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Inquiry into Life 14th Edition Mader Windelspecht Test Bank

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Inquiry into Life 14th Edition Mader Windelspecht Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073525525

ISBN-10: 0073525529

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Inquiry into Life 14th Edition Mader Windelspecht Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073525525

ISBN-10: 0073525529

 

 

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Chapter 10

Plant Reproduction and Responses

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. What accounts for the attractiveness of many flowers that helps enhance their reproductive opportunities?
    A.petals
    B. sepals
    C. carpel
    D. stamens
    E. ovary

The petals of a flower are usually the showy, colorful part of the flower. This is what will often attract a pollinator to the flower.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.02 Identify the reproductive parts of a flower and describe the function of each part.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a component of the carpel of a flower?
    A.anthers
    B. stigma
    C. style
    D. ovary
    E. ovule

The anther is part of the stamen (male) part of the flower.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.02 Identify the reproductive parts of a flower and describe the function of each part.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. Which of the following is NOT a part of a flower?
    A.stem
    B. sepals
    C. petals
    D. stamen
    E. carpel

The stem of a plant is a vegetative, not a reproductive structure.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.01.02 Identify the reproductive parts of a flower and describe the function of each part.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. The male gametophyte in flowering plants will be found within the
    A.carpel.
    B. ovary.
    C. sepals.
    D. filament.
    E. pollen grain.

The pollen grain is the male gametophyte which produces the sperm.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.01.02 Identify the reproductive parts of a flower and describe the function of each part.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

True / False Questions

  1. Alternation of generations means that a diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis and a haploid gametophyte produces gametes by mitosis.
    TRUE

Alternation of generations means that a diploid sporophyte alternates with a haploid gametophyte.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.01 Recognize that flowering plants exhibit an alternation of generations even though they produce two types of spores and two types of gametophytes.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a dioecious plant. This means that the flowers of hemp
    A.are complete.
    B. are incomplete.
    C. are perfect.
    D. contain both stamens and carpels.
    E. contain both petals and sepals.

A dioecious plant means that the staminate and carpellate flowers are on separate plants.  Therefore the flowers are incomplete.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.01.02 Identify the reproductive parts of a flower and describe the function of each part.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. The pollen grain contains the
    A.sperm.
    B. egg.
    C. embryo.
    D. endosperm.
    E. anther.

The pollen grain is the male gametophyte and contains the sperm.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true about the life cycle of flowering plants?
    A.The sporophyte is diploid.
    B. The sporophyte produces two different types of spores.
    C. The female gametophyte is the seed.
    D. The male gametophyte is the pollen grain.
    E. The female gametophyte is retained within the body of the sporophyte parent generation.

The female gametophyte is the embryo sac.  The seed comes from the zygote.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. When you pick a bouquet of anther-less flowers, you have picked
    A.male gametophytes retained within the body of sporophytes.
    B. female gametophytes retained within the body of sporophytes.
    C. sporophytes retained within the body of male gametophytes.
    D. sporophytes retained within the body of female gametophytes.
    E. male gametophytes retained within the body of female gametophytes.

In flowering plants, the female gametophytes are retained within the body of the sporophyte.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. What flower mechanism would not help prevent pollination by a foreign plant species?
    A.A pollen tube only grows inside the style of its own species.
    B. The stigma is sticky mainly to its own species of pollen.
    C. The timing of flowering keeps pollinators moving among a limited number of species.
    D. Flowers attract a small number of specialized pollinators, and therefore pollen is not spread equally to all available species of flowers.
    E. Flowers of different plant species bloom at the same time with flowers of similar shape, size, and color.

Flowers that all bloom at the same time with similar flowers would have a difficult time preventing cross pollination.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. The megaspore divides mitotically, resulting in a female gametophyte or embryo sac that differentiates into an egg and a central cell with two nuclei called the
    A.generative cell.
    B. pollen grain.
    C. microspores.
    D. endosperm.
    E. polar nuclei.

The two nuclei within the central cell of the mature female gametophyte are called polar nuclei.  This will develop into the endosperm.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Double fertilization in an angiosperm produces
    A.a diploid zygote and a haploid polar nucleus.
    B. a diploid zygote and a diploid endosperm.
    C. a diploid embryo and a triploid zygote.
    D. a triploid embryo and a diploid endosperm.
    E. a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm.

