-year-old sister was horrified to learn that she contracted an STI that could potentially increase her risk of infertility. What are two STIs she could have?
  2. HIV and gonorrhea
  3. syphilis and hepatitis C

Incorrect. Two examples of STIs given in the text that increase the likelihood of infertility in women are chlamydia and human papilloma virus (HPV).

  1. herpes and trichomoniasis
  2. chlamydia and human papilloma virus

Correct. Two examples of STIs given in the text that increase the likelihood of infertility in women are chlamydia and human papilloma virus (HPV).

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 441

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 9.3.10

% correct 83      a= 0  b= 6  c= 11  d= 83      r = .17

 

  1. Your mother is really interested in your younger sister getting a vaccine that may prevent her from getting cervical cancer. What vaccine is she talking about?
  2. HIV vaccine
  3. Hep C vaccine
  4. HPV vaccine

Correct. HPV can lead to cervical cancer and how there is a vaccine for this virus.

  1. herpes vaccine

Incorrect. HPV can lead to cervical cancer and how there is a vaccine for this virus.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 441

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Where does 10 of every 11 new HIV infections occur?
  2. North America
  3. Asia
  4. Africa

Correct. Ten of every 11 new HIV infections occur in Africa.

  1. Europe

Incorrect. Ten of every 11 new HIV infections occur in Africa.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 441

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. For many emerging adults in Western countries the question of work and career revolves around ____.
  2. identity: “What do I really want to do?”

Correct. Work in emerging adulthood focuses on identity questions: What do I really want to do? What am I best at? What do I enjoy the most?

  1. finances: “How rich can I get?”

Incorrect. During this time period economic or financial power plays a smaller role in their life because most are still somewhat dependent upon their parents.

  1. altruism: “How can I help others?”
  2. religious faith: “Is this what God intends for me?”

Answer: a

Page: 442

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.19

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.13

 

  1. In regards to emerging adulthood, in both Europe and the United States unemployment has been found to be associated with ____.
  2. higher risk for depression
  3. higher risk for personality disorders
  4. higher risk for eating disorders
  5. higher risk for schizophrenic disorders

Answer: a

Page: 444

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.19

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your little brother is about to graduate from high school. He has no interest in furthering his education. You are trying to let him know that it is crucial that he has some form of tertiary education. Why is tertiary education so important?
  2. Jobs have moved from manufacturing to information-, technology-, and service-related jobs that require additional education.

Correct. There are very few manufacturing jobs. Most of the jobs available are information-, technology-, or services-based positions that require tertiary education.

  1. A solid liberal arts education is important in becoming a responsible citizen.
  2. There are so many manufacturing jobs that he will need to have more experience to land these types of positions.

Incorrect. There are very few manufacturing jobs. Most of the jobs available are information-, technology-, or services-based positions that require tertiary education.

  1. Your brother will need to be able to understand the complex society in which he will be living.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 443

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States, from 1973 to 1986 the average income of male high school graduates aged 20 to 24 ____.
  2. increased by 42%
  3. increased by 28%
  4. decreased by 42%
  5. decrease by 28%

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 442

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are involved in the Big Brother/Big Sister program. Your “little” just told you that he is considering dropping out of high school. You are horrified that he would consider doing this. What is one of the reasons that this is going to be a huge problem for him? The average salary for high school dropouts has ____.
  2. only increased by 12% over the last half-century
  3. only increased by 5% over the last half-century
  4. decreased by 28% over the last half-century

Incorrect. Income for high-school dropouts has decreased by 42% during the last half-century.

  1. decreased by 42% over the last half-century

Correct. Income for high-school dropouts has decreased by 42% during the last half-century.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 443

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Murnane and Levy (1997) found that what percentage of 17-year-olds cannot read or do math at the level needed to perform the types of new jobs that are being created today?
  2. 50%
  3. 35%
  4. 20 %
  5. 5%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 443

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following are three criteria for unemployment?
  2. not in school, not working, and looking for a job
  3. in school, not working, and not looking for a job
  4. not in school, working part-time, and looking for another part-time job
  5. in vocational training, working part-time, not looking for a job

Answer: a

Page: 444

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.19

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In both Europe and the United States, the unemployment rate is ____ for emerging adults as compared to adults beyond age 25 years.
  2. 25% higher
  3. 75% higher
  4. 100% higher
  5. 200% higher

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 444

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 24-year-old neighbor has been living by himself since his mother and father moved across country. He has tried very hard to find a job, but he is still unemployed. As a result, he is probably ____.
  2. bored
  3. antisocial
  4. depressed

Correct. Unemployment is a risk factor for depression.

