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Infants Children and Adolescents 8th Edition Berk Meyers Test Bank

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Infants Children and Adolescents 8th Edition Berk Meyers Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0133936735

ISBN-10: 0133936732

 

Description

Infants Children and Adolescents 8th Edition Berk Meyers Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0133936735

ISBN-10: 0133936732

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

CHAPTER 9
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1)   According to Piaget, the most obvious change during the preoperational stage is the increase in

  1. A) language ability.
  2. B) problem-solving skills.
  3. C) logical thought.
  4. D) representational activity.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 311

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.1

2)   Piaget believed that sensorimotor activity leads to

  1. A) internal images of experience, which children then label with words.
  2. B) quicker executive function, which enables children to effectively combine schemes.
  3. C) decreased interest in solitary make-believe play.
  4. D) a better understanding of social interactions.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 312

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.1

3)   Piaget believed that through __________, young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes.

  1. A) logical reasoning
  2. B) language acquisition
  3. C) pretending
  4. D) physical activity

Answer: C

Page Ref: 312

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.1

4)   Kyle pretends to drink from a toy cup. Kyle’s sister, Anna, takes the same cup and tells him, “This is a hat.” Kyle refuses to place the cup on his head to pretend that it is a hat. Kyle is probably

  1. A) younger than 2 years of age.
  2. B) at least 4 years old.
  3. C) less than 1 year of age.
  4. D) at least 6 years old.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 312

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.1

 

5)            Make-believe __________ as children realize that agents and recipients of pretend actions can be independent of themselves.

  1. A) attaches to the real-life conditions associated with it
  2. B) becomes less self-centered
  3. C) includes less complex combinations of schemes
  4. D) becomes more self-directed

Answer: B

Page Ref: 312

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.1

6)   Five-year-old Matthew and 6-year-old Jessica like to pretend that they live or work in a zoo. Often, Matthew will pretend to be an animal and Jessica will pretend to be the zookeeper. This is an example of __________ play.

  1. A) parallel
  2. B) associative
  3. C) sociodramatic
  4. D) functional

Answer: C

Page Ref: 312

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.1

7)   Children as young as age 2 display

  1. A) a sophisticated understanding of role relationships and story lines.
  2. B) awareness that make-believe is a representational activity.
  3. C) the ability to flexibly understand that an object may take on multiple fictional identities.
  4. D) advanced forms of sociodramatic play without adult prompting.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 313

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.1

8)   Elisabeth is a preschooler who spends much of her time in sociodramatic play. She is likely to be seen as __________ by observers than peers who do not participate in sociodramatic play.

  1. A) more cognitively competent
  2. B) more socially competent
  3. C) less creative
  4. D) less verbal

Answer: B

Page Ref: 313

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.1

9)   Children who create imaginary companions tend to

  1. A) be maladjusted.
  2. B) have problems maintaining friendships.
  3. C) be more sociable with peers.
  4. D) be only children.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 313

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.1

 

10)   When shown a LEGO structure made to look like a crayon, 3-year-old Astrid said that the object “really and truly” was a crayon. Astrid is having trouble with

  1. A) class inclusion.
  2. B) hierarchical classification.
  3. C) the appearance–reality distinction.
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 314

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.1

11)   Which of the following is the best method of helping children appreciate dual representation?

  1. A) allowing children to explore and draw conclusions themselves
  2. B) exposing children to diverse symbols, such as picture books and maps
  3. C) encouraging children to engage in make-believe play with realistic props
  4. D) arranging for children to spend more time with more expert peers

Answer: B

Page Ref: 314–315

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.1

12)   According to Piaget, young children’s thinking is rigid and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment because they are not capable of

  1. A) magical thinking.
  2. B) animistic thinking.
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 315

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.1

13)   For Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is

  1. A) dual representation.
  2. B)
  3. C) animistic thinking.
  4. D)

Answer: B

Page Ref: 315

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.1

14)   One day during a rainstorm, 4-year-old Isaiah comments to his mother, “The sky is very sad today. We have to do something fun to make it happy again!” Isaiah’s belief that it rains because the sky is sad is an example of

  1. A) dual representation.
  2. B)
  3. C) animistic thinking.
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 315

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.1

15)   Six-year-old Demetri and 4-year-old Lucien’s mother gave each boy a glass of juice with their lunch, but Demetri asked her to switch the juice to another taller and narrower glass. After she poured the liquid from the original glass into the tall glass, Lucien said angrily, “Now Demetri gets more juice than me!” Lucien is displaying a lack of

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C) hierarchical classification.
  4. D) dual representation.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 315–316

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.1

16)   Three-year-old Rachael could not solve a conservation-of-liquid task because she focused on the height of the water. Rachael’s thinking is characterized by

  1. A) dynamic transformation.
  2. B)
  3. C) hierarchical classification.
  4. D)

Answer: D

Page Ref: 316

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.1

17)   __________ is part of every logical operation.

  1. A) Dynamic transformation
  2. B) Irreversibility
  3. C) Class inclusion
  4. D) Reversibility

Answer: D

Page Ref: 316

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.1

18)   Piaget’s class inclusion problem demonstrates children’s limitations in

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C) hierarchical classification.
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 316

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.1

19)   Which of the following statements about follow-up research to preoperational thought is true?