Double fertilization results in a diploid zygote (one sperm and one egg) and a triploid endosperm (one sperm and the 2 polar nuclei).

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. Fertilization in flowering plants occurs
    A.on the stigma.
    B. in the style.
    C. in the ovule.
    D. in the anther.
    E. in the endosperm.

Fertilization occurs when the sperm reaches the ovule and joins with the egg and polar nuclei.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true about flowering plants?
    A.Sporophyte generation produces spores.
    B. Gametophyte generation produces gametes.
    C. Ovules contain the microspore mother cell.
    D. Microspores undergo mitosis to produce pollen grains.
    E. Megaspores undergo mitosis to produce an embryo sac.

The ovules are the female part of the plant and contain the megaspore mother cell.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

True / False Questions

  1. A flower that is missing the stamens would be considered female.
    TRUE

The stamens are the “male” portion of the flower.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.02 Identify the reproductive parts of a flower and describe the function of each part.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is not part of the female portion of the flower?
    A.filament
    B. carpel
    C. pistil
    D. stigma
    E. style

The female part of the flower is the carpel or pistil, composed of the stima, style, and ovary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.02 Identify the reproductive parts of a flower and describe the function of each part.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. How many nuclei are present inside a pollen grain?
    A.none
    B. one
    C. two
    D. three
    E. four

The pollen grain contains three nuclei: the two sperm nuclei and the tube cell nucleus.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. You find a plant that appears to contain stamens and carpels but no petals or sepals.  What could you conclude about this “flower”?
    A.The plant is pollinated by the wind.
    B. The plant is sterile.
    C. The plant is dioecious.
    D. The flower is considered complete.
    E. The plant is really a gametophyte.

Without petals and carpels to attract a pollinator, the plant is most likely pollinated by the wind.  Since it has both male and female parts it is not sterile or dioecious.  Gametophytes do not produce flowers.  A flower missing petals and carpels would be incomplete.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 10.01.02 Identify the reproductive parts of a flower and describe the function of each part.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

True / False Questions

  1. Cross-pollination occurs when pollen from an anther of one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant of the same species.
    TRUE

Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma.  Cross pollination would involve two different plants.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT correct about flowering plants?
    A.A sperm nucleus combines with one polar nucleus to form the endosperm.
    B. A sperm nucleus combines with the egg nucleus to eventually form the embryo.
    C. A pollen grain may be carried to the stigma of the ovary by the wind.
    D. A pollen tube grows down the style.
    E. They exhibit double fertilization.

The sperm nucleus combines with the two polar nuclei to form the endosperm.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. The function of endosperm is to
    A.form the seedling.
    B. develop the fruit.
    C. provide water to the embryo.
    D. provide nutrients to the embryo.
    E. provide a protective coating for the embryo.

The endosperm is the nutrient source for the developing plant.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.03 Diagram and describe the development of male and female gametophytes and the development of the sporophyte of flowering plants.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. A seed does NOT contain the
    A.embryo.
    B. endosperm.
    C. seed coat.
    D. ovary.
    E. developing sporophyte.

The ovary is contained within the sporophyte of the plant.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.02.03 Label seed structure and describe germination and dispersal.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. Which of the following is NOT a fruit?
    A.corn kernel
    B. peas and beans
    C. tomato
    D. cucumber
    E. onion

An onion is a bulb, derived from a stem, not a fruit.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.02.02 Identify different types of fruits.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Compound fruits
    A.include legumes like peas and beans.
    B. are derived from a simple ovary of a single carpel.
    C. develop from several individual ovaries.
    D. include peaches, tomatoes, and cherries.
    E. develop from a compound ovary of several fused carpels.