  1. angry

Incorrect. Unemployment is a risk factor for depression.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 444

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 9.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.14

 

  1. The proportion of African Americans obtaining a college degree is what percentage as high as for Whites?
  2. 90%
  3. 70%
  4. 50%
  5. 30%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 444

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the World Internet Project, what percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds reported using the Internet?
  2. 90%
  3. 80%
  4. 70%
  5. 60%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 446

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A study of college students in the United Kingdom found a negative correlation between the number of hours per week spent online and ____.
  2. socializing
  3. grades

Correct. The study found a negative relationship between the number of hours per week spent online and grades. As the number of hours online increased, grades decreased.

  1. exercising

Incorrect. The study found a negative relationship between the number of hours per week spent online and grades. As the number of hours online increased, grades decreased.

  1. extramural activities

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 446

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 9.3.10

 

  1. Over 80% of 18- to 24-year-olds report using the Internet. Emerging adults use the Internet for various reasons. Several studies have found that there is a relationship between Internet use and other factors. Which of the following best their findings?
  2. A negative correlation exists between heavy Internet use and academic performance; as Internet use increased, academic performance decreased.

Correct. One study of college students in the UK found a negative correlation between grade performance and hours per week spent online (Englander et al., 2010). Another study, of Chinese college students, found that heavy Internet use (more than 15 hours a week) was related to poorer academic performance as well as to symptoms of depression (Huang et al., 2009).

  1. A negative correlation exists between heavy Internet use and academic performance; as Internet use increased, academic performance increased.
  2. A positive correlation exists between heavy Internet use and academic performance; as Internet use increased, academic performance increased.

Incorrect. One study of college students in the UK found a negative correlation between grade performance and hours per week spent online (Englander et al., 2010). Another study, of Chinese college students, found that heavy Internet use (more than 15 hours a week) was related to poorer academic performance as well as to symptoms of depression (Huang et al., 2009).

  1. A positive correlation exists between heavy Internet use and academic performance; as Internet use decreased, academic performance decreased.

Answer: a

Page: 446

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 9.20

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 9.3.10

 

  1. Among 18- to 29-year-olds in the United States, what percentage use social networking websites?
  2. 84%
  3. 72%
  4. 60%
  5. 48%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 446

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the number one use of the Internet as measured by the number of hits, the number of websites, or the amount of money spent?
  2. dating
  3. social networking
  4. pornography
  5. information gathering/learning

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 446

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In a study of college students at six sites around the country, what percentage of young men reported viewing Internet pornography?
  2. 87%
  3. 77%
  4. 67%
  5. 57%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 446

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In a study of college students at six sites around the country, what percentage of young women reported viewing Internet pornography?
  2. 71%
  3. 51%
  4. 31%
  5. 11%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 446

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 9.3.15

 

  1. In the United States what percentage of 18- to 19-year-olds own a cell phone?
  2. 93%
  3. 83%
  4. 73%
  5. 63%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 447

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A study of Japanese adolescents found that more than half of those who owned a cell phone sent at least how many text messages a day to their friends?
  2. 130
  3. 90
  4. 50
  5. 10

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 447

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your college roommate, like most of your friends, uses her cell phone to text quite a bit. If she is like the average college student, how many text messages a week would she send to her parents?
  2. 33
  3. 23
  4. 13
  5. 3

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 447

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 9.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Use two of Marcia’s identity statuses to explain the political beliefs and/or behavior of emerging adults (your answer may include political extremism of terrorism or protests).

Answer: A person with a foreclosed identity accepts the political beliefs of his parents or other authority figures without question. For example, a child raised to hate others who hold different political beliefs may be groomed to be part of a terrorist movement and may believe that he is doing what is right. A person in moratorium has not made a commitment to a political ideology, but is actively exploring different possibilities. She might take part in political demonstrations as a means of learning more about her own views and that of the particular political group. She may or may not adopt those political views, but is less likely to take part in demonstrations later in life due to time constraints, more responsibilities.

