Human Learning 7th Edition Ormrod Test Bank

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Human Learning 7th Edition Ormrod Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0133579284

ISBN-10: 013357928X


Human Learning 7th Edition Ormrod Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0133579284

ISBN-10: 013357928X



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Multiple Choice Questions


  1. Human beings undoubtedly learn more during the course of a lifetime than any other species on earth. The major result of this capacity to learn is that:
    1. New instincts begin to emerge.
    2. Human thought becomes less logical with each generation.
    3. Humans can benefit from their experiences.
    4. Humans are the only species whose behavior cannot be analyzed in terms of stimuli and responses.


  1. Three of the following are examples of Which one is not?
  2. Abigail cries when she steps on a sharp pebble.
  3. After many hours of heated debate, Brian begins to advocate political practices he has previously opposed.
  4. Cara suddenly recognizes how the division fact “24 ÷ 4 = 6” is related to the multiplication fact “6 x 4 = 24.”
  5. David has been running away from German shepherds ever since he was bitten by a German shepherd two years ago.


  1. Reynelda has trouble tracing a complex shape with a pencil when she is in kindergarten, but she can do it quite well by the time she is in second grade. Is this an instance of learning?
  2. Yes, because her behavior has changed.
  3. No, because the circumstances are too dissimilar.
  4. Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation.
  • Maybe, but only if she is being reinforced for tracing accurately.


  1. Three of the following illustrate various ways that learning might be reflected in a person’s behavior. Which one of the following changes does not necessarily reflect learning?
  2. Although it’s a school night, Dean plays video games until well past his usual bedtime. As he becomes more tired, he finds it increasingly difficult to concentrate on what he’s doing.
  3. Even as a young child, Jerry could tell you that his grandparents immigrated to the United States from Ireland. But after a conversation with his grandmother, he can now describe the circumstances of the family’s immigration in considerable detail.
  4. Day after day, Martin practices his basketball skills (shooting, dribbling, etc.) on a basketball court at a local park. With each practice session, his movements become faster and smoother.
  5. Lewis occasionally asks for help when he has difficulty with his classwork, but most of the time he just struggles quietly on his own. After his teacher assures him that asking for help is not a sign of weakness or inability, he begins asking for help much more frequently.


  1. _____________ research examines learning in tightly controlled settings and ___________ research examines learning in real-world settings.
  2. Applied; Basic
  3. Basic; Qualitative
  4. Qualitative; Applied
  5. Basic; Applied


  1. A principle of learning can best be characterized as:
  2. A description of the results of a particular research study
  3. A statement that describes how a particular factor affects learning
  4. The measurement of how much learning has occurred in a particular situation
  5. An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs


  1. A theory of learning can best be characterized as:
    1. A description of the results of a particular research study
    2. A statement that describes how a particular factor affects learning
    3. The measurement of how much learning has occurred in a particular situation
    4. An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs


  1. Three of the following are principles of learning. Which one is a theory of learning rather than a principle?
    1. A behavior that is followed by punishment decreases in frequency.
    2. People learn by making mental associations between new information and their existing knowledge.
    3. A response that is rewarded every time it occurs increases more rapidly than a response that is only occasionally rewarded.
    4. Students tend to remember more of a lecture if they take notes on the lecture’s content.


  1. Which one of the following common sayings best reflects the concept of introspection?
    1. “Where there’s a will, there’s a way.”
    2. “Nothing ventured, nothing gained.”
    3. “A penny for your thoughts.”
    4. “Old habits die hard.”


  1. Which one of the following common sayings best reflects the basic premise underlying social learning theory?
    1. “Monkey see, monkey do.”
    2. “Spare the rod and spoil the child.”
    3. “A friend in need is a friend indeed.”
    4. “A rolling stone gathers no moss.”


  1. Which one of the following statements provides the most credible explanation for the fact that human beings seem to surpass all other animal species in their thinking and learning capacities?
    1. Only human beings have the capability to make tools.
    2. Humans communicate regularly with one another and, in doing so, pass along what they’ve learned to future generations.
    3. Human beings have a huge repertoire of instinctual behaviors from which they can draw when they encounter new experiences.
    4. Human brains are smaller than those of other intelligent species (e.g., elephants, dolphins) and therefore can transmit messages more quickly and efficiently.


  1. Behaviorists and cognitivists tend to focus on different aspects of learning. Which one of the following statements best describes this difference?
    1. Behaviorism focuses on temporary changes; cognitivism focuses on relatively permanent changes.
    2. Behaviorism focuses on relatively permanent changes; cognitivism focuses on temporary changes.
    3. Behaviorism focuses on internal mental changes; cognitivism focuses on external behavioral changes.
    4. Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes.


  1. Theories are advantageous in several ways. Three of the following describe advantages of learning theories. Which one does not?
    1. Theories enable objective, unbiased reporting of research findings.
    2. Theories help to condense large bodies of information.
    3. Theories help practitioners design interventions that facilitate learning.
    4. Theories provide an impetus for new research.


  1. Which one of the following statements is most accurate statement regarding theories of learning?
    1. They have been proven to be true.
    2. They will eventually be replaced by physiological explanations of how learning occurs.
    3. They are often modified as new data emerge.
    4. Any theory can be used to explain virtually every instance of learning.


  1. The ’s perspective regarding various theories of learning is that:
    1. Behaviorist theories are probably more accurate.
    2. Cognitivist theories are probably more accurate.
    3. There is currently no “right” theory, but one will eventually be developed.
    4. Different theories may be applicable in different situations.



Essay Questions


  1. Sometimes we know learning has occurred because the learner engages in a new behavior—one that he or she has never before exhibited. But other kinds of behavior changes may also indicate that learning has taken place. Describe three additional ways in which behavior might change as a result of learning. Give a concrete example to illustrate each one.


  1. Distinguish between principles and theories of learning, and give a specific example of each.


  1. Theories of learning have both advantages and disadvantages. Describe at least two advantages and one disadvantage; in each case, explain the particular effect that the advantage or disadvantage has on the advancement of our understanding of human learning.






Multiple Choice Questions


  1. Which one of the following is the best example of the central nervous system (rather than peripheral nervous system) at work?
    1. Parts of the hindbrain are involved in regulating heart rate.
    2. Cells in the retina at the back of the eye transmit information about light.
    3. Some cells in the nose respond to certain kinds of chemicals.
    4. Some cells in the skin are sensitive to heat or cold.


  1. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes a neuron’s threshold of excitation?
    1. A neuron responds when it is stimulated by some of its neighboring neurons, but not when it is stimulated by other neighbors.
    2. A neuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level.
    3. A neuron is receptive to stimulation from other neurons only at points where there are gaps in its myelin sheath.
    4. A neuron will fire at a maximum rate of no more than once every three seconds.


  1. Which one of the following best describes how neurons transmit messages to one another?
    1. By stimulating the growth of surrounding glial cells
    2. By attaching themselves to the same terminal buttons
    3. By fusing the axon of one with a dendrite of the other
    4. By sending chemical substances across a tiny gap between them


  1. Which one of the following is the best example of a reflex as psychologists define the term?
    1. Going to sleep when you are tired
    2. Feeling sad when a close relative dies
    3. Pulling your foot away from a painful object
    4. Jumping up and down for joy when you get a good grade


  1. Three of the following describe methods what researchers commonly use to determine how the human brain probably functions. Which one is not a commonly used method to study the brain?
    1. Documenting the behaviors of people with various kinds of brain injuries
    2. Recording brain activity through PET scans, CAT scans, and similar technologies
    3. Measuring the levels of various hormones and other substances in the blood
    4. Removing a certain part of an animal’s brain and observing the animal’s subsequent behaviors


  1. After a severe head injury, Mary has exceptional difficulty setting goals and in other ways planning her actions. Without knowing anything else about Mary’s injury, you might reasonably conclude that it affected her:
    1. forebrain
    2. midbrain
    3. hindbrain
    4. reticular formation


  1. Given how the left and right hemispheres of the brain typically specialize, which one of the following activities would be most heavily dependent on the right hemisphere?
    1. Writing a speech for a political campaign
    2. Following the logic of a persuasive argument
    3. Solving for x in a complex algebraic equation
    4. Recognizing human forms in a Picasso painting


  1. Given the roles that the right hemisphere typically plays in language comprehension, which one of the following tasks would rely most heavily on the right hemisphere?
    1. Hearing the rhyme in the words hypocrisy and democracy
    2. Writing precise definitions of abstract words such as hypocrisy and democracy
    3. Realizing that “That blonde is really hot” has as least two possible meanings
    4. Translating Leo Tolstoy’s novel War and Peace into English



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