A compound fruit develops from several individual ovaries.  Examples include raspberries and blackberries.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 10.02.02 Identify different types of fruits.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. When an ice cap moves south or arid conditions push across a continent, a plant species can “migrate” although not as fast as individual animals usually travel. Which of the following generally allows a plant population to migrate the fastest?
    A.pollination
    B. fertilization
    C. germination
    D. seed dispersal
    E. asexual or vegetative propagation

Since new sporophytes develop from seeds, the farther the seeds can travel, the farther the plant can migrate.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.02.03 Label seed structure and describe germination and dispersal.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a part of a developing eudicot embryo?
    A.epicotyl
    B. hypocotyl
    C. cotyledon
    D. radicle
    E. coleoptile

The coleoptile is part of a monocot developing embryo.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.02.01 Recognize the developmental steps of a eudicot embryo and compare the function of its cotyledons to that of a cotyledon in monocots.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. Which structure of the eudicot embryo within a seed is NOT correctly identified?
    A.The radicle is the embryonic root.
    B. A cotyledon is a seed leaf.
    C. The endosperm is the nutrient source for the embryo.
    D. The epicotyl is the shoot above the attachment of the cotyledons.
    E. The hypocotyl is the embryo plant below the attachment of the cotyledons.

The nutrient source for the eudicot embryo are the cotyledons which replace the endosperm.  The endosperm is the food storage part of a monocot seed.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 10.02.01 Recognize the developmental steps of a eudicot embryo and compare the function of its cotyledons to that of a cotyledon in monocots.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Which of the following parts of a plant embryo grows downward?
    A.plumule
    B. epicotyl
    C. seed coat
    D. radicle
    E. shoot

The radicle becomes the primary root and grows downward.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.02.03 Label seed structure and describe germination and dispersal.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. Stored food in a cotyledon was derived from
    A.part of the stigma.
    B. the fruit.
    C. triploid endosperm.
    D. the egg nucleus.
    E. the ovary.

The cotyledon takes food from the endosperm and passes it on to the embryo.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.02.03 Label seed structure and describe germination and dispersal.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. Which of these associations is NOT correct?
    A.plumule—leaves
    B. radicle—roots
    C. seed coat—ovary wall
    D. cotyledons—stored food
    E. hypocotyl—stem

The ovary wall develops into the fruit, not the seed coat.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 10.02.03 Label seed structure and describe germination and dispersal.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. The protective sheath that first surrounds the shoot is called the
    A.cotyledon.
    B. coleoptile.
    C. plumule.
    D. radicle.
    E. epicotyl.

The coleoptile is the protective sheath that protects the plumule in a monocot.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.02.03 Label seed structure and describe germination and dispersal.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. Which of the following is arranged in proper order?
    A.fertilization ® pollination ® seed formation ® germination
    B. seed formation ® fertilization ® germination ® pollination
    C. pollination ® fertilization ® seed formation ® germination
    D. germination ® seed formation ® fertilization ® pollination
    E. pollination ® fertilization ® germination ® seed formation

Pollination is required for fertilization which is required for seed formation.  Seeds then germinate.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 10.02.01 Recognize the developmental steps of a eudicot embryo and compare the function of its cotyledons to that of a cotyledon in monocots.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. After a seed has been produced, it often has a time during which no growth occurs called
    A.pre-germination.
    B. senescence.
    C. suspended animation.
    D. dormancy.
    E. hibernation.

Seeds lie dormant before they germinate.  Usually this is when the conditions are not right for germination.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.02.03 Label seed structure and describe germination and dispersal.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. Which of the following would be considered a dry fruit?
    A.one that doesn’t split open
    B. one derived from a  simple ovary
    C. one derived from the receptacle and not the ovary
    D. one derived from several individual ovaries
    E. one derived from many different carpels

A dry fruit is one that doesn’t split open.  These would include wheat, rice, and corn.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.02.02 Identify different types of fruits.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

True / False Questions

A corn kernel is classified as a seed.

FALSE

A corn kernel is actually a fruit, not a seed.  However the dry pericarp adheres to the seed.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.02.02 Identify different types of fruits.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. When you eat an apple, the core left over is the ovary.
    TRUE

The apple flesh is actually an accessory fruit.  Only the core is derived from the ovary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.02.02 Identify different types of fruits.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. A pea is actually a seed.
    TRUE

The pea pod is the fruit.  The peas inside the pod are the seeds.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.02.02 Identify different types of fruits.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Peas and beans are considered legumes.  Why?
    A.A legume is a fruit that splits along two sides when mature.
    B. They are both simple fruits.
    C. The actual seed is inside the pod.
    D. Both are green when ripe.
    E. Both develop relationships with nitrogen fixing bacteria.