Page: 424 and 432

Learning Objective: 9.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Are people who cohabit before marriage more or less likely to get divorced? Explain.

Answer: They are at increased risk for divorce for a number of possible reasons: they are, on average, more accepting of divorce, they are less religious, and/or they may feel pressured to get married simply because they have been living together for a while (and that’s the expected next step).

Page: 438

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Are rates of STIs higher or lower in emerging adulthood than they are in adolescence? Give one reason why this is the case.

Answer: Rates are higher in emerging adulthood than in adolescence, mainly because of higher rates of recreational sex (hooking up) that often involve alcohol, compromising their ability to use contraception.

Page: 439-440

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. When emerging adults in the U.S. are asked how they ended up in their current job, what is likely to be a typical response? Do you think this is going to change in future generations?

Answer: Most say they “fell into” their current job; it is often not a systematic path of exploration.

Page: 442

Learning Objective: 9.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Emerging adults of which ethnicity are most likely to be unemployed in the U.S.? If you are a male from this ethnic background, would you be more or less likely to be unemployed than your grandfather of the same ethnicity? Explain.

Answer: African Americans are most likely to be unemployed (followed by Latinos). You would be more likely to be unemployed than your grandfather because of shifting employment patterns. African Americans are more likely to drop out of high school and less likely to graduate from college than their European American counterparts and these days jobs require technical skills rather than unskilled labor.

Page: 444-445

Learning Objective: 9.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Discuss the trends of leaving home among emerging adults of different ethnic backgrounds in the U.S. How does this compare to those in European countries? Include pros and cons of “leaving the nest” in your answer.

Answer: Most European Americans move leave home in their early 20s, but it is much more common among Latinos, Blacks and Asian Americans. Reasons include more emphasis on family as well as higher unemployment among African Americans and Latinos.

– About 40% of emerging adults return home after leaving, usually this is an economic way to figure out what to do next during a time of many transitions. Emerging adults in European countries live with parents longer (especially those in Italy), but they are less likely than their American counterparts to see this as a problem.

-Pros of leaving include more independence and opportunities to explore new places; cons include higher conflict and less privacy.

Page: 434-436

Learning Objective: 9.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. When it comes to romantic partners, do “opposites attract” or “do birds of a feather flock together?” Cite research to support your answer and explain why.

Answer: -Birds of a feather flock together for individuals in emerging adulthood as well as for those in others points of the life span. Relationships that last tend to be similar in personality, ethnicity, religion, intelligence, and physical attractiveness.

-Similarity breeds content because of consensual validation, the feeling that others who are the same on a number of characteristics reaffirms the way people see the world.

Page: 437-438

Learning Objective: 9.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 9.3.1.          Self-esteem increases as individuals leave adolescence. Which of the following is a physiological factor that has been shown to boost self-esteem?

  1. developing career goals
  2. establishing a self-concept
  3. the end of puberty
  4. graduating from secondary school

Answer: c

Page: 424

 

Pre 9.3.2.          When does identity achievement occur for most people?

  1. middle childhood
  2. adolescence
  3. emerging adulthood
  4. young adulthood

Answer: c

Page: 425

 

Pre 9.3.3.          When an individual has one part of his or her identity rooted in his or her local culture while another part stems from an awareness of his or her relation to the global culture, what type of identity does he or she have?

  1. split
  2. bicultural
  3. marginalized
  4. multi-identities

Answer: b

Page: 427

 

Pre 9.3.4.          The General Social Survey has found a clear trend toward more ____ gender attitudes in recent decades.

  1. egalitarian
  2. polarized
  3. sexist
  4. discriminatory

Answer: a

Page: 429

 

Pre 9.3.5.          You have been very involved in volunteer work with several different organizations since you graduated from high school. Is your behavior considerably different from other emerging adults?

  1. Yes, only 21% of emerging adults engage in volunteer work.
  2. Yes, only 41% of emerging adults engage in volunteer work.
  3. No, about 61% of emerging adults engage in volunteer work.
  4. No, about 81% of emerging adults participate in volunteer work.

