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Human Development A Life Span View 6th Edition Kail Cavanaugh Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111834111

ISBN-10: 1111834113

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Human Development A Life Span View 6th Edition Kail Cavanaugh Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111834111

ISBN-10: 1111834113

 

 

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Chapter 8—Rites of Passage: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. ____ is best defined as physical changes that mark the transition from childhood to young adulthood.
a. Puberty c. Primary circular reactions
b. Menopause d. Secondary circular reactions

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The two general types of physical development associated with puberty include
a. lower self-esteem and bodily changes.
b. bodily changes and sexual maturation.
c. sexual maturation and formal operational thinking.
d. formal operational thinking and lower self-esteem.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. From whom would you expect the biggest gains in height and weight over the next three years?
a. Ginger, who is 2 years old c. Tina, who is 11 years old
b. Grant, who is 6 years old d. Louise, who is 14 years old

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Who would be most likely to have just achieved close to her full adult stature?
a. Meg, who is 12 years old c. Joanne, who is 18 years old
b. Beth, who is 15 years old d. Amy, who is 21 years old

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. In a typically developing adolescent experiencing puberty, you would expect that his or her ____ would be the last body area to grow.
a. head c. legs
b. feet d. trunk

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. A sex difference during puberty involves the fact that ____ is greater for girls than boys.
a. muscle development c. lung capacity
b. body fat d. heart capacity

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. During adolescence,
a. both brain myelination and synaptic pruning first begin.
b. brain myelination first begins and synaptic pruning nears completion.
c. brain myelination nears completion and synaptic pruning first begins.
d. both brain myelination and synaptic pruning near completion.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The maturation of the _____ lobe during adolescence is related to improvements in inhibiting of behaviors.
a. parietal c. temporal
b. frontal d. occipital

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Primary sex characteristic changes are those directly impacting
a. reproduction. c. intelligence.
b. height. d. personality.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which adolescent is experiencing a change in his primary sex characteristics?
a. Peter, who now has facial hair
b. Saul, who has begun to produce sperm
c. Andrew, who has begun to talk in a deeper voice
d. James, who now has broader shoulders

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. How many of the following adolescents are experiencing a change in primary sex characteristics: Larry, who has acquired the ability to ejaculate; Curly, who is producing sperm; Moe, who is experiencing growth of his scrotum?
a. 0 c. 2
b. 1 d. 3

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. During puberty, changes in physical maturity that are not directly linked to reproduction are referred to as ____ sex characteristics.
a. primary c. tertiary
b. secondary d. instrumental

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. How many of the following are considered secondary sex characteristics: growth of facial hair in boys, development of a functional uterus in girls, voice change in boys, broadening of shoulders in girls?
a. 1 c. 3
b. 2 d. 4

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Menarche is best described as the onset of
a. puberty. c. menstruation.
b. public hair. d. body growth.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Who is experiencing the first indicator of the onset of puberty in a typical female?
a. Mary, whose pubic hair has started to grow
b. Terri, who has just begun to menstruate
c. Geri, whose breasts have started to grow
d. Carrie, who has just begun to ovulate

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which best describes the early menstrual cycles of a typical teenage female?
a. Regular and with ovulation
b. Regular and without ovulation
c. Irregular and with ovulation
d. Irregular and without ovulation

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Who is experiencing the first indicator of the onset of puberty in males?
a. Joe, whose testes have started to grow
b. Ben, whose pubic hair has started to grow
c. Hop-sing, who is experiencing a growth spurt
d. Adam, whose penis has started to grow

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which event defines spermarche?
a. The production of sperm
b. The ejaculation of sperm
c. The original meiosis of sperm
d. The implantation of sperm into an egg

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which statement concerning the timing of puberty in males and females is true?
a. The onset of menarche in females typically occurs a few years prior to the typical onset of spermarche in males.
b. The onset of menarche in females typically occurs a few years after to the typical onset of spermarche in males.
c. The onset of menarche in females typically occurs around the same time as the onset of spermarche in males.
d. The onset of menarche in females typically occurs almost a decade after the typical onset of spermarche in males.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Menarche is to spermarche as
a. onset of menstruation is to ejaculation.
b. egg production is to sperm production.
c. ovulation is to testes growth.
d. fertilization is to conception.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. A key physical component of puberty is the ____ gland, which regulates pubertal changes by signaling other glands to secrete hormones.
a. thyroid c. pituitary
b. adrenal d. pineal

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Estrogen is directly released by the
a. pituitary gland. c. adrenal gland.
b. ovaries. d. testes.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. If asked to identify where the hormone that causes the maturation of the genitals in females comes from, you should say,
a. “the pituitary gland.” c. “the fallopian tube.”
b. “the ovaries.” d. “the adrenal gland.”