Although all of the statements are true, the reason peas and beans are considered legumes is because a legume is a fruit that splits along two sides when mature.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.02.02 Identify different types of fruits.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. You are examining a seed with tiny white plumes attached to it.  How is this type of seed most likely dispersed?
    A.by animals who eat it
    B. by floating on water
    C. by the wind
    D. by attaching to the fur of animals
    E. by bursting forth from the seed pod

Tiny white plumes are most likely a type of parachute for being carried on the wind.  Dandelions have this type of dispersal mechanism.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.02.03 Label seed structure and describe germination and dispersal.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. If digestive enzymes are used to remove the plant cell wall, the naked plant cell that remains is called a
    A.plastid.
    B. plantlet.
    C. callus.
    D. protoplast.
    E. phytoplast.

Protoplasts are plant cells without cell walls.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.03.02 Describe how plants are propagated in tissue culture.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. Which of the following methods of reproduction is NOT asexual?
    A.runners and stolons
    B. rhizomes
    C. cuttings
    D. grafting and suckers
    E. flowering

Flowers are part of sexual reproduction.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.03.01 Recognize how asexual reproduction in plants differs from sexual reproduction.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Asexual reproduction in plants does NOT involve
    A.daughter plants being genetically identical to the parent plant.
    B. the production of gametes.
    C. a portion of one plant giving rise to a completely new plant.
    D. vegetative propagation.
    E. the use of runners.

Gametes (sperm and eggs) are part of sexual reproduction.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.03.01 Recognize how asexual reproduction in plants differs from sexual reproduction.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. Which of the following is NOT true concerning plant tissue culture?
    A.New plants can be cultivated from any existing plant cell.
    B. Most plant cells are totipotent, meaning an entire plant can be produced from one cell.
    C. Hormones can be used to cause the production of shoots from tissue.
    D. Plants can be produced from shoot tips, leaves, and anthers.
    E. Foreign genes such as those from other plants or even animals can be inserted into plant cells.

New plants cannot be produced from plant cells that lose their nuclei or are dead at maturity.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 10.03.02 Describe how plants are propagated in tissue culture.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of tissue culture?
    A.Plant tissue can be used to produce medicines such as digitoxin and other products for the treatment of human disease.
    B. Tissue culture allows the production of healthier plant varieties.
    C. New plant varieties can be formed by using somatic embryos.
    D. The use of transgenic plants has led to a serious decline in crop production throughout the world.
    E. Engineered plants are resistant to herbicides and disease.

A serious decline in crop production is not an advantage.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 10.03.02 Describe how plants are propagated in tissue culture.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

True / False Questions

  1. In asexual reproduction in plants, there is only one parent, instead of two.
    TRUE

Asexual reproduction begins with one plant and is essentially the production of another plant from that one plant.  Sexual reproduction requires two parents.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.03.01 Recognize how asexual reproduction in plants differs from sexual reproduction.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Strawberry plants do not produce seeds that are used for next year’s crop.  How are strawberry plants propagated?
    A.from flowers
    B. from pollen
    C. from the nodes of stolons
    D. from tissue culture
    E. from protoplasts

Strawberry plants are propogated from runners, the nodes of stolons.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.03.01 Recognize how asexual reproduction in plants differs from sexual reproduction.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. How are potato plants propagated?
    A.by “eyes” (a bud)
    B. by runners
    C. by pollen
    D. by flowers
    E. by protoplasts

Potatoes are actually underground stems and are propogated by “eyes” or buds that produce a new plant.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.03.01 Recognize how asexual reproduction in plants differs from sexual reproduction.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Commercial micropropagation methods result in cloning of plants.
    TRUE

These methods produce thousands to millions of identical, or cloned, seedlings.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.03.02 Describe how plants are propagated in tissue culture.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a somatic embryo?
    A.These are asexually produced.
    B. These are produced in large tanks called bioreactors.
    C. These are genetically quite diverse.
    D. These are encapsulated in a protective gel for shipping.
    E. These will generate an entire mature plant.