Answer: d

Page: 432

 

Pre 9.3.6.          Which of the following would most likely willingly and happily live with his or her parents until their late twenties or early thirties?

  1. an emerging adult from the United States
  2. an emerging adult from Italy
  3. an emerging adult from Canada
  4. an emerging adult from Germany

Answer: b

Page: 436

 

Pre 9.3.7.          You have been studying Jennifer Tanner’s theory regarding recentering. After examining her notions regarding emerging adults and others, how would you define recentering?

  1. The center of emotional life is transferred from the original family to a long-term romantic partner.
  2. The center of emotional frustration is transferred from its original source to a secondary nonrelated source.
  3. During infancy the center of development is located within an individual’s genotype, but as time passes, environment plays a larger role, therefore moving the center of development.
  4. The center for physical development is located in the nucleus of all cells; however, cancer cells infiltrate and modify the nuclei of healthy cells, transferring the location of cellular development.

Answer: a

Page: 437

 

Pre 9.3.8.          Emerging adults who remain virgins because they have chosen to wait rather than because they had no opportunity for sex are referred to as ____.

  1. religious zealots
  2. active abstainers
  3. sexual objectors
  4. accidental abstainers

Answer: b

Page: 438

 

Pre 9.3.9.          Which countries have the lowest rates of premarital sex in adolescence and emerging adulthood?

  1. North American countries
  2. Asian countries
  3. Arab countries
  4. African countries

Answer: c

Page: 440

 

Pre 9.3.10.        Your 23-year-old female cousin just learned that she contracted an STI that could potentially increase the risk of infertility? What are two STIs she could have?

  1. HIV and gonorrhea
  2. syphilis and Hepatitis C
  3. chlamydia and human papilloma virus
  4. herpes and trichomoniasis

Answer: c

Page: 441

 

Post-Test

 

Post 9.3.1.        Self-esteem ______ during adolescence and then _____ during emerging adulthood

  1. plateaus; declines
  2. rises; plateaus
  3. rises; declines
  4. declines; rises

Answer: c

Page: 422

 

Post 9.3.2.        The term identity crisis was used by Erikson to describe the process through which young people construct their identity, but Marcia and other current scholars prefer what term?

  1. confusion
  2. emergency
  3. exploration
  4. development

Answer: c

Page: 425

 

Post 9.3.3.        Since ethnic minorities have to confront ethnic identity issues, the identity development of adolescents and emerging adults who are members of ethnic minorities is likely to be more ____.

  1. diffused
  2. complex
  3. disrupted
  4. simplified

Answer: b

Page: 428

 

Post 9.3.4.        Farver et al. (2002) found that adolescents from ethnic groups who are bicultural or assimilated have ____.

  1. higher self-esteem
  2. lower self-esteem
  3. difficulty with their own ethnic groups
  4. difficulty fully engaging with the majority culture

Answer: a

Page: 429

 

Post 9.3.5.        Your cousin believes that females cannot be pilots and opposes the military’s use of women in combat. It is his belief that females are not strong enough, emotionally and physically, to perform the duties that are required to fly fighter jets. Your cousin’s belief that women are weak is ____.

  1. discrimination
  2. a negative behavior
  3. an unconscious association
  4. a stereotype

Answer: d

Page: 430

 

Post 9.3.6.        When do people in most countries first receive the right to vote?

  1. 15 years of age
  2. 18 years of age
  3. 21 years of age
  4. 24 years of age

Answer: b

Page: 432

 

Post 9.3.7.        You have been very interested in the dynamic of emerging adults moving back home with their parents. You have found that most emerging adults move back home because of difficulties finding employment in this troublesome economic climate. After examining quite a bit of research on this topic you find that the transition back home for most emerging adults rarely causes much conflict. Why?

  1. Parents recognize that their emerging adults are adults and treat them as adults.
  2. Emerging adults like being treated like a child again.
  3. Parents impose quite a few “rules” that have to be followed.
  4. Parents are just pretending, they really resent their children returning back home.

Answer: a

Page: 435

 

Post 9.3.8.        As emerging adults transition into young and middle adulthood, what happens to leisure activities with friends?