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Estrogen is to androgen as
a. sperm is to egg. c. male is to female.
b. ovaries are  to testes. d. ejaculation is to menarche.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which statement is true?
a. Estrogen is found only in females, and androgens are found only in males.
b. Estrogen is found only in males, and androgens are found only in females.
c. During puberty, estrogen and androgens are released at the same levels in adolescent males and females.
d. During puberty, estrogen and androgens are released at different levels in adolescent males and females.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Roscoe is a 13-year-old who is currently experiencing puberty. During the past few months, his testes have released a small amount of estrogen. What is the most likely outcome of this hormonal activity?
a. Roscoe will begin to ovulate.
b. Roscoe will begin to have enlarged testicles.
c. Roscoe will begin to experience some breast development.
d. Roscoe will show no impact because testes are incapable of producing estrogen.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which of the following factors seems to be most involved in timing of menarche in many industrialized nations over the past 150 years?
a. Parenting skills c. Education
b. Nutrition d. Genetics

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. If you were asked to describe the pattern of the average age of menarche onset in Europe between 1840 and today, you should say,
a. “The average age of onset has dropped about 4 years.”
b. “The average age of onset has dropped about 2 years.”
c. “The average age of onset has increased about 2 years.”
d. “The average age of onset has increased about 4 years.”

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which of the following normally developing African teenage girls would be most likely to have just begun to experience menarche?
a. Dalmar, who is 11 years old
b. Abina, who is 13 years old
c. Kali, who is 15 years old
d. Imena, who is 17 years old

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which statement best describes the connection between environmental stress and maturation in girls?
a. Puberty occurs earlier in girls who have experienced chronic stress.
b. Puberty occurs later in girls who have experienced chronic stress.
c. The onset of puberty in girls is determined genetically, thus stress has no effect on the timing of puberty.
d. The effects of stress on maturation in girls are unknown.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which best describes the “paternal investment theory” of puberty?
a. Moms have the greatest impact on the timing of early puberty, and having a highly involved mom appears to delay its onset.
b. Moms have the greatest impact on the timing of early puberty, and having a highly involved mom appears to accelerate its onset.
c. Dads have the greatest impact on the timing of early puberty, and having a highly involved dad appears to delay its onset.
d. Dads have the greatest impact on the timing of early puberty, and having a highly involved dad appears to accelerate its onset.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which best describes the typical response to body image during puberty?
a. Females worry more about appearance, but males are more dissatisfied with their appearance.
b. Males worry more about appearance, but females are more dissatisfied with their appearance.
c. Males worry more about appearance and are more dissatisfied with their appearance.
d. Females worry more about appearance and are more dissatisfied with their appearance.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Mariddie is a Western Apache teenager who has just experienced menarche. What reaction should she expect from those around her?
a. There will be an elaborate celebration in her honor.
b. She will be married within a week.
c. Her hair will be cut short, and she will be expected to go into the wilderness to kill a small animal (e.g., rabbit).
d. She will be ostracized from the tribe for one month.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Dontee is a typical teenager. Research has indicated that the moodiness that he is exhibiting is most likely due to
a. raging hormone levels.
b. changes in social settings and activities.
c. negative verbal interactions with his parents.
d. concern over his changing body.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Who is most likely to suffer the most negative psychological consequences as a result of the timing maturation?
a. Herman, an early-maturing male
b. Lilly, an early-maturing female
c. Marilyn, a late-maturing female
d. Eddie, a late-maturing male

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Early maturation has been shown to increase sexuality in
a. European-American and Latina females.
b. European-American and African American females.
c. Latina and African-American females.
d. European-American, Latina, and African-American females.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The negative effects associated with being an early-maturing female have been found to be offset by
a. hormone replacement therapy.
b. having supportive parents.
c. possessing a strong personal fable.
d. hanging around with older males.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Concerning puberty, what is the “off-time hypothesis?”
a. The idea that early maturation in males gives them a great advantage in sports
b. The idea that steroids and other supplements can accelerate the onset of puberty
c. The idea that late puberty in females gives some “off-time” that they can use to mature in nonphysical ways
d. The idea that it is better to experience physical change at the same time as most of your peers

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. A typical teenage girl should consume approximately ____ calories each day.
a. 1,200 c. 2,200
b. 1,700 d. 2,700

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Concerning hemoglobin levels, during the teen years,
a. boys need more and girls need less.
b. girls need more and boys need less.
c. both boys and girls need more.
d. both boys and girls need less.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. As a typical U.S. teen, Amber is most likely consuming
a. too few calories and too little iron.
b. too many calories and too little iron.
c. too few calories and too much iron.
d. too many calories and too much iron.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Currently, in the United States, about one in ____ adolescents is overweight.
a. three c. six
b. five d. nine

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Concerning weight, the abbreviation BMI stands for
a. base metabolic indices. c. base mass index.
b. body metabolic indices. d. body mass index.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which measure would be used to determine whether a child is overweight?
a. BMI c. WISC
b. MMPI d. WAIS

