Human Physiology 11th Edition Fox Test Bank

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Human Physiology 11th Edition Fox Test Bank






Human Physiology 11th Edition Fox Test Bank







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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Flexors increase the angle at a joint.


True    False

2. The origin is the point of muscle attachment that is most stationary.


True    False

3. When skeletal muscle cells contract, they increase in length.


True    False

4. Muscles which move a limb away the midline of the body are termed


A.  abductor muscles.
B.  adductor muscles.
C.  extensor muscles.
D.  flexor muscles.

5. A muscle that constricts an opening is a/an


A.  extensor.
B.  levator.
C.  antagonist.
D.  sphincter.

6. The prime mover of any skeletal movement is called the


A.  flexor.
B.  agonist.
C.  abductor.
D.  antagonist.

7. The epimysium surrounds the individual muscle cells.


True    False

8. Each fascicle of a muscle is surrounded by the


A.  perimysium.
B.  epimysium.
C.  endomysium.
D.  sarcolemma.

9. Z lines are found bisecting the A bands.


True    False

10. The light band of a skeletal muscle is known as the


A.  A band.
B.  Z disc.
C.  I band.
D.  H zone.

11. Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy


A.  is an X-linked recessive trait.
B.  most often affects women.
C.  involves degeneration of the smooth muscle dense bodies.
D.  All of the choices are correct.

12. Skeletal muscles with a low innervation ratio have a low degree of neural control.


True    False

13. The deadly botulinum toxin can be used in the cosmetic treatment of skin wrinkles.


True    False

14. Motor unit recruitment allows for _________ contraction strength.


A.  increased
B.  decreased
C.  no change in

15. Somatic motor neurons release the neurotransmitter _________ at the neuromuscular junction.


A.  dopamine
B.  acetylcholine
C.  norepinephrine
D.  serotonin

16. Each somatic motor neuron with all the muscle fibers it innervates is a


A.  fascicle.
B.  varicosity.
C.  motor unit.
D.  sarcolemma.

17. Thin filaments are composed of myosin and tropomyosin.


True    False

18. Sarcomeres contain elastic titin filaments which help the muscles return to their resting length during
muscle relaxation.


True    False

19. Subunits of skeletal muscle cells that are composed of sarcomeres are called


A.  myofibrils.
B.  myofilaments.
C.  sarcolemmas.
D.  transverse tubules.

20. What structure is composed of protein filaments and is located in the center of the thick filaments?


A.  Z disk
B.  titin
C.  M line
D.  actin

21. What structure runs the length of the sarcomere through the thick filaments and contributes to the elastic
recoil in muscle?


A.  Z disk
B.  titin
C.  M line
D.  actin

22. What structure runs from Z line to Z line?


A.  A band
B.  I band
C.  sarcomere
D.  myofibril

23. The thick filament is also called the


A.  A band.
B.  I band.
C.  H zone
D.  M line

24. The thick filament is split by a Z disc.


True    False

25. During skeletal muscle contraction the A band decreases in size.


True    False

26. Crossbridge formation occurs when myosin heads attach to actin molecules located on the thin


True    False

27. Myosin will not bind to actin unless ADP is bound to the myosin head.


True    False

28. Myosin contains binding sites for ______________ and ______________.


A.  sodium, calcium.
B.  troponin, ATP.
C.  ATP, actin.
D.  actin, calcium.

29. During skeletal muscle contraction, adjacent _________ are pulled closer together as the _______
between them shorten.


A.  A bands; I bands
B.  I bands; A bands
C.  Z disks; A bands
D.  Z disks; I bands

30. ________ is characterized by continued attachment of myosin heads to actin filaments due to a lack of


A.  Tetanus
B.  Rigor mortis
C.  Flaccid paralysis
D.  Treppe

31. During skeletal muscle contraction,


A.  the H zone increases in size.
B.  Ca
associates with tropomyosin.
C.  myosin heads interact with tropomyosin.
D.  thin filaments slide across thick filaments.

32. Which of the following does NOT occur during the cross bridge cycle?


A.  a second ATP binding causes cross bridges to form.
B.  ADP is released at the end of the power stroke.
C.  energized myosin heads bind troponin.
D.  ATP hydrolysis allows for cross bridge formation.