Somatic embryos are clonesRemember, they are genetically identical. However, mutations do arise during the production process.  This does not make them quite diverse.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.03.02 Describe how plants are propagated in tissue culture.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. One of the new technologies developed from tissue culture and genetic engineering is plant hybridization.
    FALSE

Plant hybridization is an ancient technique of producing plants with desirable traits.  It does not utilize these new technologies.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.03.03 Explain how genetic engineering can be used to alter plant traits.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. In order to produce a new plant via meristem culture, you need to remove the meristem from one plant and place it in a water containing various minerals.  The meristem will then develop new shoots and roots.
    FALSE

Hormones must be added to the meristem culture to produce shoots and roots.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.03.02 Describe how plants are propagated in tissue culture.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Cereal grains are one of the easiest plants to genetically modify.
    FALSE

Cereal grains have proved difficult to modify genetically because protoplasts do not regenerate well.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.03.03 Explain how genetic engineering can be used to alter plant traits.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which modern technology is not used in the creation of transgenic plants?
    A.protoplast regeneration
    B. high voltage electric pulses
    C. a gene gun
    D. plant hybridization
    E. a bacterial plasmid

Plant hybridization is not considered a modern technology.  Each of the other techniques can be used to genetically modify plants.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.03.03 Explain how genetic engineering can be used to alter plant traits.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not an advantage of genetically engineered plants?
    A.decreased yield
    B. herbicide resistance
    C. salt tolerance
    D. drought tolerance
    E. disease protection

All of the above have been engineered into transgenic plants except decreased yield.  This would not be an advantage.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.03.03 Explain how genetic engineering can be used to alter plant traits.
Section: 10.03
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. Which substance will help in seed germination and indicates to the plant that the stem must elongate to reach the light?
    A.cytokinins
    B. ethylene
    C. auxin
    D. agent orange
    E. phytochrome

In addition to flowering, phytochrome is involved in indicating to seeds of some plants to germinate and that conditions are favorable for germination.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.04.02 Identify the various types of plant hormones and their function.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. Which plant hormone will act as an inhibitor of growth and maintains dormancy?
    A.auxin
    B. indoleacetic acid
    C. gibberellin
    D. cytokinin
    E. abscisic acid

Abscisic acid leads to seed and bud dormancy.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.04.02 Identify the various types of plant hormones and their function.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. Which plant hormone is used by industry to cause fruits to drop from a tree?
    A.indoleacetic acid
    B. gibberellin
    C. auxin
    D. ethylene
    E. abscisic acid

Ethylene, is a gas that causes abscission or fruit to drop.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.04.02 Identify the various types of plant hormones and their function.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. A hormone called cytokinin was discovered in coconut milk and found to stimulate cell division. With this function, where else in a plant would you expect to find cytokinin?
    A.bark
    B. pith
    C. root tips
    D. spongy mesophyll
    E. xylem

Root tips are actively growingRemember, you would expect to find a growth hormone present there.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.04.01 Explain the importance of plant hormones.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. Which of the following plant hormones prevents senescence and can initiate leaf growth?
    A.indoleacetic acid
    B. gibberellin
    C. cytokinin
    D. abscisic acid
    E. ethylene

Cytokinins promote cell division, prevent senescence (aging), and can initiate leaf growth.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.04.01 Explain the importance of plant hormones.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. Which of the following plant hormones could be used by industry to increase the size of sugarcane production?
    A.indoleacetic acid
    B. gibberellins
    C. zeatin
    D. abscisic acid
    E. ethylene

Gibberellins cause stem elongation in plants.  Since the harvested part of the sugarcane is the stem, gibberelllins could increase yields.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.04.01 Explain the importance of plant hormones.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. Clover is an example of a what type of flowering plant?
    A.long-day
    B. short-day
    C. day-neutral
    D. intermediate-day
    E. non-flowering

Clover flowers when the day length is longer than a critical length.  Therefore, it is a long-day plant.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.04.03 Recognize how plants respond to stimuli.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. Positive phototropism and positive gravitropism occur from the action(s) of
    A.auxin in both cases.
    B. gibberellin and auxin, respectively.
    C. cytokinin and auxin, respectively.
    D. abscisic acid and ethylene, respectively.
    E. ethylene and auxin, respectively.