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. How many of the following children would be classified as overweight: Alan, who is in the upper 20 percent for weight for his height; Erin, who is in the upper 10 percent for weight for her height; Tim, who is in the upper 5 percent for weight for his height; and/or Toni, who is in the upper 2 percent for weight for her height?
a. 1 c. 3
b. 2 d. 4

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Overweight teens are most at risk for developing ____ later in life.
a. Osteoporosis c. Huntington’s disease
b. sickle-cell disease d. diabetes

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Orson is 13 years old and classified as overweight. Which of the following is most likely to be true?
a. Orson is unpopular with his peers.
b. Orson has high self-esteem.
c. Orson has little risk for medical problems.
d. Orson has a faster-than-normal basal metabolic rate.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Fifteen-year-old Kristi was adopted when she was an infant. Her adult weight is best predicted by the
a. weight of her adoptive parents.
b. average weight of individuals in her age-cohort group.
c. weight of her biological parents.
d. average weight of her adoptive siblings.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. The speed at which the body consumes calories is referred to as
a. menarche. c. basal metabolic rate.
b. diffusion status. d. secular growth trends.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. If your basal metabolic rate were to dramatically accelerate, you would likely begin to
a. display secondary sex characteristics.
b. display primary sex characteristics.
c. lose weight.
d. gain weight.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. The fact that 250-pound Robyn’s basal metabolic rate affects her weight supports the role of ____ in obesity.
a. learned helplessness c. television advertising
b. genes d. poor parenting

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Programs that effectively assist obese children in losing weight tend to
a. emphasize the need to follow external cues when deciding when to eat.
b. encourage children to become more sedentary.
c. totally eliminate meat from their diets.
d. have parents serve as good models for proper eating.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which would be the most effective way for a parent to discourage obesity in his or her children?
a. Teach them the importance of avoiding meat
b. Downplay the taste of food
c. Encourage them to lose weight quickly
d. Remind them to stop eating when they feel full

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. A 2006 Stice, Shaw, and Marci meta-analysis of obesity prevention programs for children and teens found that about _____ percent of these programs were effective.
a. 80 c. 40
b. 60 d. 20

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Carrie exhibits anorexia nervosa. When she looks in a mirror, she is most likely thinking,
a. “I’m really starting to get thin!”
b. “I’m so fat!”
c. “I’m beautiful compared to those ugly women on television!”
d. “I’m going to have to start eating a little more!”

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. ____ is one of the defining characteristics of anorexia nervosa.
a. The persistent refusal to eat
b. A cyclic binge-and-purge pattern
c. A rational fear of obesity
d. An inhibited basal metabolic rate

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which is a defining characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
a. Binge eating
b. Increased body mass index
c. Purging through vomiting
d. An irrational fear of being overweight

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Ashley is an anorexic girl who has lost significant weight yet refuses to seek any treatment. This is a potentially life-threatening decision, as about ____ percent of adolescents in her situation die of symptoms related to the eating disorder.
a. 15 c. 35
b. 25 d. 45

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The defining characteristic of bulimia nervosa involves
a. a binge-purge eating pattern. c. a distorted body image.
b. weight loss. d. an irrational fear of obesity.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Research has shown that
a. overprotective parenting is related to bulimia and anorexia.
b. childhood obesity is related to bulimia and anorexia.
c. overprotective parenting is related to bulimia but not anorexia.
d. childhood obesity is related to adolescent bulimia but not anorexia.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which teenager is at the greatest risk for developing anorexia or bulimia?
a. Ivy, who has pica
b. Rose, who is intellectually gifted
c. Daisy, who never worried about dieting when she was young
d. Petunia, who has a grandmother with bipolar disorder

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. How many of the following are risk factors for teenagers developing either bulimia or anorexia: history of being a picky eater, negative self-image, history of dieting, frequently watching television shows with overweight characters?
a. 1 c. 3
b. 2 d. 4

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. About one in ____ individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder is male.
a. 3 c. 10
b. 5 d. 20

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. If you were asked to develop an effective prevention program concerning eating disorders in teens, you should
a. utilize psychoactive medication.
b. avoid teaching about specific diets.
c. create a highly structured environment in which the teens have little personal input.
d. teach the importance of resisting the social pressure to be thin.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. One way to reduce the incidence of obesity in adolescence is to have teens engage in “regular activity.” Which of the following defines such activity?
a. Exercise must last for at least 60 minutes, two times per week.
b. Exercise must occur at least five times a week.
c. Exercise must burn at least 250 calories.
d. Exercise must last for 30 minutes, three times per week.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. When Kann et al. (1995) asked ninth- and twelfth-graders about their exercise habits, they found that
a. exercise rates for both boys and girls declined between ninth and twelfth grade.
b. exercise rates for both boys and girls increased between ninth and twelfth grade.
c. exercise rates for boys increased between ninth and twelfth grade while the rates for girls decreased.
d. exercise rates for girls increased between ninth and twelfth grade while the rates for boys decreased.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. In the United States, the most popular participation sport for adolescent boys is ____ and the most popular participation sport for girls is ____.
a. football; basketball
b. basketball; basketball
c. baseball; track and field
d. football; track and field