33. Ca
must bind to tropomyosin so that the myosin binding sites on actin will be accessible to the


True    False

34. The _________ complex contains three proteins designated as the I, T, and C types.


A.  actin
B.  myosin
C.  tropomyosin
D.  troponin

35. The movement of the troponin-tropomyosin complex requires


A.  ATP.
B.  Ca
C.  Acetylcholine.
D.  Na

36. The actin filament is a polymer formed from 300 to 400 globular subunits called


A.  I-actin.
B.  T-actin.
C.  G-actin.
D.  C-actin.

37. Transverse tubules contain voltage-gated calcium channels that respond to membrane depolarization and
are directly coupled to the calcium release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.


True    False

38. The Ca
required for skeletal muscle contraction


A.  is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
B.  enters the cell due to the opening of voltage regulated Ca
channels from the T tubules.
C.  is actively transported into the cell.
D.  is released from mitochondria.

39. The pumps that actively transport calcium back into the _______ are called Ca
-ATPase pumps.


A.  transverse tubules
B.  sarcoplasmic reticulum
C.  neuromuscular junction
D.  None of the choices are correct.

40. Which of the following is NOT true of the relaxation of a muscle fiber?


A.  ATP is needed to fuel the calcium pumps
B.  calcium release channels close
C.  the action potential must continue
D.  Ca
moves from the sarcoplasm to the sarcoplasmic reticula

41. Summation occurs in muscle cells when action potentials are added to produce a greater force stimulating


True    False

42. Increasing the frequency of action potentials in a somatic motor neuron will induce increased force of
muscle contraction.


True    False

43. The inability of muscle cells to relax due to high frequency stimulation is termed


A.  treppe.
B.  recruitment.
C.  twitch.
D.  tetanus.

44. The staircase effect or _____ represents a warm up effect due to increasing intracellular calcium


A.  treppe
B.  tetanus
C.  incomplete tetanus
D.  tonus

45. Smooth, sustained muscle contractions in vivo are due to synchronous activation of motor units.


True    False

46. Isotonic muscle contractions are often preceded by isometric contractions.


True    False

47. When a muscle cell generates tension but does not shorten, a(n) ______ contraction occurs.


A.  isometric
B.  isotonic
C.  spastic
D.  flaccid

48. _______ refer to muscle contractions that produce a shortening muscle with a constant contraction
strength at a given load.


A.  Treppe contractions
B.  Isotonic contractions
C.  Twitch contractions
D.  Isometric contractions

49. A force-velocity curve shows the _______ relationship between the force opposing muscle contraction
and the velocity of muscle shortening.


A.  direct
B.  inverse
C.  increased
D.  no

50. Which of the following statements about muscles is FALSE?


A.  During isometric contractions muscles do not generate tension.
B.  The strength of contraction is directly proportional to the stimulus intensity.
C.  Tendons act as part of the series-elastic component of a muscle.
D.  During muscle contraction the Z disks move closer together.

51. A muscle contraction against a resistance that is greater than the force and causes muscle lengthening is


A.  concentric contraction.
B.  isometric contraction.
C.  eccentric contraction.
D.  isokinetic contraction.

52. A shortening of the muscle that occurs when the tension is greater than the load is a(n)


A.  concentric contraction.
B.  isometric contraction.
C.  eccentric contraction.
D.  isokinetic contraction.

53. Which of the following is NOT true about the series-elastic component to contraction?


A.  It absorbs some of the tension of muscle contraction.
B.  It provides for elastic recoil when muscles relax.
C.  It must loosen for a muscle to shorten.
D.  It is provided by tendons.

54. Which of the following does NOT increase the strength of the muscle contraction?


A.  a high number of fibers stimulated
B.  increased frequency of stimulation
C.  thicker muscle fiber
D.  resting sarcomere length of 3.6µm

55. In regards to the relationship between resting muscle fiber length and tension generated


A.  maximal tension is generated when the thick and thin filaments slightly overlap.
B.  maximal tension is generated when the thick and thin filaments do not overlap.
C.  maximal tension is generated when the thick and thin filaments greatly overlap.
D.  the amount of overlap is unimportant in determining maximal tension.

56. High-energy phosphates are stored in skeletal muscle as glycogen ATP.


True    False

57. Insertion of ______________ in the muscle cell membrane increases cellular glucose uptake.



58. Skeletal muscles at rest obtain most of their energy from the aerobic respiration of


A.  glucose.
B.  protein.
C.  fatty acids.
D.  glycogen.

59. ATP in muscle contraction is needed for


A.  attachment of myosin cross bridges to actin.
B.  release of myosin cross bridges from actin.
C.  pumping of Ca
back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
D.  All of the choices are correct.

60. Exceeding the VO2max will result in lactate production by the muscle.


True    False

61. Which of the following is true under heavy exercise in for the first 30 minutes of activity heavy exercise?

A.  Most energy is derived from glycogen and plasma glucose.
B.  The percentage of energy obtained from plasma free fatty acids exceeds that of mild exercise.
C.  The percentage of energy obtain from plasma glucose is less than that of moderate exercise.
D.  All of the choices are correct.

62. Blood lactate will begin to rise when exercise is performed at a rate that is


A.  15% of VO2max.
B.  25% of VO2max.
C.  50% of VO2max.
D.  85% of VO2max.

63. Fatty acids provide the majority of the energy for muscle metabolism when a person is


A.  exercising at 25% of VO2max.
B.  exercising at 50% of VO2max.
C.  exercising at 75% of VO2max.
D.  exercising at 100% of VO2max.

64. The first 1 to 2 minutes of moderate to heavy exercise relies on _____ for ATP production.


A.  aerobic respiration of glucose
B.  anaerobic respiration of glucose
C.  aerobic respiration of fatty acids
D.  anaerobic respiration of amino acids

65. Repaying the oxygen debt requires replacing oxygen that was


A.  bound to blood hemoglobin.
B.  bound to muscle myoglobin.
C.  used for tissue warm up.
D.  All of the choices are correct.

66. A reserve of high energy phosphate is stored in muscle as


A.  phosphocreatine.
B.  adenosine triphosphate.
C.  glucose 6-phosphate.
D.  creatine kinase.

67. Fast twitch fibers have the greatest resistance to fatigue.


True    False

68. Slow twitch fibers have a ______ oxidative capacity and ________ glycogen content.


A.  high, high
B.  high, low
C.  low, low
D.  low, high

69. Type I skeletal muscle fibers


A.  contract rapidly.
B.  have a large diameter.
C.  have a low myoglobin concentration.
D.  have numerous mitochondria.

70. Type IIBX skeletal muscle fibers


A.  generate less tension than type IIA fibers.
B.  fatigue very slowly.
C.  generate more tension than type I fibers.
D.  have a high myoglobin concentration.

71. The fastest shortening muscle fiber in humans is the


A.  type IIA.
B.  type IIB.
C.  type IIX.
D.  type I.

72. Muscle fatigue


A.  occurs when muscles are only partially able to contract.
B.  occurs when muscle cell pH decreases.
C.  occurs when muscle cell pH increases.
D.  occurs due to decreased extracellular K

73. Central fatigue is caused by


A.  decreased H
concentration in the muscle cells.
B.  increased glycogen in muscle cells.
C.  changes in the CNS.
D.  All of the choices are correct.

74. Which of the following is NOT a contributing factor to skeletal muscle fatigue?


A.  increased intracellular K
B.  depletion of intracellular K
C.  accumulation of extracellular K
D.  accumulation of cytoplasmic Pi

75. Fatigue appears to occur due to the reduced ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum release of Ca
neural stimulation.


True    False

76. Endurance training increases the oxidative capacity of a muscle cell.


True    False

77. The amount of fat stored in skeletal muscles will be ______________ by endurance training.


A.  increased
B.  decreased
C.  unchanged

78. Endurance training results in increased


A.  muscle mitochondria number.
B.  glycogen depletion during exercise.
C.  number of type IIB fibers.
D.  lactate production per unit time.

79. The greater the level of physical training, the higher the proportion of energy derived from the oxidation
of ____ during exercise below VO2max.


A.  glucose
B.  protein
C.  amino acids
D.  fatty acids

80. Muscle hypertrophy is due to


A.  increased number of myofibrils in the muscle fiber.
B.  increased number of muscle fibers.
C.  increased size of the myofibrils.

Both increased number of myofibrils in the muscle fiber and increased size of the myofibrils are

81. Myostatin is


A.  a paracrine regulator that inhibits muscle growth.
B.  a paracrine regulator that stimulates muscle growth.
C.  an autocrine regulator that inhibits muscle growth.
D.  an autocrine regulator that stimulates muscle growth.

82. Muscle repair is due to ____ forming myotubes that fuse to form new muscle fibers.


A.  satellite cells
B.  myofibrils
C.  muscle cells
D.  All of the choices are correct.

83. Degeneration of ______________ motor neurons occurs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.


A.  upper
B.  middle
C.  lower
D.  both middle and lower

84. Lower motor neurons are found in the lower part of the brain.


True    False

85. Damage to the __________ nerve root would prevent the muscle spindle from transmitting information to
the central nervous system.


A.  dorsal
B.  ventral

86. Annulospiral endings are found associated with


A.  the nuclear bag fibers.
B.  the extrafusal fibers.
C.  the mossy fibers.
D.  the basal nuclei.

87. The muscle spindle apparatus is associated with


A.  extrafusal fibers.
B.  tendons.
C.  intrafusal fibers.
D.  Golgi tendon organs.

88. What type of sensory neuron is associated with a muscle spindle apparatus?


A.  annulospiral sensory endings
B.  pyramidal sensory endings
C.  flower-spray sensory endings
D.  Both annulospiral sensory endings and flower-spray sensory endings are correct.

89. The muscle spindle apparatus serves as a muscle length detector.


True    False

90. Muscle spasms can be avoided by stretching slowly which stimulates mainly the annulospiral sensory


True    False

91. Alpha motoneurons innervate


A.  nuclear chain fibers.
B.  nuclear bag fibers.
C.  extrafusal fibers.
D.  intrafusal fibers.

92. The stretch reflex is initiated enhanced in response to activation of


A.  the Golgi tendon organ.
B.  alpha motoneurons.
C.  gamma motoneurons.
D.  lower motoneurons.

93. Coactivation of alpha and gamma motoneurons is stimulated by ______________ neurons.


A.  upper motor
B.  lower motor
C.  intermotor
D.  sensory

94. Activation of intrafusal fibers by alpha motoneurons creates muscle tone.


True    False

95. The monosynaptic stretch reflex involves the actions of the muscle spindles.


True    False

96. Clonus is a flapping motion caused by alternate activation of antagonistic stretch reflexes.


True    False

97. The ______________ reflex prevents excessive muscle contraction.


A.  flexor
B.  cross-extensor
C.  Golgi tendon
D.  muscle spindle

98. Damage to the lower motor neurons would induce


A.  spastic paralysis.
B.  clonus.
C.  Babinski’s sign.
D.  flaccid paralysis.

99. Excitation of the Golgi tendon organ normally induces


A.  contraction of a muscle’s extrafusal fibers.
B.  relaxation of a muscle’s extrafusal fibers.
C.  contraction of a muscle’s intrafusal fibers.
D.  relaxation of a muscle’s intrafusal fibers.

100.A crossed-extensor reflex demonstrates double reciprocal innervation.


True    False

101.The inhibition of an antagonistic muscle so that the agonist can do the intended movement is due to


A.  crossed-extensor reflex.
B.  monosynaptic reflex.
C.  reciprocal innervation.
D.  flaccid paralysis.

102.Regulation of motor neurons involves the actions of the basal cerebral nuclei and cerebellum.


True    False

103.The cerebellum directly influences motor activity.


True    False

104.The cerebellar influence on motor activity is excitatory.


True    False

105.Hemiplegia is paralysis of an upper limb of one side and the lower limb of the other side.


True    False

106.Damage to upper motor neurons would be indicated by all of the following except


A.  spastic paralysis.
B.  chorea.
C.  intention tremor.
D.  flaccid paralysis.

107.The pyramidal tracts include the __________ and _____________ tracts.


A.  rubrospinal, lateral corticospinal
B.  reticulospinal, ventral corticospinal
C.  ventral corticospinal, lateral corticospinal
D.  rubrospinal, reticulospinal

108.Parkinson’s disease involves degeneration of nerve fibers from the


A.  red nucleus.
B.  substantia nigra.
C.  cerebellum.
D.  corpus callosum.

109.Random uncontrolled contractions of different muscle groups as a result of damage to the basal cerebral
nuclei is a symptom of upper motor neuron damage called


A.  intention tremor.
B.  Babinski’s reflex.
C.  chorea.
D.  resting tremor.

110.An individual suffering damage to the basal cerebral nuclei resulting in a lack of desire to use a limb
would be suffering from


A.  Parkinson’s disease.
B.  chorea.
C.  intention tremor.
D.  akinesia.

111.Gap junctions have only been identified in cardiac muscle.


True    False

112.Cardiac action potentials usually originate in ______________ cells.


A.  Purkinje
B.  chordae tendinae
C.  pacemaker
D.  septal

113.Which of the following statements regarding cardiac muscle is true?


A.  Dense bodies anchor thin filaments.
B.  Fibers lack I and A bands.
C.  Intercalated discs contain gap junctions.
D.  Fibers lack branches.

114.In cardiac muscle, calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum due to direct interaction
with the voltage-gated Ca


True    False

115.All three types of muscle demonstrate peristaltic contractions.


True    False

116._________ filaments are attached to dense bodies in smooth muscle cells.


A.  Actin
B.  Myosin
C.  Troponin
D.  Tropomyosin

117.Smooth muscle contraction requires the actions of myosin light chain kinase.


True    False

118.In smooth muscle cells, ______________ functions in a manner analogous to troponin.


A.  myoglobin
B.  calmodulin
C.  tropomyosin
D.  titin

119.Smooth muscle cells


A.  contain intercalated discs.
B.  contain A and I bands.
C.  are innervated by somatic nerves.
D.  may contain gap junctions.

120.Calcium that is needed to activate cross-bridging in smooth muscle mainly comes from


A.  endoplasmic reticulum.
B.  extracellular fluid.
C.  intracellular fluid.
D.  dense bodies.

121.What condition of smooth muscle allows it to maintain contraction for long periods of time?


A.  latch state
B.  gap junctions
C.  peristalsis
D.  myogenic activity

122.Which of the following is NOT true of single-unit smooth muscle?


A.  All cells receive autonomic stimulation.
B.  It displays pacemaker activity.
C.  It displays myogenic response to stretch.
D.  Acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors and closes K

123.The arrector pili muscles and ciliary muscles are multi-unit smooth muscles.


True    False

124.Neurotransmitters are released at neuromuscular junctions to smooth muscle cells.


True    False

125.What are the swellings on autonomic nerves that release neurotransmitter to smooth muscle called?


A.  myoneural junctions
B.  gap junctions
C.  neuromuscular junctions
D.  varicosities

ch12 Key




4. A

5. D

6. B


8. A


10. C

11. A


13. TRUE

14. A

15. B

16. C


18. TRUE

19. A

20. C

21. B

22. C

23. A



26. TRUE

27. TRUE

28. C

29. A

30. B

31. D

32. C


34. D

35. B

36. C

37. TRUE

38. A

39. B

40. C


42. TRUE

43. D

44. A


46. TRUE

47. A

48. B

49. B

50. A

51. C

52. A

53. C

54. D

55. A


57. D

58. C

59. D

60. TRUE

61. A

62. C

63. A

64. B

65. D

66. A


68. B

69. D

70. B

71. C

72. B

73. C

74. A

75. TRUE

76. TRUE

77. A

78. A

79. D

80. D

81. A

82. A

83. C


85. A

86. A

87. C

88. D

89. TRUE


91. C

92. C

93. A


95. TRUE

96. TRUE

97. C

98. D

99. B

100. TRUE

101. C

102. TRUE

103. FALSE

104. FALSE

105. FALSE

106. D

107. C

108. B

109. C

110. D

111. FALSE

112. C

113. C

114. FALSE

115. FALSE

116. A

117. TRUE

118. B

119. D

120. B

121. A

122. A

123. TRUE

124. FALSE

125. D

ch12 Summary

# of Question
Blooms: Remembering
Blooms: Understanding
Fox – Chapter 12


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