  1. it declines sharply
  2. it declines steadily
  3. In increases steadily
  4. It increases sharply

Answer: b

Page: 437

 

Post 9.3.9.        In the United States, Canada, and Northern European countries, what percentage of emerging adults cohabit before marriage?

  1. 22%
  2. 44%
  3. 66%
  4. 88%

Answer: c

Page: 438

 

Post 9.3.10.      A negative correlation was found between the number of hours per week spent online and _________ in a study of college students in the United Kingdom.

  1. socializing
  2. exercising
  3. grades
  4. extramural activities

Answer: c

Page: 446

 

Chapter Exam

 

CE 9.3.1.          What happens to self-esteem for most people during emerging adulthood?

  1. It declines abruptly.
  2. It declines gradually.
  3. It rises.
  4. It remains at the same level as adolescence.

Answer: c

Page: 423

 

CE 9.3.2.          Most people in emerging adulthood move toward making definite, long-term choices in ____.

  1. areas in which to live
  2. where to attend college
  3. love and work
  4. starting a family

Answer: c

Page: 424

 

CE 9.3.3.          Limitations in terms of exploring options in love and work are narrower for ____.

  1. Boys in traditional cultures
  2. Girls in traditional cultures
  3. Boys in developed countries
  4.         Girls in developed countries

Answer: b

Page: 427

 

CE 9.3.4.          What ethnic identity status involves associating only with member of one’s own ethnic group and rejecting the way of the majority culture?

  1. separation
  2. assimilation
  3. marginality
  4. biculturalism

Answer: a

Page: 428

 

CE 9.3.5.          What approach involves developing a dual identity, one based in the ethnic group of origin and one based in the majority culture?

  1. separation
  2. assimilation
  3. marginality
  4. biculturalism

Answer: d

Page: 428

 

CE 9.3.6.          What is defined as when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group?

  1. discrimination
  2. stereotype
  3. negative behaviors
  4. unconscious association

Answer: b

Page: 430

 

CE 9.3.7.          Emerging adults in the United States tend to believe that the most important aspect of religion is the ____.

  1. belief in God and the encouragement to be a good person
  2. belief in helping each other become better people
  3. belief in God and to making sure that all people follow along a strict view of what is right and wrong
  4. belief in denominational dogma and rules to seek salvation

Answer: a

Page: 431

 

CE 9.3.8.          What happens to the relationship between parents and emerging adults once the young person leaves home?

  1. It deteriorates.
  2. It improves.
  3. It progressively declines.
  4. Is remains essentially the same.

Answer: b

Page: 434

 

CE 9.3.9.          Approximately what percentage of American emerging adults “return to the nest” of their parents’ house at least once to live there after they initially left?

  1. 10%
  2. 20%
  3. 40%
  4. 60%

Answer: c

Page: 435

 

CE 9.3.10.        During emerging adulthood individuals move away from their family. According to the text, which of the following three ways do emerging adults move away from the family?

  1. cognitivelyRemember,cially, and behaviorally
  2. emotionally, physically, and geographically
  3. geographicallyRemember,cially, and emotionally
  4. physiologically, geographically, and spiritually

Answer: c

Page: 437

 

CE 9.3.11.        At age 18 years, the beginning of emerging adulthood, ____ of Americans have had intercourse at least once, and by age 25 nearly ____ emerging adults have had intercourse

  1. 50%; all
  2. 75%; all
  3. 25%; 75%
  4. 25%; 50%

Answer: a

Page: 438

 

CE 9.3.12.        What percentage of emerging adults report never using contraception?

  1. 20%
  2. 15%
  3. 10%
  4. 5%

Answer: c

Page: 439

 

CE 9.3.13.        In Western countries, what does the question of work and career revolve around for many emerging adults?

  1. Identity: “What do I really want to do?”
  2. Finances: “How rich can I get?”
  3. Altruism: “How can I help others?”
  4. Religious faith: “Is this what God intends for me?”

Answer: a

Page: 442

 

CE 9.3.14.        Your sister is 24 years old, lives by herself, and although she has tried very hard to find a job, she is still unemployed. As a result, she is at a higher risk for ____.