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Lindsey is hesitant about letting her teenage daughter Davenport participate in sports because she has heard that most youth who participate in sports end up injured. What is the most accurate assessment of Lindsey’s thoughts?
a. She is absolutely right because about 70 percent of young athletes are injured and require medical attention.
b. She is kind of correct because about 40 percent of young athletes are injured and require medical attention.
c. She is fairly incorrect because about 15 percent of young athletes are injured and require medical attention.
d. She is totally wrong because only about 1 percent of young athletes are injured and require medical attention.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Anabolic steroids are most chemically similar to
a. cocaine. c. testosterone.
b. estrogen. d. Ritalin.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. In order to enhance his baseball performance, Barry has been taking steroids. In recent months, he has begun to experience some medical problems. Which of the following of his problems would be least likely to be the result of steroid use?
a. Liver damage
b. Depression
c. Increased muscle mass
d. Obsessive-compulsive behavior

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. In the United States, about ____ out of every 1,000 adolescents dies each year.
a. 1 c. 10
b. 5 d. 25

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Based on statistics, which of the following 16-year-old males is most likely to die in an incident involving a firearm?
a. Fred, who is European American
b. Ned, who is African American
c. Ed, who is Hispanic American
d. Ted, who is Asian American

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Based on statistics, which of the following 16-year-old females is most likely to die in an incident involving an automobile accident?
a. Jill, who is European American
b. Jane, who is African American
c. Jessie, who is Hispanic American
d. Joan, who is Asian American

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Based on statistics, which of the following 16-year-olds is most likely to die as the result of natural causes?
a. Kay, who is a European American female
b. Mae, who is an African American female
c. Jay, who is a European American male
d. Ray, who is an African American male

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Typical American teenagers tend to
a. underestimate the danger of most risky behaviors and overestimate the likelihood that they will experience these consequences.
b. overestimate the danger of most risky behaviors and underestimate the likelihood that they will experience these consequences.
c. underestimate the danger of most risky behaviors as well as the likelihood that they will experience these consequences.
d. overestimate the danger of most risky behaviors as well as the likelihood that they will experience these consequences.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The illusion of invulnerability is best demonstrated by
a. postconventional thinking about sex.
b. unprotected sex by teens.
c. a girl’s first menstrual cycle.
d. male masturbation.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Application

 

  1. The illusion of invulnerability is best defined by the phrase,
a. “dangerous but fun.”
b. “slow and steady wins the race.”
c. “once bitten, twice shy.”
d. “nothing is worse the risk of dying.”

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which best describes the neurological explanation for risk-taking behavior in teens?
a. Myelination of the temporal lobe results in poor decision-making
b. Due to neuretic pruning, the pleasure centers of the brain become “super-charged”
c. Estrogen and testosterone act like “cocaine” in the brain
d. The pleasure areas develop prior to the areas that control behavior

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which statement concerning cognitive development in adolescence is true?
a. Working memory and processing speed are more childlike than adultlike.
b. Working memory becomes adultlike, but processing speed remains childlike.
c. Processing speed becomes adultlike, but working memory remains childlike.
d. Working memory and processing speed are more adultlike than childlike.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which concept describes the development of processing speed between ages 8 and 18?
a. Time needed to respond decreases at a consistent rate.
b. Time needed to respond decreases for the first years and then levels off.
c. Time needed to respond is constant for the first years and then decreases significantly.
d. Time needed to respond increases at a consistent rate.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which concept is best associated with increased content knowledge?
a. Increased expertise
b. Increased memory capacity
c. Increased processing speed
d. Increased metacognitive skills

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Heuristics tend to be very
a. sophisticated. c. accurate.
b. fast. d. analytical.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Payton is 16 and his brother Eli is 10. When trying to pick the winner of the Super Bowl,
a. Payton will be more analytic, and Eli will be likely to use a heuristic.
b. Eli will be more analytic, and Payton will be likely to use a heuristic.
c. Payton will be more likely to use postconventional thinking, and Eli will be likely to use a universal ethical principle.
d. Eli will be more likely to use postconventional thinking, and Payton will be likely to use a universal ethical principle.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Application

 

  1. You and a friend argue over who is the best golfer in the world. Which of your responses would represent an ad hominem argument?
a. “Everyone knows that it is Tiger Woods.”
b. “You just like Tiger Woods because you do not know how to golf.”
c. “I think that the winner of the last big tournament is the best.”
d. “I am right, you are wrong, end of story!”