  1. A) Piaget underestimated preschoolers’ animistic beliefs.
  2. B) Young children exclusively use egocentric speech until about 3 years of age.
  3. C) Children as young as 2 years realize that what they see sometimes differs from what another person sees.
  4. D) Preschoolers think magic accounts for all events, even the ones they can personally explain.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 317

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.2

 

20)   Four-year-old Maria uses shorter, simpler expressions when interacting with her 2-year-old brother. This example suggests that Piaget may have

  1. A) overestimated preschoolers’ animistic thinking.
  2. B) overestimated preschoolers’ egocentrism.
  3. C) underestimated preschoolers’ animistic thinking.
  4. D) underestimated preschoolers’ egocentrism.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 317

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.2

21)   Four-year-old Matthew is given a toy robotic dog for his birthday. Matthew is most likely to

  1. A) try to interact with the robotic dog as he would a real dog.
  2. B) recognize that the robotic dog is not alive despite its lifelike features.
  3. C) insist that his mother make something for the robotic dog to eat.
  4. D) realize that the robotic dog cannot see, think, or remember like real dogs.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 317

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.2

22)   Between ages 4 and 8, children’s magical beliefs decline as they

  1. A) gain familiarity with physical events and principles.
  2. B) understand that television characters are not real.
  3. C) begin to ascribe supernatural causes only to events they can explain.
  4. D) become less likely to confuse fiction with reality.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 318

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.2

23)   Which of the following children is the most likely to express disbelief in the Tooth Fairy?

  1. A) Jacob, a Jewish boy
  2. B) Frank, a Catholic boy
  3. C) Lilian, a Methodist girl
  4. D) Vanessa, a Baptist girl

Answer: A

Page Ref: 318

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.2

24)   Follow-up research on preoperational thought indicates that preschoolers do not display the illogical characteristics that Piaget saw when the tasks are

  1. A) first performed by more expert peers while the preschooler watches.
  2. B) simplified and made relevant to their everyday lives.
  3. C) performed by their parents rather than unfamiliar experimenters.
  4. D) performed with their own toys rather than unfamiliar objects.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 318

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.2

 

25)   Preschoolers’ ability to reason about transformations is evident on

  1. A) conservation tasks.
  2. B) tasks that require reasoning by analogy.
  3. C) class inclusion problems.
  4. D) hierarchical classification tasks.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 318

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.2

26)   Preschoolers seem to use illogical reasoning

  1. A) as a coping mechanism when they greatly fear failure.
  2. B) whenever they are presented too little information to reason logically.
  3. C) only when they must grapple with unfamiliar topics.
  4. D) when adults pressure them to arrive at an answer quickly.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 318

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.2

27)   By the beginning of early childhood, children’s categories include objects that go together because of their common function, behavior, or natural kind. These findings challenge Piaget’s assumption that

  1. A) preschoolers’ thinking is wholly governed by perceptual appearances.
  2. B) the emergence of language brings about representational ability.
  3. C) preschoolers have difficulty distinguishing fantasy from reality.
  4. D) transitive inference emerges during the concrete operational stage.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 318

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.2

28)   At age 3, Elliot is able to break down __________ into __________.

  1. A) basic-level categories; general categories
  2. B) basic-level categories; subcategories
  3. C) general categories; subcategories
  4. D) subcategories; basic-level categories

Answer: B

Page Ref: 319

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.2

29)   By age 3½, __________ questions make up about half of children’s questions.

  1. A) object-naming
  2. B) non-information-seeking
  3. C) “building”
  4. D) rhetorical

Answer: C

Page Ref: 320 Box: Social Issues: Children’s Questions: Catalyst for Cognitive Development

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.2

 

30)   Which of the following statements about children’s questions is true?

  1. A) With age, preschoolers increasingly ask about function, activity, state, and theory of mind.
  2. B) At every age between 1 and 5 years, non-information-seeking questions are more often used than information-seeking questions.
  3. C) Children do not begin asking questions until they have the vocabulary to formulate sentences.
  4. D) Inquisitive children are more often merely clamoring for attention than seeking real answers to their questions.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 320 Box: Social Issues: Children’s Questions: Catalyst for Cognitive Development

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.2

31)   The usefulness of children’s questions depends on the

  1. A) child’s ethnicity and culture.
  2. B) topic about which the child is inquiring.
  3. C) informative value of adults’ answers.
  4. D) exposure they receive to different viewpoints.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 320 Box: Social Issues: Children’s Questions: Catalyst for Cognitive Development

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.2

32)   In non-Western village cultures, young children

  1. A) seldom engage in question asking with adults.
  2. B) rarely ask why-questions, aimed at getting explanations.
  3. C) receive more informative answers from adults than do Western children.
  4. D) are discouraged from asking too many questions.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 320 Box: Social Issues: Children’s Questions: Catalyst for Cognitive Development

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.2

33)   Evidence suggests that Piaget __________ preschoolers’ cognitive capabilities.

  1. A) was completely wrong about
  2. B) vastly overestimated
  3. C) accurately estimated
  4. D) was partly wrong and partly right about

Answer: D

Page Ref: 319

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.2

34)   Evidence that logical operations develop gradually and that preschoolers can be trained to perform well on Piagetian tasks pose a serious challenge to Piaget’s

  1. A) stage concept.
  2. B) views of animistic thinking.
  3. C) three-mountains problem.
  4. D) concept of egocentrism.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 320–321

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.2

 

35)   Some neo-Piagetian theorists combine Piaget’s stage approach with the __________ emphasis on task-specific changes.

  1. A) ecological systems
  2. B) information-processing
  3. C) dynamic systems
  4. D) Vygotskian

Answer: B

Page Ref: 321

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.2

36)   Which of the following statements best describes a Piagetian classroom?

  1. A) Children participate in peer collaboration, which allows them to teach and help one another.
  2. B) The teacher assumes that all children reach developmental milestones at the same rate.
  3. C) Teaching practices highlight concepts such as scaffolding and the zone of proximal development.
  4. D) Children are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 321

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.3

37)   A Piagetian classroom that emphasizes discovery learning would probably include

  1. A) explicit verbal teaching of ready-made information.
  2. B) a rich variety of activities designed to promote exploration and discovery.
  3. C) introduction of new skills according to normative standards of readiness.
  4. D) progress evaluation on the basis of average performance of same-age peers.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 321

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.3

38)   In his classroom, Mr. Palinco introduces activities that build on his students’ current thinking, challenging their incorrect ways of viewing the world, but he is careful not to impose new skills before the children indicate they are interested and ready. Mr. Palinco is adhering to which educational principle derived from Piaget’s theory?

  1. A) sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn
  2. B) assisted discovery
  3. C) discovery learning
  4. D) acceptance of individual differences

Answer: A

Page Ref: 322

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.3

39)   Vygotsky’s theory stresses the __________ of cognitive development.

  1. A) physiology
  2. B) neuroplasticity
  3. C) social context
  4. D) egocentricity

Answer: C

Page Ref: 322

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.4

 

40)   As Sunni plays, she says: “Where’s the cup? I want the cup. Oh, there it is. Now, I need the spoon.” Sunni is engaging in what researchers now call __________ speech.

  1. A) egocentric
  2. B) private
  3. C) inner
  4. D) social

Answer: B

Page Ref: 323

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.4

41)   Research shows that young children use private speech

  1. A) because they have difficulty with perspective taking.
  2. B) when they are engaged in cooperative dialogues.
  3. C) when tasks are appropriately challenging.
  4. D) when they cannot find a conversational partner.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 323

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.4

42)   Children who freely use private speech during a challenging activity __________ than their less talkative agemates.

  1. A) are less attentive
  2. B) show better task performance
  3. C) are less involved in the activity
  4. D) have more adjustment problems

Answer: B

Page Ref: 323

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.4

43)   According to Vygotsky, which of the following is within a child’s zone of proximal development?

  1. A) a task that is too difficult for a child to accomplish alone or with the help of an adult
  2. B) a task that a child has recently mastered independently following the assistance of an adult
  3. C) a task that is too difficult for a child to do alone but possible with the help of others
  4. D) a task that a child figures out how to accomplish through her own independent activity

Answer: C

Page Ref: 323

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.4

44)   Adults try to promote __________ when they translate their own insights in ways that are within a child’s grasp.

  1. A) transitive inference
  2. B) intersubjectivity
  3. C) guided participation
  4. D) scaffolding

Answer: B

Page Ref: 324

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.4

 

45)   While filling in a connect-the-dots page, Amir hesitated. His father asked him, “What comes after 7? Start counting from 1 and see if that helps you remember.” Amir recited the numbers and remembered that 8 comes after 7. This is an example of

  1. A)
  2. B) private speech.
  3. C) guided participation.
  4. D) assisted discovery.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 324

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.4

46)   Barbara Rogoff suggests the term __________ to encompass children’s diverse opportunities to learn through involvement with others, applying it as a broader concept than __________.

  1. A) cooperative learning; peer collaboration
  2. B) intersubjectivity; cooperative learning
  3. C) guided participation; scaffolding
  4. D) scaffolding; a zone of proximal development

Answer: C

Page Ref: 324

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.4

47)   In Mr. Naffie’s Vygotskian classroom, he guides children’s learning with explanations, demonstrations, and verbal prompts, tailoring his interventions to each child’s zone of proximal development. This is an example of the Vygotskian principle of

  1. A) peer collaboration.
  2. B) discovery learning.
  3. C) independent exploration.
  4. D) assisted discovery.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 325

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.5

48)   Vygotskian classrooms are more likely to utilize __________ than Piagetian classrooms.

  1. A) peer collaboration
  2. B) independent discovery
  3. C) make-believe play
  4. D) discovery learning

Answer: A

Page Ref: 325

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.5

49)   Vygotsky regarded make-believe play as

  1. A) a means of enhancing animistic thinking.
  2. B) the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development.
  3. C) instrumental to fostering independent discovery learning.
  4. D) opportunities to practice representational schemes.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 325

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.5

50)   One challenge to Vygotsky’s theory is that

  1. A) it places too much emphasis on how memory contributes to socially transmitted higher cognitive processes.
  2. B) in some cultures, verbal dialogues are not the only means through which children learn.
  3. C) it does not differ enough from Piaget’s theory about the purpose of private speech.
  4. D) studies have shown that children taught in Vygotskian classrooms are delayed in their learning.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 325

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.5

51)   Due to the large amounts of time children in village and tribal cultures spend in contact with adult work,

  1. A) assumption of adult roles is met with resistance from children.
  2. B) make-believe play is more complex and imaginative than in Western cultures.
  3. C) adults restrict children’s activities to ones that they feel the child can safely perform.
  4. D) parents have little need to rely on conversation and play to teach children.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 326 Box: Cultural Influences: Children in Village and Tribal Cultures Observe and Participate in Adult Work

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.5

52)   Young Yucatec Mayan children

  1. A) rarely imitate adult work in their make-believe play.
  2. B) and Western children display impressive similarities in their make-believe play.
  3. C) decide for themselves how much to sleep and eat.
  4. D) tend to frequently display attention-getting behaviors.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 326 Box: Cultural Influences: Children in Village and Tribal Cultures Observe and Participate in Adult Work

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.5

53)   Which of the following is a common criticism of Vygotsky’s theory?

  1. A) It underemphasizes the role of verbal communication in early childhood development.
  2. B) It overemphasizes the development of basic cognitive processes in early childhood.
  3. C) It places too much emphasis on how elementary capacities spark changes in children’s social experiences.
  4. D) It says too little about how basic cognitive skills contribute to socially transmitted higher cognitive processes.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 326

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.5

54)   Gains in __________ permit preschoolers to generate increasingly complex play and problem-solving goals.

  1. A) planning ability
  2. B) working memory
  3. C) episodic memory
  4. D) metacognition

Answer: B

Page Ref: 327

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.6

 

55)   Preschoolers whose parents offer suggestions, questions, and comments that help the child overcome frustration and sustain direction on a challenging task

  1. A) are more mature when reassessed a year or two later.
  2. B) have difficulty forming friendships in the early school years.
  3. C) tend to be delayed in problem solving and planning activities.
  4. D) are more socially mature than they are cognitively mature.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 328

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.6

56)   Seven-year-old Lucia learns much from cultural tools that support __________, such as following directions when playing games with her friends and when she helps her mother cook from recipes.

  1. A) scaffolding
  2. B) planning
  3. C) metacognition
  4. D) recognition

Answer: B

Page Ref: 329

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.6

57)   Even preschoolers with good language skills recall poorly because they are not skilled at using

  1. A) memory strategies.
  2. B) episodic memory.
  3. C) autobiographical memory.
  4. D)

Answer: A

Page Ref: 329

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.6

58)   Scripts

  1. A) clutter long-term memory with irrelevant information.
  2. B) help children organize, interpret, and predict everyday experiences.
  3. C) hinder memory for events that are highly distinctive.
  4. D) facilitate recall of specific instances of repeated experiences.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.6

59)   Lydia acts out her __________ of putting her baby brother to bed when she plays with her doll.

  1. A) theory of mind
  2. B) autobiographical memory
  3. C) script
  4. D) recognition memory

Answer: C

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.6

 

60)   After a trip to the zoo, 4-year-old Jaden is able to remember the animals he saw and the context in which he saw them. This is an example of

  1. A)
  2. B) recognition without recall.
  3. C) autobiographical memory.
  4. D) overlapping waves.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.6

61)   Which of the following changes occurs in children’s autobiographical memories with age?

  1. A) Older children begin to use more generic, nondescript reports.
  2. B) With age, preschoolers increasingly include subjective information.
  3. C) Older children are able to remain objective when recounting the details of an event.
  4. D) Younger children are more likely to explain an event’s personal significance.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.6

62)   After a field trip to the museum, Leslie asks her son, “What was the first thing we did? Why weren’t the trains moving? I thought that the pink airplane was really big. What did you think?” Leslie is using a(n) __________ style to elicit her son’s autobiographical memory.

  1. A) deliberative
  2. B) repetitive
  3. C) reconstructive
  4. D) elaborative

Answer: D

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.6

63)   After a trip to the supermarket, Raj asks his daughter, “Do you remember the supermarket? What did we do at the supermarket? What food did we buy at the supermarket?” Raj is using a(n) __________ style to elicit his daughter’s autobiographical memory.

  1. A) deliberate
  2. B) repetitive
  3. C) reconstructive
  4. D) elaborative

Answer: B

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.6

64)   Compared with Asian children, Western children produce narratives

  1. A) that contain more contradictory information.
  2. B) far less often, and usually about impersonal topics.
  3. C) without regard for their audience’s interest level.
  4. D) with more talk about their own thoughts and emotions.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 330

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.6

65)   According to __________ theory, when given challenging problems, children try out various strategies and observe which work best, which work less well, and which are ineffective.

  1. A) overlapping-waves
  2. B) metacognitive
  3. C) false-belief
  4. D) mindblindness

Answer: A

Page Ref: 331

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.6

66)   Overlapping-waves theory emphasizes that

  1. A) children should be discouraged from experimenting with less mature strategies.
  2. B) children will gradually select their strategies on the basis of two criteria: accuracy and ease.
  3. C) trying many strategies is vital for developing new, more effective solution techniques.
  4. D) in early childhood, children’s brains are poorly organized for problem-solving tasks.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.6

67)   Theory of mind research indicates that by age 2, children realize that

  1. A) both beliefs and desires determine behavior.
  2. B) thinking takes place inside their heads.
  3. C) people can hold false beliefs.
  4. D) others’ wants and needs can differ from their own.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.7

68)   Greta has just been shown two boxes—a plain, unmarked box full of raisins and a familiar marked raisin box that is empty. Next, Greta is asked to predict where another child will look for raisins. This task assesses Greta’s understanding of

  1. A) class inclusion.
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D) false belief.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 332

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.7

69)   Mastery of false belief is associated with early __________ ability.

  1. A) reading
  2. B) mathematical
  3. C) writing
  4. D) speaking

Answer: A

Page Ref: 333

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.7

 

70)   Children with autism

  1. A) only use words to exchange ideas.
  2. B) have narrow and overly intense interests.
  3. C) engage in more make-believe play than typically developing children.
  4. D) show extremely rapid synaptic pruning.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 335 Box: Biology and Environment: Autism and Theory of Mind

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.7

71)   Compared with typically developing children, children with autism

  1. A) more often engage in social referencing.
  2. B) are better at distinguishing facial expressions.
  3. C) more often imitate an adult’s novel behaviors.
  4. D) rarely use mental-state words such as think, feel, and know.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 335 Box: Biology and Environment: Autism and Theory of Mind

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.7

72)   Some researchers think that autism is due to

  1. A) impairment in an innate, core brain function that leaves the child unable to detect others’ mental states.
  2. B) mercury commonly found in recommended childhood vaccinations.
  3. C) mutations in the child’s genetic code, usually inherited through the father’s genes.
  4. D) a diet during the prenatal period and the first year that was lacking in essential vitamins and proteins.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 335 Box: Biology and Environment: Autism and Theory of Mind

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.7

73)   Chen, a preschooler, is most likely to view the mind as a(n)

  1. A) active machine.
  2. B) constructive agent that interprets information.
  3. C) passive container of information.
  4. D) constantly spinning wheel.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.7

74)   Three-year-old Stacy pretends to make a grocery list while in the car on the way to the grocery store. This activity reflects Stacy’s

  1. A) emergent literacy.
  2. B) animistic thinking.
  3. C) private speech.
  4. D) phonological awareness.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.8

 

75)   Which of the following statements about children’s emergent literacy is true?

  1. A) Many preschoolers think that each letter in a person’s signature represents a separate name.
  2. B) Most preschoolers realize that a single letter does not stand for a whole word.
  3. C) As early as the preschool years, children are able to distinguish between drawing and writing.
  4. D) Emergent literacy is something that must be explicitly taught to preschool-age children.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.8

76)   Anneli’s 4-year-old daughter manipulates sounds within words and enjoys rhyming games. Anneli’s daughter is demonstrating

  1. A) phonological awareness.
  2. B)
  3. C) private speech.
  4. D) knowledge of cardinality.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 336

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.8

77)   __________, in which adults discuss storybook content with preschoolers, promotes many aspects of language and literacy development.

  1. A) Literary discourse
  2. B) Joint reading
  3. C) Interactive reading
  4. D) Immersive reading

Answer: C

Page Ref: 337

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.8

78)   Because low-SES children are read to for an average of just 25 hours over the preschool years,

  1. A) their social skills do not develop at the same pace as their middle- and high-SES counterparts.
  2. B) most low-SES children enter kindergarten with little idea of what reading and writing is.
  3. C) parents report higher stress levels when helping their children with homework during the school years.
  4. D) they are behind in emergent literacy skills and in reading achievement throughout the school years.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 337

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.8

79)   Eighteen-month-old Jazmin is offered sets of animal crackers. Each set contains 1, 2, or 4 crackers. Jazmin consistently picks the set with the most pieces, displaying a beginning grasp of

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 337

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.8

 

80)   Four-year-old Jack is a snack helper. He counts five children at his table and then retrieves five milk cartons. Jack is displaying an understanding of

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: D

Page Ref: 338

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.8

81)   Four-year-old Paytin is shown a plate of cookies. She is told that there are 10 cookies on the plate. She watches as several cookies are added to or removed from the plate. Paytin’s sensible prediction as to how many cookies are left on the plate displays her understanding of

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: B

Page Ref: 339

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.8

82)   An early childhood math curriculum called __________ uses materials that promote math concepts and skills through three types of media: computers, manipulatives, and print.

  1. A) Helping Our Math Evolve (HOME)
  2. B) Mini Mathletes
  3. C) Little Einsteins
  4. D) Building Blocks

Answer: D

Page Ref: 339

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.8

83)   Research using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) indicates that

  1. A) preschoolers who develop well intellectually have homes rich in educational toys and books.
  2. B) preschoolers who develop well intellectually have parents who resolve conflicts with punishment.
  3. C) HOME scores predict academic achievement better than IQ scores.
  4. D) the organization of the physical environment predicts IQ gains only among high-SES children.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 340

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.9

84)   In Haylee’s preschool classroom, teachers provide activities in learning centers from which children select, and much learning takes place through play. Haylee’s preschool is

  1. A) actually a child-care center.
  2. B) an academic program.
  3. C) a child-centered program.
  4. D) unlikely to foster school readiness.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.9

85)   Evidence suggests that formal academic training during early childhood

  1. A) produces children who have more confidence in their academic abilities.
  2. B) produces children who display fewer stress behaviors, such as wiggling and rocking.
  3. C) enhances children’s study habits throughout the school years.
  4. D) undermines young children’s motivation and emotional well-being.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 341

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.9

86)   Montessori schools

  1. A) include multiage classrooms and teaching materials specially designed to promote exploration and discovery.
  2. B) undermine young children’s motivation and emotional well-being.
  3. C) emphasize formal academic training and deemphasize social development.
  4. D) include repetition and drill by teachers who structure children’s learning.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 342

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.9

87)   Which of the following statements is supported by research on Head Start?

  1. A) Gains for Head Start participants are similar, though not as strong as for participants of university-based programs.
  2. B) All eligible preschool-age children in the United States and Canada receive Head Start services.
  3. C) Head Start and other similar interventions are not very cost effective.
  4. D) Parental involvement in Head Start has minimal impact on children’s development.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 343

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.9

88)   The Head Start REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) program yields higher year-end language, literacy, and social development scores than typical Head Start classrooms because

  1. A) children who enroll in REDI programs are higher-SES.
  2. B) parents who enroll their children in REDI programs are more involved.
  3. C) it reduces the pressure typical Head Start classrooms put on children to learn.
  4. D) of its powerful impact on teaching quality.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 344

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.9

89)   Which of the following statements is supported by research on child care?

  1. A) Even high-quality early intervention does not enhance the development of economically disadvantaged children.
  2. B) Preschoolers exposed to substandard child care, particularly for long hours, display more behavior problems.
  3. C) Psychological well-being improves when children experience several child-care settings.
  4. D) The emotional problems of temperamentally difficult preschoolers improve dramatically in child care.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 344

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.9

 

90)   __________ child care is more strongly associated with cognitive gains than are other child-care arrangements.

  1. A) Center-based
  2. B) Home-based
  3. C) Academic-centered
  4. D) Family-run

Answer: A

Page Ref: 345

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.9

91)   Television programs with __________ are associated with improved executive function, greater recall of program content, gains in vocabulary and reading skills, and more elaborate make-believe play.

  1. A) action-packed storytelling
  2. B) quick, disconnected bits of information
  3. C) slow-paced and easy-to-follow narratives
  4. D) a spoken summary of the lessons learned at the end

Answer: C

Page Ref: 346

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.9

92)   Which of the following children is most likely to be a more frequent TV viewer?

  1. A) Allen, whose parents both work full time
  2. B) Kayleigh, who is the youngest of 4 children
  3. C) Joaquin, who is enrolled in child care
  4. D) Catherine, who is low SES

Answer: D

Page Ref: 346

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.9

93)   Which of the following statements about preschoolers’ computer use is true?

  1. A) The majority of 2- to 4-year-olds have used a computer at one time or another, with more than two-thirds doing so regularly.
  2. B) Because computers can have educational benefits, most early childhood classrooms include computer-learning centers.
  3. C) Children under the age of 4 should never be permitted to use a computer, as no educational programs exist for their age group.
  4. D) Parental reports suggest that about half of U.S. preschoolers play computer-based games so frequently that it has become a problem.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 347

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.9

94)   Jay introduced a new ball to his 2-year-old daughter, Kandi. He said, “I’m throwing the wiffle ball to you!” He then threw the new ball to Kandi. Kandi said, “Catch, wiffle, catch!” Kandi’s connection of the term “wiffle” to the ball is an example of

  1. A)
  2. B) syntactic bootstrapping.
  3. C) fast-mapping.
  4. D) semantic bootstrapping.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 348

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.10

 

95)   Young children learning Chinese, Japanese, and Korean acquire __________ more readily than their English-speaking agemates.

  1. A) proper nouns
  2. B) verbs
  3. C) object nouns
  4. D) modifiers

Answer: B

Page Ref: 348

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.10

96)   According to the principle of mutual exclusivity bias, toddlers

  1. A) assume that objects have multiple labels.
  2. B) connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter.
  3. C) assume that words refer to entirely separate, nonoverlapping categories.
  4. D) discover the structure of sentences by relying on the meanings of words.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 349

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.10

97)   Sarah’s mom told her they were going outside in the rain and needed a bumbershoot. Sarah had never heard the word bumbershoot before, but she knew the word umbrella. Sarah tries to figure out what the new word means, and eventually she decides that a bumbershoot must be an umbrella. Sarah must abandon her __________ to reach this conclusion.

  1. A) cardinality principle
  2. B) shape bias
  3. C) overregularization principle
  4. D) mutual exclusivity bias

Answer: D

Page Ref: 349

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.10

98)   According to __________, preschoolers discover many word meanings by observing how words are used in the structure of sentences.

  1. A) fast-mapping
  2. B) semantic bootstrapping
  3. C) mutual exclusivity
  4. D) syntactic bootstrapping

Answer: D

Page Ref: 349

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.10

99)   Children acquire vocabulary so efficiently and accurately that some theorists believe that

  1. A) principles such as mutual exclusivity bias have no bearing on language development.
  2. B) it is governed by different cognitive strategies than those applied to nonlinguistic information.
  3. C) children reject a coalition of perceptualRemember,cial, and linguistic cues in favor of rote learning.
  4. D) they are innately biased to induce word meanings using certain principles.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 350

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.10

 

100)  Between ages 2 and 3, English-speaking children use simple sentences that follow a(n) __________ word order.

  1. A) verb–subject–object
  2. B) subject–verb–object
  3. C) object–verb–subject
  4. D) verb–object–subject

Answer: B

Page Ref: 350

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.10

101)  Two-year-old Camden finds only one of her shoes. She says, “I need two shoes. I have two foots!” Camden’s error is an example of

  1. A) semantic bootstrapping.
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 351

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.10

102)  According to the __________ approach, young children rely on word meanings to figure out grammatical rules.

  1. A) fast-mapping
  2. B) semantic bootstrapping
  3. C) mutual exclusivity
  4. D) syntactic bootstrapping

Answer: B

Page Ref: 351

Skill: Remember

Objective: 9.10

103)  Research on pragmatics shows that by age 2, most children

  1. A) adjust their speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of their listeners.
  2. B) take turns in face-to-face interactions and respond appropriately.
  3. C) are able to maintain a topic over long periods of time.
  4. D) adapt their language to social expectations.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 352

Skill: Understand

Objective: 9.10

104)  When Sadie says, “I goed to the store,” her mother replies, “Yes, you went to the store.” Sadie’s mother’s response is an example of

  1. A) fast-mapping.
  2. B) a recast.
  3. C) an overregularization.
  4. D) an expansion.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 353

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.11

 

105)  When Moses says, “My ball is a circle,” his father relies, “Yes, your basketball is round, just like a circle.” Moses’s father’s response is an example of

  1. A) fast-mapping.
  2. B) a recast.
  3. C) an overregularization.
  4. D) an expansion.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 353

Skill: Apply

Objective: 9.11

ESSAY

106)  Bethany, age 3, spends, a large amount of time engaged in make-believe play. Her parents are especially concerned because Bethany has a pair of imaginary mice that she talks to and talks about. Bethany’s grandmother believes that this is a sign of maladjustment. What can you tell Bethany’s parents and grandmother that might ease their minds?

Answer:   Imaginary companions were once viewed as a sign of maladjustment, but research challenges that assumption. Between 25 and 45 percent of preschoolers and young school-age children spend much time in solitary make-believe, creating imaginary companions. Children with imaginary companions typically treat them with care and affection and say the companions offer caring, comfort, and good company, just as their real friendships do. Such children also display more complex and imaginative pretend play, are advanced in understanding others’ viewpoints and emotions, and are more sociable with peers.

Page Ref: 313

107)  Explain what Piaget’s famous conservation tasks reveal about preoperational children’s thinking.

Answer:   Conservation refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes. Piaget’s famous conservation tasks reveal several deficiencies of preoperational thought. First, preoperational children’s understanding is centered, or characterized by centration. They focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features. In the conservation of liquid task, the child centers on the height of the water, failing to realize that changes in width compensate for the changes in height. Second, children are easily distracted by the perceptual appearance of objects. Third, they treat the initial and final states of the water as unrelated events, ignoring the dynamic transformation (pouring of water) between them. The most important illogical feature of preoperational though is its irreversibility—an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point. Reversibility is part of every logical operation.

Page Ref: 315–316

108)  Describe a Piagetian classroom. What educational principles derived from Piaget’s theory continue to influence teacher training and classroom practices?

Answer:   In a Piagetian classroom, children are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment. Instead of presenting ready-made knowledge verbally, teachers promote discovery learning by providing a rich variety of activities designed to promote exploration, including art, puzzles, table games, dress-up clothing, building blocks, books, measuring tools, natural science tasks, and musical instruments. Teachers show sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn by introducing activities that build on children’s current thinking, challenging their incorrect ways of viewing the world. But they do not try to speed up development by imposing new skills before children indicate they are interested and ready. Piaget’s theory focuses on acceptance of individual differences. It assumes that all children go through the same sequence of development, but at different rates. Therefore, teachers must plan activities for individual children and small groups, not just for the whole class. In addition, teachers evaluate each child’s educational progress in relation to the child’s previous development, rather than on the basis of normative standards, or average performance of same-age peers.

Page Ref: 321–322

 

109)  How are a Piagetian and Vygotskian classroom similar? How do they differ?

Answer:   Both Piagetian and Vygotskian classrooms emphasize active participation and acceptance of individual differences. But a Vygotskian classroom goes beyond independent discovery to promote assisted discovery. Teachers guide children’s learning with explanations, demonstrations, and verbal prompts, tailoring their interventions to each child’s zone of proximal development. Assisted discovery is aided by peer collaboration, as children with varying abilities work in groups, teaching and helping one another.

Page Ref: 325

110)  What are scripts? How do they contribute to young children’s memory development?

Answer:   Like adults, young children remember familiar, repeated events in terms of scripts—general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. Young children’s scripts begin as a structure of main acts. Although first scripts contain only a few acts, as long as events in a situation take place in logical order, they are almost always recalled in correct sequence. With age, scripts become more spontaneous and elaborate. Scripts help children organize, interpret, and predict everyday experiences. Once formed, they can be used to predict what will happen on similar occasions in the future. Children rely on scripts to assist recall when listening to and telling stories. They also act out scripts in make-believe play as they pretend to put the baby to bed, go on a trip, or play school. And scripts support children’s earliest efforts at planning by helping them represent sequences of actions that lead to desired goals.

Page Ref: 329–330

111)  List strategies for supporting emergent literacy in early childhood, and explain why each strategy is useful.

Answer:   The following strategies are useful for supporting emergent literacy:

  • Provide literacy-rich home and preschool environments. Homes and preschools with abundant reading and writing materials—including a wide variety of children’s storybooksRemember,me relevant to children’s ethnic backgrounds—open the door to a wealth of language and literacy experiences. Make-believe play in which children have many opportunities to use newly acquired literacy skills in meaningful ways spurs literacy development.
  • Engage in interactive book reading. When adults discuss story content, ask open-ended questions about story events, explain the meaning of words, and point out features of print, they promote language development, comprehension of story content, knowledge of story structure, and awareness of units of written language.
  • Provide outings to libraries, museums, parks, zoos, and other community settings. Visits to child-oriented community settings enhance children’s general knowledge and offer many opportunities to see how written language is used in everyday life. They also provide personally meaningful topics for narrative conversation, which promote many language skills essential for literacy development.
  • Point out letter–sound correspondences, play rhyming and other language–sound games, and read rhyming poems and stories. Experiences that help children isolate the sounds in words foster phonological awareness—a powerful predictor of early childhood literacy knowledge and later reading and spelling achievement.
  • Support children’s efforts at writing, especially narrative products. Assisting children in their efforts to write—especially letters, stories, and other narratives—fosters many language and literacy skills.
  • Model literacy activities. When children see adults engaged in reading and writing activities, they better understand the diverse everyday functions of literacy skills and the knowledge and pleasure that literacy brings. As a result, children’s motivation to become literate is strengthened.

Page Ref: 338

 

112)  Mr. and Mrs. Harken are looking for a developmentally appropriate early childhood program for their son Max. Describe for the Harkens what they should look for in terms of physical setting, caregiver–child ratio, teacher qualifications, and daily activities.

Answer:   When looking for a developmentally appropriate early childhood program, parents should take note of the following:

  • Physical setting. Indoor environment is clean, in good repair, and well-ventilated. Classroom space is divided into richly equipped activity areas, including make-believe play, blocks, science, math, games and puzzles, books, art, and music. Fenced outdoor play space is equipped with swings, climbing equipment, tricycles, and sandbox.
  • Group size. In preschools and child-care centers, group size is no greater than 18 to 20 children with two teachers.
  • Teacher–child ratio. In preschools and child-care centers, teacher is responsible for no more than 8 to 10 children. In family child-care homes, caregiver is responsible for no more than 6 children.
  • Daily activities. Children select many of their own activities and learn through experiences relevant to their own lives, mainly in small groups or individually. Teachers facilitate children’s involvement, accept individual differences, and adjust expectations to children’s developing capacities.
  • Interactions between adults and children. Teachers move among groups and individuals, asking questions, offering suggestions, and adding more complex ideas. Teachers use positive guidance techniques, such as modeling and encouraging expected behavior and redirecting children to more acceptable activities.
  • Teacher qualifications. Teachers have college-level specialized preparation in early childhood development, early childhood education, or a related field.
  • Relationships with parents. Parents are encouraged to observe and participate. Teachers talk frequently with parents about children’s behavior and development.
  • Licensing and accreditation. Preschool and child-care programs are licensed by the state.

Page Ref: 345

113)  What are the benefits and drawbacks of children’s computer usage in the preschool and early school years?

Answer: The majority of 2- to 4-year-olds have used a computer at one time or another, with more than one-third doing so regularly—from once a week to every day. Because computers can have rich educational benefits, most early childhood classrooms include computer-learning centers. Computer literacy and math programs, including online storybooks, expand children’s general knowledge and encourage diverse language, literacy, and arithmetic skills. Kindergartners who use computers to draw or write produce more elaborate pictures and text, make fewer writing errors, and edit their work as much as older children do. With adult support, simplified computer languages that children can use to make designs or build structures introduce them to programming skills, which in turn promote problem solving and metacognition.

Children also use computers for game playing. Games designed for young children generally have specific educational goals, including literacy, math, science, colors, and other concepts. But on the whole, TV and game media are rife with gender stereotypes and violence.

Page Ref: 347

114)  Explain how adults can foster preschoolers’ language development.

Answer:   Interaction with more skilled speakers is vital in early childhood. Conversational give-and-take with adults is consistently related to language progress. Sensitive, caring adults use techniques that promote language skills. When children use words incorrectly or communicate unclearly, they give helpful, explicit feedback. But they do not overcorrect, especially when children make grammatical mistakes. Criticism discourages children from freely using language in ways that lead to new skills. Instead, adults often provide indirect feedback about grammar by using two strategies, often in combination: recasts—restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form, and expansions—elaborating on children’s speech, increasing its complexity. For example, if a child says, “I gotted new red shoes,” the parent might respond, “Yes, you got a pair of new red shoes.” However, the impact of such feedback has been challenged. The techniques are not used in all cultures and, in a few investigations, had no impact on children’s grammar. Rather than eliminating errors, perhaps expansions and recasts model grammatical alternatives and encourage children to experiment with them. Adults respond to children’s desire to become competent speakers by listening attentively, elaborating on what children say, modeling correct usage, and stimulating children to talk further.

Page Ref: 353

 

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