  1. boredom
  2. depression
  3. antisocial behavior
  4. anger

Answer: b

Page: 444

 

CE 9.3.15.        What percentage of female college students reported viewing Internet pornography?

  1. 31%
  2. 41%
  3. 51%
  4. 61%

Answer: a

Page: 446

 

Quick Review

 

QR 9.3.1.         Self-esteem increases as individuals leave adolescence. Which of the following is a social factor that has been shown to boost self-esteem?

  1. developing career goals
  2. establishing a self-concept
  3. the end of puberty
  4. graduating from secondary school

Answer: d

Page: 424

 

QR 9.3.2.         According to James Marcia, which identity status involves the individual lacking both exploration of and commitment to an identity?

  1. foreclosure
  2. moratorium
  3. diffusion
  4. achievement

Answer: c

Page: 425

 

QR 9.3.3.         What ethnic identity status involves associating only with members of one’s own ethnic group and rejecting the ways of the majority culture?

  1. assimilation
  2. separation
  3. marginality
  4. biculturalism

Answer: b

Page: 428

 

QR 9.3.4.         The General Social Survey found that what percentage of Americans believe that men should hold the power and be out in the world doing things while women should focus on caring for children and running the household?

  1. 25 to 33%
  2. 40 to 45%
  3. 53 to 58%
  4. 65 to 70%

Answer: a

Page: 429

 

QR 9.3.5.         When asked how important religious faith is to them, what percentage of American emerging adults reported that religious faith was “very” or “extremely” important?

  1. 77%
  2. 66%
  3. 55%
  4. 44%

Answer: d

Page: 431

 

QR 9.3.6.         In terms of the relationship between emerging adults and their parents, many studies have shown that emerging adults report ____.

  1. greater psychological distance from their parents after moving out
  2. greater closeness toward their parents after moving out
  3. a desire to be separated from their parents
  4. neutral feelings toward being separated from the parents

Answer: b

Page: 434

 

QR 9.3.7.         According to the text, what percentage of Italians aged 15 to 24 years of age live with their parents?

  1. 94%
  2. 74%
  3. 54%
  4. 34%

Answer: a

Page: 436

 

QR 9.3.8.         According to Jennifer Tanner (2006), what is happening when one moves away from one’s family, not just geographically, but socially and emotionally, toward a partner in marriage or another long-term romantic partnership?

  1. disengagement
  2. recentering
  3. family independence
  4. recalibrating

Answer: b

Page: 437

 

QR 9.3.9.         What percentage of American emerging adult college students reported having at least one episode of “hooking up” that included sexual intercourse (Paul, McManus, Hayes, 2000)?

  1. 70%
  2. 50%
  3. 30%
  4. 10%

Answer: c

Page: 439

 

QR 9.3.10.         A large number (over 80%) of 18- to 24-year-olds report using the Internet. Several studies have found that there is a relationship between Internet use and other factors. Which of the following best describes their findings?

  1. A negative correlation exists between heavy Internet use and academic performance; as Internet use increased, academic performance increased.
  2. A positive correlation exists between heavy Internet use and academic performance; as Internet use increased, academic performance increased.
  3. A negative correlation exists between heavy Internet use and academic performance; as Internet use increased, academic performance decreased.
  4. A positive correlation exists between heavy Internet use and academic performance; as Internet use decreased, academic performance decreased.

Answer: c

Page: 446

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What are the common themes mentioned by the individuals interviewed in this video regarding their use of media and technology?

Answer: Most of the individuals in this video mentioned that they rely on various forms of media. There were several interviewed in this video who watch TV and listen to music.  Many of the emerging adults made references to not being able to live without their cell phones. Many of the emerging adults stated that technology helps them stay connected with friends and family.