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Application

 

  1. During an ad hominem argument, you must
a. attack the person with whom you are arguing.
b. win the argument.
c. rely on factual data.
d. employ a social contract.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The basic premise of ad populum arguments is that
a. most people are stupid.
b. attack the messenger, not the message.
c. the lone voice will carry the day.
d. if most people believe it, it must be correct.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The statement, “The center of the Earth must be made of pudding because no one has shown that it is not” represents a(n) _____ argument.
a. ad hominem c. ad populum
b. ad ignorantiam d. postconventional

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Application

 

  1. As a typical young teen, Maurice would be best at detecting _____ flaws in arguments.
a. ad hominem c. ad libitum
b. ad populum d. ad ignorantian

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Application

 

  1. What would you predict would happen when Duke, a white supremacist teen, reads a scientific study indicating that Asians have higher IQs than whites?
a. He would begin to reconsider his anti-Asian stance.
b. He would dismiss the study as being flawed.
c. He would now view Asians as more intelligent.
d. He would now views Asians as even less intelligent.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

MSC:   Application

 

  1. What technique did Kohlberg use to assess moral thinking?
a. He presented participants with moral dilemmas.
b. He observed moral behavior in laboratory experiments.
c. He observed moral behavior in real-life experiments.
d. He reviewed newspaper accounts on acts of bravery and acts of violence.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. In the Victor Hugo story Les Misérables, a character named Valjean steals a loaf of bread to feed a starving child. How would psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg describe this act?
a. Kohlberg would not be surprised because he saw humans as morally corrupt.
b. Kohlberg would argue that the act of theft is not in and of itself immoral, depending on the rationale for the theft.
c. Kohlberg would have expected the theft if the child were Valjean’s but not if the child belonged to someone else.
d. Kohlberg would have expected the theft but only if Valjean were operating at the lowest level of moral reasoning.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Application

 

  1. According to Kohlberg,
a. there is only one correct response to any moral dilemma.
b. religious arguments concerning moral issues are the strongest.
c. the reason underlying a moral decision is more important than the action taken.
d. moral reasoning is too complex to be accurately assessed.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. What basic moral question underlies the Heinz dilemma?
a. Are humans naturally violent or passive?
b. Can stealing be justified?
c. Is there a God?
d. Is the correct term “catsup” or “ketchup?”

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. According to Kohlberg’s original theory, there are ____ levels of moral reasoning, each containing ____ stages.
a. two; two c. two; three
b. three; two d. three; three

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Kohlberg used the label ____ when referring to the first level of moral reasoning.
a. preoperational c. preconventional
b. prepositional d. prepubertal

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Preconventional moral reasoning is based on ____ forces.
a. internal c. innate
b. biological d. external

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. A person in the first stage of preconventional moral reasoning relies heavily on ____ when making a moral judgment.
a. adherence to laws
b. adherence to a personal moral code
c. obedience to authority
d. random guessing

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. When asked how she makes moral judgments, 15-year-old Eli says, “I do what my daddy says is right.” This comment indicates that he is in the ____ level of moral thinking.
a. preconventional c. postconventional
b. conventional d. unconventional

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. When considering the Heinz dilemma, Tony says that he would not steal the drug because his mommy told him that stealing was wrong, and people who steal get into trouble. This consideration indicates that Tony is most likely in Kohlberg’s ____ stage of moral development.
a. first c. third
b. second d. fourth

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Moral reasoning based on instrumental orientation tends to occur at the ____ level of moral thinking.
a. preconventional c. postconventional
b. conventional d. unconventional

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. When considering whether or not to be nice to a classmate, Nora says, “If I am nice to Jones, he might give me his cookie at lunch.” This type of logic best exemplifies thinking at Kohlberg’s ____ stage of moral reasoning.
a. first c. third
b. second d. fourth

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. When considering the Heinz dilemma, Barney says that he would steal the drug because then his wife might bake him a cake to repay him for saving her. This thinking indicates that Barney is most likely in Kohlberg’s _____ stage of moral development.
a. second c. fourth
b. third d. fifth

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. When discussing the Heinz dilemma, a decision based on ____ would indicate that a person is at the instrumental orientation stage of moral reasoning.
a. current laws concerning stealing
b. a universal moral code
c. obedience to an authority figure
d. how stealing the drug might create inconveniences to one’s self

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which of Kohlberg’s levels places the greatest emphasis on morality as a function of the expectations others hold toward you?
a. Preconventional c. Postconventional
b. Conventional d. Unconventional

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Jackson’s statement, “My moral compass is based on the simple premise that one must always adhere to social norms” indicates that he is operating at the ____ level of moral reasoning.
a. preconventional c. postconventional
b. conventional d. unconventional

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Karen thinks she should go out with Blane, an unattractiveRemember,cial misfit, because “If I don’t go out with him, people will think I’m really mean.” Karen is most likely in Kohlberg’s ____ level of moral reasoning.
a. preconventional c. postconventional
b. conventional d. unconventional

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. The phrase “good girl and good boy” is best associated with Kohlberg’s ____ stage of moral thinking.
a. first c. third
b. second d. fourth

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. When discussing the Heinz dilemma, Travis says, “I wouldn’t steal the drug because I would not want anyone thinking of me as a thief.” This type of logic best fits with Kohlberg’s ____ stage of moral reasoning.
a. first c. third
b. second d. fourth

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. When Nicholas and Sanjay are debating whether or not to steal a cool car they just found, Nicholas says, “It’s wrong to steal the car because there are laws against stealing, and no one is above the law.”  This type of thinking best fits with Kohlberg’s _____ level of moral thinking.
a. preconventional c. postconventional
b. conventional d. unconventional

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Social system morality is the focus of one of the stages of Kohlberg’s ____ level of moral reasoning.
a. preconventional c. postconventional
b. conventional d. unconventional

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Morality based on adherence to societal law and order is best associated with Kohlberg’s ____ stage of moral thinking.
a. second c. fourth
b. third d. fifth

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. When discussing the Heinz dilemma, Nancy says, “I would steal the drug, because when they marry, a husband promises to love, cherish, and protect his wife until death do they  part. Thus, it is his social responsibility to steal the drug to help his wife.” This type of response best fits with the ____ stage in Kohlberg’s model of moral development.
a. second c. fourth
b. third d. fifth

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Postconventional moral thinking is characterized by judgments made according to a(n)
a. personal code of behavior.
b. set of society’s laws.
c. list of parental “do’s and dont’s.”
d. egocentric self-schema.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Moral reasoning based on social contracts is best identified with Kohlberg’s ____ stage of moral reasoning.
a. third c. fifth
b. fourth d. sixth

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. When considering the Heinz dilemma, Jefferson says, “You cannot justify theft, because if you do, it will lead to social anarchy.” This statement best matches the logic of someone at Kohlberg’s ____ level of moral development.
a. preconventional c. postconventional
b. conventional d. unconventional

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. According to Kohlberg, abstract notions of justice or equity are examples of
a. preconventional thought. c. universal ethical principles.
b. social norms. d. social contracts.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. When considering the issue of euthanasia, Wendell says, “I know that killing is wrong, but I believe that compassion is sometimes more important than the law.” This statement suggests that Wendell is thinking at Kohlberg’s ____ level.
a. preconventional c. postconventional
b. conventional d. unconventional

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. In Kohlberg’s ____ stage of moral development, principles like compassion and justice come to underlie moral decision making.
a. third c. fifth
b. fourth d. sixth

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. According to Kohlberg’s model of moral reasoning,
a. morality based on obedience to authority is superior to that based on living up to expectations of others.
b. morality based on living up to others’ expectations is superior to that based on adherence to a valid social contract.
c. morality based on following rules to maintain social order is superior to that based on nice behaviors being exchanged for future favors.
d. morality based on following rules to maintain social order is superior to that based on a personal moral system reliant on abstract principles.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. The story of Oskar Schindler provides an interesting personal example of moral development. In Schindler’s case, his change in motivation from one of profit to one of saving lives represents a change that Kohlberg would say moves from ____ thinking to ____ thinking.
a. preconventional; conventional
b. preconventional; postconventional
c. postconventional; conventional
d. postconventional; preconventional

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. The largest percentage of young children are in stages _____ of Kohlberg’s moral reasoning.
a. one and two c. three and four
b. two and three d. four and five

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. In a group of normally developing 18- to 20-year-olds, the greatest percentage would be operating at stage ____ of moral reasoning.
a. two c. four
b. three d. five

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Research indicates that most adults operate at Kohlberg’s ____ level of moral reasoning.
a. preconventional c. postconventional
b. conventional d. unconventional

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. At which age are most people operating at the postconventional level of moral reasoning?
a. Adults
b. Adolescence
c. A good portion of adolescence and adults develop this level of thinking
d. There is no age group in which most individuals are reasoning

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Kohlberg proposed that stages of moral reasoning
a. do not predict moral behavior.
b. form an invariant sequence.
c. predict one’s general level of intelligence.
d. vary greatly from culture to culture.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Support for Kohlberg’s theory of moral development includes data indicating that
a. external forces have a greater impact on the moral behavior of those operating at the lower stages of moral reasoning.
b. females are superior on moral dilemmas that focus on nurturing.
c. older individuals tend to regress to lower levels of moral thinking.
d. the development of moral reasoning does not follow any specific sequence.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Research on the relationship between moral thinking and moral behaviors has shown that when making moral decisions, delinquent adolescents
a. tend to reason at lower levels than nondelinquents.
b. rely heavily on universal ethical principles.
c. tend to think at the postconventional level.
d. typically fail to consider factors like reward and punishment.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. There is little evidence to support Kohlberg’s claim that the stages of moral reasoning are
a. measurable. c. unconscious.
b. universal. d. biological.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Kohlberg’s emphasis on ____________ has not been supported by cross-cultural research.
a. individual rights and justice as the basis for moral reasoning
b. the biological nature of morality
c. racial differences in morality
d. IQ scores as a predictor of moral thinking

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Joe has lived all of his life in the United States, while Apu was raised in the Hindu faith in India. When presented with a dilemma concerning the morality of stealing,
a. Joe would be much more likely to make a care-based decision.
b. Apu would be much more likely to make a care-based decision.
c. both Joe and Apu would likely make care-based decisions.
d. both Joe and Apu would likely make justice-based decisions.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Groups of Hindu adults and children from India and non-Hindu adults and children from the United States are read a dilemma in which a person is forced to choose between breaking the law to help out a friend or not breaking the law but disappointing the friend. What results would you expect?
a. No group chose to break the law.
b. The adults chose to break the law.
c. Those from India chose to break the law.
d. All groups chose to break the law.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Research using “Ben’s dilemma” involving his attempt to get a loan to help him get to a wedding provided evidence that
a. females are more helpful than males.
b. people will loan time but not money.
c. most moral decisions are based on the desire to care for others.
d. moral reasoning is influenced by culture.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Gilligan’s original complaint against Kohlberg’s theory was that it
a. didn’t accurately reflect the moral development of women.
b. had too many stages.
c. was too Piagetian.
d. had no practical applications.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Based on Gilligan’s model, who is operating at the initial stage of moral development?
a. Will, who always bases his decisions on the law
b. Grace, who always bases her decisions on what will bring her the most pleasure
c. Jack, who always bases his decisions on caring for the less fortunate
d. Karen, who always bases her decisions on the most nonviolent alternative

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Jamine comes upon a fight in the street. Which would indicate that she is in Gilligan’s first stage of moral reasoning?
a. Her concern that someone in the fight might hit her
b. Her worry about the young adults in the fight
c. Her screaming out, “Stop hurting each other!”
d. Her wondering whether the fighters were raised in violent families

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Application

 

  1. You are reviewing a research article with the title, “Women and the drive to care for others.” Who is the most likely author of this material?
a. Kohlberg c. Gilligan
b. Piaget d. Bandura

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which phrase describes the emphasis of Gilligan’s theory of moral development?
a. The ethic of care
b. The ethic of justice
c. The ethic of intelligence
d. The ethic of obedience

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. On which point would Kohlberg and Gilligan agree?
a. Females emphasize justice and men emphasize care
b. Moral reasoning develops across distinct stages
c. The pattern of moral reasoning does not vary by culture
d. You cannot judge some thought as more moral than others

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Research on differences between the moral reasoning of males and females has shown that
a. there are significant differences between the moral reasoning of men and women.
b. although there are small differences between men and women in some areas, the overall moral reasoning of males and females is very similar.
c. significant sex differences are found in cultures that emphasize justice but not in those that emphasize care.
d. no differences in moral reasoning have been identified between the sexes.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Research has indicated that the most effective way to foster moral development in adolescents is to
a. avoid allowing them to voice amoral opinions.
b. encourage direct observation of immoral behavior.
c. sign a social contract.
d. discuss moral issues.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

MSC:   Factual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Girls tend to begin puberty before boys.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. Myelination of the brain begins in earnest during adolescence.

 

ANS:   F                      REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. Sexual maturation changes that directly impact reproduction are referred to as secondary sex characteristics.

 

ANS:   F                      REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. Spermarche is defined as the initial production of sperm.

 

ANS:   F                      REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. The pituitary gland regulates puberty changes by signaling other glands to release hormones.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. The onset of puberty can be influenced by one’s social environment.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. Western Apache culture publicly celebrates menarche.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. The moodiness often seen in teenagers is best explained in terms of “raging hormones.”

 

ANS:   F                      REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. Early maturation tends to have very negative effects for males.

 

ANS:   F                      REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. Body mass index is based on both weight and height.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. Basal metabolic rate is defined as the speed at which the body produces calories.

 

ANS:   F                      REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. A defining characteristic of anorexia nervosa is an uncontrollable binge-purge pattern.

 

ANS:   F                      REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. Overprotective parenting has been associated with the onset of anorexia but not bulimia.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. The amount of exercise done by the typical teenager tends to decline between ninth and twelfth grade.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. In the United States, most teenage girls die in motor vehicle accidents or by natural causes.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. The adolescent brain tends to have more mature pleasure-seeking systems and less advanced ability to deliberately control one’s behavior.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. Most teenagers achieve adult-like levels of processing speed during adolescence.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. Increases in content knowledge during adolescence results in advances in the ability to identify strategies appropriate for solving specific tasks.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. Adolescents tend to rely less on heuristics and more on analytical problem-solving.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. Ad populum arguments involve a claim that something must be true because most people believe it to be true.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. Interpersonal norms are found at Kohlberg’s postconventional level of moral reasoning.

 

ANS:   F                      REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. In Kohlberg’s model, stage three moral reasoning involves universal ethical principles.

 

ANS:   F                      REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. In the Hindu religion, a great emphasis is placed on responsibility to others.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. Gilligan’s model of moral development emphasizes care.