Auxin is involved in both positive phototropism and negative gravitropism.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.04.03 Recognize how plants respond to stimuli.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. Which action would cause a long-day plant to flower?
    A.Interrupt the day with a period of darkness.
    B. Interrupt a long night with a flash of light.
    C. Give the plant some phytochrome.
    D. Allow an insect to pollinate the plant.
    E. Keep the plant in the dark.

A long-day plant flowers when the day length is longer than a critical legnth.  Interrupting the darkness with a flash of light causes it to flower.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.04.03 Recognize how plants respond to stimuli.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. From the discussion of long-day and short-day plants, it is obvious that “day-neutral” plants
    A.flower when the night is shorter than a critical length.
    B. flower when the night is longer than a critical length.
    C. are not dependent on the length of the night or day for flowering.
    D. have short stems or long stems depending on the photoperiod.
    E. have flowers that only open during the daytime.

A day-neutral plant does not depend on day length for flowering.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.04.03 Recognize how plants respond to stimuli.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. Plants could readily develop seasonal responses based on temperature changes but have evolved their rhythms based on a comparison of daylight and darkness. Why has the day-night ratio system been selected?
    A.Temperature has no effect upon plant biochemistry.
    B. Temperature is a gradation but day/night is all-or-nothing.
    C. A plant’s nervous system is tuned to light stimuli and not to temperature stimuli.
    D. Temperatures fluctuate widely across seasons and from year to year, but photoperiod comparisons are a more reliable indicator of season.
    E. Having a day-night system makes plants more likely to be an evolutionary success since animals follow day-night cycles as well.

The day-night ratio is tied to the movement of Earth and is fairly dependable.  Although temperatures affect plants, they are less reliable than the movement of Earth.  Plants do not have nervous systems and are not necessarily tied to animal evolution.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 10.04.03 Recognize how plants respond to stimuli.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

  1. The response of plants to the relative length of light and darkness is termed
    A.phototropism.
    B. photosynthesis.
    C. photoperiodism.
    D. translocation.
    E. transpiration.

The photoperiod is the ratio of the length of day to the length of night over a 24-hour period.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.04.03 Recognize how plants respond to stimuli.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. A friend complains that all of her houseplants have bent stems. You examine the plants and find that their stems all curve toward the light. What would you recommend to your friend to correct the problem?
    A.Apply an auxin to the shady side of the stems.
    B. Water the plants more frequently.
    C. Apply gibberellins to the bases of the stems.
    D. Turn each plant occasionally.
    E. Repot the plants.

By turning the plants, different sides of the plants will face the light and the stems will grow straighter.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 10.04.03 Recognize how plants respond to stimuli.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Plant hormones are small organic molecules produced by the plants themselves.
    TRUE

Plants produce their own hormones which are small organic molecules.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.04.01 Explain the importance of plant hormones.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

  1. Plant hormones bring about a physiological response in the plant after binding to the nucleus of the plant cells.
    FALSE

Plant hormones bind to a specific receptor protein in the plasma membrane of the plant cell.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 10.04.01 Explain the importance of plant hormones.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. What pathway produces the gametophytes during the alternation of generations in plants?
    A.mitosis
    B. meiosis
    C. binary fission
    D. both mitosis and meiosis
    E. none of these pathway will produce gametophytes

The gametophytes are produced during mitosis.  During meiosis spores are produced.  Binary fission is an asexual process found in bacteria.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.01 Recognize that flowering plants exhibit an alternation of generations even though they produce two types of spores and two types of gametophytes.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

True / False Questions

  1. The two-stage life cycle in plants evolved as an adaptation to life on land.
    TRUE

The two-stage life cycle evolved as an adaptation to life on land for plants.  This enabled the plant to produce stages of the life cycle that would be resistant to drying out in the form of spores.  It also produces genetic variation through the process of meiosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 10.01.01 Recognize that flowering plants exhibit an alternation of generations even though they produce two types of spores and two types of gametophytes.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. List the features that enable us to distinguish the difference between a simple fruit and a compound fruit.

A simple fruit is derived from a simple ovary of a single carpel or from a compound ovary of several fused carpels.
A compound fruit develops from several individual ovaries.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 10.02.02 Identify different types of fruits.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Reproduction

  1. Describe the function of the following plant structures:  petals, stamens, and carpel.

The petals are the showy part of the plant that are used to attract a pollinator.
The stamen is the male portion of the flower.  The stamen will contain the anther that produces the pollen and a filament that supports the anther.
The carpel is the female portion of the flower.  The carpel will contain the stigma, the sticky end that catches the pollen, the style, the stalk that supports the stigma and the ovary, the base that contains the ovules.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 10.01.02 Identify the reproductive parts of a flower and describe the function of each part.
Section: 10.01
Topic: Plant Reproduction

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. What would be the outcome of applying ethylene to a bushel of oranges?
    A.Ethylene stimulates cellulase which will hydrolyze the cellulose in plant cell walls.  This will cause the fruit to ripen.
    B. Ethylene will initiate and maintain seed dormancy as well as bringing about the closure of the stomata.
    C. Ethylene stimulates cellulase which will hydrolyze the proteins in plant cell walls.  This will cause the fruit to ripen.
    D. Ethylene stimulates cellulase which will hydrolyze the lipids in plant cell walls.  This will cause the fruit to ripen.
    E. Ethylene stimulates cell division which will cause the fruit to ripen.

Ethylene stimulates cellulase which will hydrolyze the cellulose in plant cell walls.  This will cause the fruit to ripen. Abscisic acid initiates and maintains seed dormancy as well as bringing about the closure of the stomata. Cellulase hydrolyzes the cellulase not the proteins or lipids.  Cytokinins are the hormones that promote cell division.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 10.04.02 Identify the various types of plant hormones and their function.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. Explain the various uses of gibberellins in the agricultural industry.

Gibberellins are growth-producing hormones that bring about elongation of the resulting cells.  If gibberellins are applied externally to plants, stem elongation occurs.  Dwarf plants will grow to a normal height.  Dormancy of seeds can be broken and germination can also be initiated.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 10.04.02 Identify the various types of plant hormones and their function.
Section: 10.04
Topic: Plant Growth Responses

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is the correct sequence for the germination of the eudicot seed?
    A.The two cotyledons have absorbed the endosperm and supply the nutrients to the embryo.  As the embryo emerges from the soil it consumes the nutrients and develops the shoot.  The hypocotyl becomes part of the stem and the radicle develops into the roots.
    B. The cotyledon was absorbed by the endosperm and supplies the nutrients to the embryo.  As the embryo emerges from the soil it consumes the nutrients and develops the shoot.  The hypocotyl becomes part of the stem and the radicle develops into the roots.
    C. The two cotyledons have absorbed the endosperm and supply the nutrients to the embryo.  As the embryo emerges from the soil it consumes the nutrients and develops the shoot.  The radicle becomes part of the stem and the hypocotyl develops into the roots.
    D. The pericarp has absorbed the endosperm  and supply the nutrients to the embryo.  As the embryo emerges from the soil it consumes the nutrients and develops the shoot.  The hypocotyl becomes part of the stem and the radicle develops into the roots.
    E. The two cotyledons have absorbed the endosperm and supply the nutrients to the embryo.  As the embryo emerges from the soil it consumes the nutrients and develops the shoot.  The plumule and the radicle push through the coleorhiza during germination.

The two cotyledons have absorbed the endosperm and supply the nutrients to the embryo.  As the embryo emerges from the soil it consumes the nutrients and develops the shoot.  The hypocotyl becomes part of the stem and the radicle develops into the roots.  Eudicots have two cotyledons while monocots have one.  The plumule and the radicle push through the coleorhiza during germination in the monocots.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 10.02.03 Label seed structure and describe germination and dispersal.
Section: 10.02
Topic: Plant Reproduction

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