Learning Objective: 9.20

 

  1. The U.S. emerging adult interviewed in this video mentions a heavy reliance on Facebook as a “tool” to stay connected. Do you feel this use of social media is typical among most Americans his age?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Learning Objective: 9.20

 

  1. The narrator and emerging adults mention several forms of technology and media use. Which of these forms do you rely on the most? How has this changed over the past year; five years; ten years?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Learning Objective: 9.20

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. According to the first interviewed female in this video, what could she not live without?
  2. her karaoke machine
  3. her computer
  4. her TV
  5. her cell phone

Answer: D

 

  1. The car salesman from the US that was interviewed in this video has a weekend job. What is that weekend job?
  2. a DJ
  3. a worker at a fast-food restaurant
  4. a retail store manager
  5. a health care worker

Answer: A

 

  1. The car salesman from the US describes Facebook as a _________ for him.
  2. hassle
  3. stressor
  4. tool
  5. game

Answer: C

Practice Test Questions from the

 

  1. In emerging adulthood
  2. rates of residential change in American society are much higher at ages 18–29 than at any other period of life.
  3. there is a sense of optimism about being able to “get where I want to be in life” among those from individualistic cultures, but not for those from collectivistic cultures.
  4. the focus on self-exploration means that individuals are more egocentric than their adolescent counterparts.
  5. the feeling “in-between” is unique to those in the United States and Canada because emerging adults in other cultures tend to remain at home rather than moving out.

ANS: A (L.O. 9.1) p. 404

 

  1. Emerging adults who live in ______________ would emphasize becoming capable of supporting parents financially as among the most important criteria for becoming an adult.
  2. Canada
  3. Japan
  4. the United States
  5. Europe

ANS: B (L.O. 9.2) p. 406

 

  1. Which of the following is true of emerging adults’ health?
  2. Most emerging adults experience an increased susceptibility to physical illness due to the increased stressors associated with this developmental period.
  3. For most sports, the peak age of performance comes during adolescence and athletic abilities begin to decline in the early twenties.
  4. During emerging adulthood the immune system is weak.
  5. The heart is strong during emerging adulthood and reaction time is faster than at any other time of life.

ANS: D (L.O.9.3) p. 407

 

  1. Which of the following statements best summarizes the current research on sleep patterns of emerging adults?
  2. The research showing delayed sleep phase syndrome and sleep debt is based almost exclusively on low-income emerging adults who work full-time rather than attending college.
  3. The preference of being a morning person versus a night person changes with age due to increased levels of cortisol.
  4. Sleep debt has negative consequences for both cognitive and emotional functioning.
  5. Students who stayed up all night before exams thought they did worse than their peers who got a full-night’s sleep.

ANS: C (L.O. 9.4) p. 408

 

  1. Researchers who study young drivers have found that
  2. increased parental monitoring does not reduce automobile accidents because adolescents spend so much time with their friends.
  3. driving curfews have been found to reduce their crash involvement dramatically.
  4. inexperience is the only factor found to be significantly correlated with accidents and fatalities.
  5. the best way to reduce automobile accidents and fatalities is for parents to encourage their children to gain more experience driving with their friends who have taken driver’s education and who will serve as role models for safe driving.

ANS: B (L.O.9.5) p. 412

 

  1. Binge drinking
  2. peaks in emerging adulthood in the United States, but not in Europe where adolescents are often allowed to drink alcohol with their meals.
  3. has not been studied longitudinally because of the difficulty getting IRB approval to ask about alcohol use among high school students.
  4. is highest among single mothers in their early twenties who do not go to college.
  5. is more likely among emerging adults than those in other age groups because they spend more time in unstructured socializing.

ANS: D (L.O. 9.6) p. 413

 

  1. Dialectical thought
  2. relies strictly on emotion in solving real-life problems.
  3. has been found to characterize emerging adults in individualistic cultures more than those in collectivistic cultures.
  4. refers to the need for explaining human actions in terms of logical principles.
  5. involves the growing awareness that problems often have no clear-cut solution.

ANS: D (L.O.9.7) p. 417

 

  1. Reflective judgment
  2. is a synonym for dualism.
  3. increases over time for all emerging adults as a result of maturation, regardless of their educational background or the skills required in their job.
  4. is more likely to characterize students in their first year of college than those in their senior year because first-year college students are more open to new ideas.
  5. is more likely to develop in cultures that value pluralism.