 

ANS:   T                      REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. The development of _____ sex characteristics involves the sexual maturation of organs directly involved with reproduction.

 

ANS:   primary

 

REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. The onset of menstruation is referred to as _____.

 

ANS:   menarche

 

REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. The first spontaneous ejaculation of sperm-laden material is called _____.

 

ANS:   spermarche

 

REF:    8.1                   OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. The adjusted ratio of weight to height is known by the abbreviation _____.

 

ANS:   BMI

 

REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. The basal _____ rate is the speed at which the body consumes calories.

 

ANS:   metabolic

 

REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. _____ nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an irrational fear of being overweight and a persistent refusal to eat.

 

ANS:   Anorexia

 

REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. Binge-and-purge eating patterns are best associated with _____ nervosa.

 

ANS:   bulimia

 

REF:    8.2                   OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. The process of ______ during adolescence allows nerve impulses to travel more rapidly and leads to more efficient information processing.

 

ANS:   myelination

 

REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. During an ad _____ argument, the individual making a claim is attacked.

 

ANS:   hominem

 

REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. During an ad_____ argument, the claims must be true because most people believe them.

 

ANS:   populum

 

REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. Ad ______ arguments are the most difficult argument flaws to detect.

 

ANS:   ignorantiam

 

REF:    8.3                   OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. Kohlberg referred to the first level of moral reasoning as _____.

 

ANS:   preconventional

 

REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. In stage two of Kohlberg’s model, referred to as a(n) _____ orientation, an individual bases moral decisions on looking out for their his or her needs.

 

ANS:   instrumental

 

REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. Stage three of Kohlberg’s theory focuses on behaving as “good boys” and “good girls” focuses on _____ norms.

 

ANS:   interpersonal

 

REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. The _____ level is Kohlberg’s highest level of moral reasoning.

 

ANS:   postconventional

 

REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. Stage six of Kohlberg’s theory is based on the notion of _____ ethical principles.

 

ANS:   universal

 

REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. Kohlberg claimed that his stages of moral development form a(n) _____ sequence.

 

ANS:   invariant

 

REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. Gilligan’s approach to describing moral reasoning emphasize _____ over justice.

 

ANS:   care

 

REF:    8.4                   OBJ:    8.4

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Most people view puberty as a strictly biological event. Enlighten them by describing both physiological and environmental factors that influence the process of puberty.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. The exact timing of puberty varies. Discuss psychological advantages and disadvantages of early and later puberty for both females and males.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. Your friend is the parent of a teenager who is slightly overweight and concerned that the child may become obese. Explain factors that contribute to obesity (including basal metabolic rate) as well as techniques that have been shown to help youth lose weight.

 

ANS:

No answer provided.

 

OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. Discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of allowing a child or teen to participate in organized sports.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. Describe common causes of death for teens in the United States. Be sure to discuss how ethnicity and illusion of vulnerability each contributes to the way teens die.

 

ANS:

No answer provided.

 

OBJ:    8.2

 

  1. Eighteen-year-olds appear to be significantly better problem solvers than eight-year-olds. Please describe some of the key advances in cognition that underlie this improvement.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. Describe the three different types of argument fallacies that adolescents learn to identify.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

OBJ:    8.3

 

  1. Describe the role that culture plays in moral decision-making.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. George bases his moral decision on a concern for care, while his wife Jane bases hers on concern for justice. Describe how these differences would impact a decision that they might make concerning a binge-drinking episode by their daughter Judy.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. A local high school has hired you as a consultant for a program designed to improve moral decision-making in its students. Describe the advice that you would provide the school.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

OBJ:    8.4

 

  1. You are the parent of twins, one male and one female, who are entering puberty. Describe to them the primary and secondary sex characteristics that they will each be acquiring over the next few years.

 

ANS:

Primary sex characteristics include the maturation of organs that are directly involved in reproduction (e.g., boys = testes, penis; girls = ovaries, vagina, uterus). For females, menarche (the onset of menstruation) is a key event. For males, spermarche (the first spontaneous ejaculation of sperm-laden fluid) is a key event. Secondary sex characteristics are signs of maturation that are not directly linked to reproductive organs (e.g., boys = facial hair, voice change, girls = widening hips and developing breasts).

 

OBJ:    8.1

 

  1. Anorexia and bulimia are often viewed as the same disorder. Demonstrate your knowledge of eating disorders by describing both similarities and key differences between these health issues.

 

ANS:

Both anorexia and bulimia tend to emerge in adolescence in individuals who are overly concerned about their body and have a history of dieting. Both are more common in females. Anorexia is a more deadly disorder and is characterized by a persistent refusal to eat and an irrational fear of being overweight. Bulimia is characterized by alternating periods of binging and purging (which can involve use of laxatives or self-induced vomiting). Overprotecting parenting appears to be a risk factor for anorexia while childhood obesity appears to be a risk factor for bulimia.

 

OBJ:    8.2

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