ANS: D (L.O. 9.8) p. 418

 

  1. An emerging adult from ______________ would be most likely to express the following sentiment upon first entering college: “In many ways, college is easier than high school; it’s a relief to spend less time on homework and to have more time to explore my options.”
  2. Canada
  3. Japan
  4. the United States
  5. Germany

ANS: B (L.O. 9.9) p. 420

 

  1. Research has shown that over the course of the college years,
  2. students become more authoritarian in their political and social views.
  3. students become less ethnocentric in their political and social views.
  4. females obtain mostly academic benefits, whereas males obtain nonacademic benefits.
  5. males become more confident socially, whereas females report a slight decrease in social confidence.

ANS: B (L.O. 9.10) p. 422

 

  1. For most people, self-esteem
  2. rises during emerging adulthood.
  3. declines during emerging adulthood.
  4. stays about the same as it was in adolescence.
  5. declines during the first half of emerging adulthood and increases in later emerging adulthood.

ANS: A (L.O. 9.11) p. 423

 

  1. Which of the following ethnic identity statuses is reflected in the idea of the American “melting pot?”
  2. assimilation
  3. marginality
  4. separation
  5. biculturalism

ANS: A (L.O. 9.12) p. 428

 

  1. Which of the following is true of gender-related evaluations of work?
  2. Generally, research indicates that college students often evaluate women’s work performance more favorably than men’s.
  3. College students evaluate work done by someone of their own gender higher than work done by someone of the opposite gender.
  4. Some studies have found that evaluations can be especially harsh when a person’s behavior violates stereotypical gender expectations.
  5. Gender-related evaluations do not depend on characteristics of the evaluators, such as their age.

ANS: C (L.O. 9.13) p. 430

 

  1. Which of the following best describes religious beliefs in emerging adulthood?
  2. There is an overall decline in religious behavior, but not religious beliefs from adolescence to emerging adulthood.
  3. Emerging adults are not tolerant of religious differences.
  4. In emerging adulthood, religious beliefs are highly individualized.
  5. Emerging adults place great emphasis on the religious doctrine of their faith.

ANS: C (L.O. 9.14) p. 431

 

  1. Which of the following is true of emerging adults’ political beliefs?
  2. Unlike their counterparts in Canada or Western Europe, emerging adults’ political participation is very low in the United States.
  3. Emerging adults tend to see the activities of political parties as highly relevant to their lives.
  4. Emerging adults tend to be skeptical of the motivations of politicians.
  5. Emerging adults tend to have higher conventional political participation compared to previous generations of young people.

ANS: C (L.O. 9.15) p. 432

 

  1. ______________ are most likely to be living on their own rather than with their parents in their early twenties.
  2. Latinos
  3. African Americans
  4. White Americans
  5. Asian Americans

ANS: C (L.O. 9.16) p. 434

 

  1. Leisure activities with friends
  2. decline steadily in the course of the twenties.
  3. decline for women, but not for men in the course of the twenties.
  4. increase slightly in the course of the twenties.
  5. stay at about the same level in the course of the twenties as they were during adolescence.

ANS: A (L.O. 9.17) p. 437

 

  1. Male emerging adults are more likely than females to
  2. have negative attitudes toward recreational sex.
  3. suffer severe punishments if they have premarital sex.
  4. be willing to have intercourse with someone they have known for only a few hours.
  5. have sex in the context of a close romantic relationship.

ANS: C (L.O. 9.18) p. 439

 

  1. Based on Murnane and Levy’s (1997) research, which of the following is NOT considered one of the six basic skills necessary for success at the most promising new jobs available to high school graduates in the changing economy?
  2. being able to communicate in writing
  3. being able to collaborating in diverse groups
  4. being able to read at the ninth-grade level or higher
  5. being able to conduct statistical analyses

ANS: D (L.O. 9.19) p. 443

 

  1. Based on the current research, which is a true statement about media use in emerging adulthood?
  2. In all countries, Internet use is higher among adolescents than among emerging adults because increased responsibilities among emerging adults reduce time they can spend online.
  3. Social networking profiles are a way for individuals to express their identity.
  4. Most emerging adults prefer face-to-face interactions to social contact via the Internet, therefore, use of social networking sites has decreased in the past few years as the novelty has worn off.
  5. Cross-cultural research has shown that more women than men view pornography on the Internet.

ANS: B (L.O. 9.20) p. 446

 

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Human Development A Cultural Approach 1st Edition Arnett Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *