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Introduction to Marine Biology 4th Edition Karleskint Turner Small Test Bank

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Introduction to Marine Biology 4th Edition Karleskint Turner Small Test Bank

 

ISBN-13: 978-1133364467

ISBN-10: 1133364462

 

Description

Introduction to Marine Biology 4th Edition Karleskint Turner Small Test Bank

 

ISBN-13: 978-1133364467

ISBN-10: 1133364462

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Chapter 12—Marine Mammals

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. All marine mammals:
a. are faster swimmers compared to other marine animals.
b. have lungs modified to breathe underwater.
c. are aggressive in obtaining food.
d. are intelligent compared to other marine animals.
e. have baleen.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   315

 

  1. All the following are characteristics of marine mammals except:
a. mammary glands.
b. gills.
c. a placenta.
d. being homeothermic.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   315

 

  1. Marine mammals, because of the energy demands of being homeothermic, expend about ____ times as much energy as other marine organisms.
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 20
e. 25

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   315

 

  1. Sea otters are protected from the cold by having:
a. thick blubber.
b. thick fur.
c. waxy fur.
d. fatty tissue.
e. thick skin.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   316

 

  1. Sea otters consume nearly ____% of their body weight per day.
a. 10
b. 25
c. 30
d. 40
e. 50

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   317

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Sea lions and seals belong to the suborder:
a. Carnivora.
b. Sirenia.
c. Cetacea.
d. Pinnipedia.
e. Odontoceti.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   319

 

  1. Pinnipeds molt
a. in the ocean.
b. on shore.
c. in the winter.
d. throughout the year.
e. They do not molt.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   319

 

  1. Pinniped means
a. clawed footed.
b. flipper footed.
c. feather footed.
d. paddle footed.
e. split footed.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   319

 

  1. In eared seals, the main propulsive force for swimming is produced by the:
a. forelimbs.
b. hindlimbs.
c. undulations of the body.
d. tail.
e. caudal fin.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   319

 

  1. True seals’ characteristics include
a. lack of external ear.
b. swimming with forelimbs.
c. swimming with hind limbs.
d. both a and c
e. both a and b.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   319

 

  1. The Otariidae characteristics include
a. external ears.
b. swimming with hind limbs.
c. swimming with fore limbs.
d. both a and c.
e. both a and b.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   319

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following species is endangered
a. California sea lion
b. northern fur seal
c. Steller’s sea lion
d. both a and b

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   319 | 322

 

  1. All the following are all major points of the article Where Have the Steller’s Sea Lions Gone except:
a. Some biologists thought commercial fishing was culprit.
b. Killer whales may play a role in pinniped population regulation.
c. Scientific views undergo revision with new data and findings.
d. Scientists often come to contradictory conclusions when examining the same phenomenon.
e. Steller’s sea lions decimated the salmon population in Alaska.

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   322

 

  1. Which pinniped can use its hind limbs to walk on land?
a. Guadalupe fur seal
b. Steller’s sea lion
c. leopard seal
d. elephant seal
e. harbor seal

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   319 | 321

 

  1. The deepest diving pinnipeds are the:
a. sea lions.
b. harbor seals.
c. Weddell seals.
d. elephant seals.
e. Stellar’s sea lion.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   320

 

  1. Known for the ability to dive deep, the ____ has set a record of 1530 m.
a. harbor seal
b. Weddel seal
c. Steller’s sea lion
d. leopard seal
e. northern elephant seal

 

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   320

 

  1. Male animals that mate with and control more than one female at a time are called:
a. hermaphroditic.
b. heterogenous.
c. polygynous.
d. androgynous.
e. monogamous.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   320

 

 

 

  1. Most pinnipeds mate:
a. every two years.
b. every four years.
c. once in their lifetime.
d. annually.
e. every three years.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   320

 

  1. The leopard seal’s primary predator is called the:
a. sperm whale.
b. polar bear.
c. killer whale.
d. salt water crocodile.
e. Weddel seal.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   323

 

  1. The ____ feeds on penguins and other seals.
a. Guadalupe fur seal
b. elephant seal
c. Steller’s sea lion
d. leopard seal
e. harbor seal

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   323

 

  1. The structure used to amplify an elephant seal bull’s roar is a(n):
a. inflated proboscis.
b. hallow tusk used as a horn.
c. sirenaphores.
d. blowhole.
e. melon.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   324

 

  1. The entertaining seals of marine attraction parks are:
a. sea lions.
b. harbor seals.
c. elephant seals.
d. fur seals.
e. harp seals.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   321

 

  1. Manatees and dugongs belong to the order:
a. Pinnipedia.
b. Cetacea.
c. Carnivora.
d. Sirenia.
e. Fissipedia

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   324

 

 

 

  1. The sirenians
a. rest on shore.
b. bear young on land.
c. are completely aquatic.
d. are fish eaters.
e. don’t have blubber since they live in tropical water

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   324

 

  1. The following are all differences between manatees and dugongs except:
a. fresh and seawater habitat for manatees, dugongs only live in seawater.
b. dugongs have a larger head.
c. dugongs have a shorter flipper.
d. manatees’ forelimbs form flippers, dugongs’ do not.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   325

 

  1. The following are all similarities between sirenians and whales except:
a. streamlined, practically hairless bodies.
b. forelimbs modified to form flippers.
c. tail flukes.
d. diet of macrophytes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   325–327

 

  1. Manatees are mostly found in:
a. cold polar waters.
b. Antarctica.
c. tropical estuaries.
d. temperate coastal areas.
e. Eastern Pacific Ocean.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   325

 

  1. The greatest threat to the Florida manatees is
a. loss of habitat.
b. human predation.
c. being mauled or killed by boats.
d. stranding in thermal plumes of power plants.
e. disease from urban runoff.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   325

 

  1. Manatees feed mostly on:
a. small fishes.
b. benthic invertebrates.
c. plankton.
d. aquatic plants.
e. other marine mammals.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   325

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Whales, dolphins, and porpoises all belong to the order:
a. Sirenia.
b. Cetacea.
c. Carnivora.
d. Pinnipedia.
e. Fissipedia.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   326

 

  1. Those marine mammals most adapted to a marine existence are the
a. pinnipeds.
b. sirenians.
c. cetaceans.
d. sea otters.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   326–327

 

  1. It is believed that cetaceans evolved from:
a. a terrestrial mammal.
b. a pinniped.
c. fishes.
d. polychaetes.
e. dinosaurs.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   326

 

  1. Through evolution, the hindlimbs of cetaceans have been modified, eventually becoming
a. flippers.
b. tail.
c. non-existent.
d. flukes.
e. enlarged.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   327

 

  1. To reduce drag whales have eliminated
a. external ears.
b. pectoral fins.
c. external appendages.
d. mammary glands.
e. flukes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   327

 

  1. The absence of sweat glands in cetaceans aids in
a. maintaining body heat.
b. conserving water.
c. increasing internal salinity.
d. reducing drag.
e. swimming efficiency.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   327

 

 

 

 

  1. Adaptations for deep diving in cetaceans include all the following except:
a. expelling air from the lungs.
b. large lungs with large number of air sacs.
c. rib cage that can collapse.
d. sonar for detecting the depth.
e. high red blood cell count

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   328

 

  1. Adaptations for deep diving in cetaceans include all the following except:
a. large amount of hemoglobin.
b. large amount of cholesterol.
c. lowered sensitivity to lactic acid.
d. high levels of myglobin.
e. decreased metabolism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   328

 

  1. Myoglobin is a protein found in the muscles of cetaceans that:
a. stores energy.
b. stores oxygen.
c. maintains buoyancy.
d. maintains heat.
e. stores ATP.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   328

 

  1. The milk of cetaceans is very rich in:
a. fat.
b. protein.
c. carbohydrates.
d. cellulose.
e. DNA.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   331

 

  1. Baleen plates are composed of:
a. calcium carbonate.
b. cellulose.
c. keratin.
d. chitin.
e. silica.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   331

 

  1. The food of most baleen whales consists of:
a. benthic invertebrates.
b. nektonic fishes.
c. algae.
d. plankton.
e. detritus.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   331

 

 

 

  1. Bubble nets for confusing and trapping plankton are produced by:
a. gray whales.
b. humpback whales.
c. minke whales.
d. sperm whales.
e. dolphins.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   333

 

  1. Fin whales feed mostly on:
a. benthic invertebrates.
b. nektonic fishes.
c. algae.
d. krill.
e. detritus.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   331

 

  1. The largest of all the whales is the:
a. sperm whale.
b. sei whale.
c. humpback whale.
d. blue whale.
e. megalodon.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   333

 

  1. Breaching is the name given to the activity of whales when they:
a. mate.
b. jump out of the water.
c. capture their food.
d. migrate long distances.
e. give birth.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   329

 

  1. Spy hopping is a term given to whales when they:
a. jump out of the water.
b. partially get their body out of the water.
c. capture their food.
d. mate.
e. play in groups.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   329

 

  1. Spy hopping behavior is thought to be for
a. mating.
b. observing objects other than whales on the surface.
c. capturing their food.
d. attracting a mate.
e. communicating with podmates.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   329

 

 

 

  1. Tail cocking behavior in whales is thought to be for
a. killing prey.
b. attracting mates.
c. aggression.
d. preparation for a dive.
e. dislodging parasites.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   329

 

  1. A group of whales is called a
a. harem.
b. pod.
c. covey.
d. herd.
e. bevy.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   331

 

  1. The only population of humpback whales that is showing recovery from the effects of whaling is the:
a. North Pacific population.
b. North Atlantic population.
c. Maui population.
d. Southern Hemisphere population.
e. Southern Pacific population.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   333

 

  1. Which whale is not a rorqual?
a. blue whale
b. fin whale
c. humpback whale
d. right whale
e. killer whale

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   331 | 335

 

  1. A whale that floated when harpooned was called a(n) ____.
a. orca
b. right whale
c. blue whale
d. fin whale
e. sperm whale

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   331

 

  1. All of the following are members of suborder Odontoceti, except:
a. dolphins.
b. sperm whales.
c. narwhales.
d. gray whales.
e. orcas.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   331 | 334 | 335

 

 

 

  1. All of the following are members of suborder Mysticeti, except:
a. humpback whales.
b. right whales.
c. orcas.
d. blue whales.
e. fin whales.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   331 | 334 | 335

 

  1. The baleen whale which carries the most barnacles is the
a. right whale.
b. sperm whale.
c. gray whale.
d. orca.
e. blue whale.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   334

 

  1. The melon of dolphins and other toothed whales is used for:
a. storage of food.
b. protecting the brain.
c. focusing sound pulses.
d. receiving sound pulses.
e. producing sounds.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   339

 

  1. One of the most favored food items of sperm whales is:
a. giant squid.
b. penguins.
c. plankton.
d. seals.
e. smaller cetaceans.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   335

 

  1. Ambergris comes from the ____.
a. right whale
b. sperm whale
c. gray whale
d. orca
e. blue whale

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   336

 

  1. The only cetaceans known to feed on warm-blooded animals are the:
a. sperm whales.
b. bottlenose dolphins.
c. killer whales.
d. porpoises.
e. minke whales.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall             REF:   338

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Pinnipeds have to come ashore to give birth.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   320

 

  1. True seals rely on their hindlimbs for forward swimming propulsion.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   319

 

  1. In eared seals, the hindlimbs can rotate at right angles to the body and can be used for walking on land.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   319

 

  1. Sea lions have shorter lactation periods than true seals.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   320–321

 

  1. Unlike pinnipeds, sirenians are completely free from the terrestrial environment.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   324

 

  1. Manatees form pair bonds that last even after mating.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

  1. The cetacean body is covered with fine hairs.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   327

 

  1. Cetaceans lack sweat glands in their skin.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   327

 

  1. Gray whales spend the winter months in the Bering Sea where they mate and give birth.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   334

 

  1. Vision in toothed whales is very strong.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   338

 

  1. Toothed whales use low frequency clicks to make out the outline of potential prey.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   338–339

 

  1. The spermaceti of sperm whales is composed of waxy and oily materials.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   335

 

 

 

  1. Ambergris is produced by dolphins.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   336

 

  1. Dolphins have a beak whereas porpoises have a rounded blunt head.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   336–337

 

MATCHING

 

Match the food with the most closely associated whale.

a. squid
b. crabs, cuttlefish, flounder and halibut
c. krill

 

 

  1. Beluga Whale

 

  1. Sperm Whale

 

  1. Blue Whale

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   336

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   335

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   333

 

Match the food with the closely associated predator.

a. crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms
b. fish
c. sea urchins
d. water plants

 

 

  1. Sea Otter

 

  1. Eared Seals

 

  1. Walruses

 

  1. Dugong

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   317

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   319

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   324

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

Match the food item with the animal that consumes it.

a. vegetation
b. plankton
c. fish, squid

 

 

  1. Toothed Whales

 

  1. Baleen Whales

 

  1. Sirenians

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   335

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   331

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

 

Match the location with the species.

a. southeastern United States
b. South America
c. Africa
d. Indo-pacific

 

 

  1. Trichechus manatus

 

  1. Trichechus senegalensis

 

  1. Trichechus inunguis

 

  1. Dungong dugon

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

Match the population characteristic with the species.

a. endangered
b. extinct
c. population size 1.8 million
d. population size 22,000

 

 

  1. Steller’s Sea Cow

 

  1. Northern Manatee

 

  1. Sperm whale

 

  1. Eastern Pacific Gray Whale

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   334

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   334

 

Match the insulation with the closely associated animal.

a. Fur
b. Fur and fat
c. Blubber

 

 

  1. Whales

 

  1. Sea Otter

 

  1. Sea Lion

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   327

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   317

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   319

 

Match the prey detection method with the most closely associated animal.

a. manipulating with flippers
b. echolocation
c. eyesight

 

 

  1. Dolphins

 

  1. Seals

 

  1. Sirenians

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   338

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   319

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   325

 

Match the possible importance of a whale behavior with its most closely associated behavior.

a. establishing dominance
b. marking position
c. looking around

 

 

  1. Spy Hopping

 

  1. Breaching

 

  1. Slapping

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   329

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   329

 

  1. ANS: B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   329

 

Match the possible importance of a whale behavior with its most closely associated behavior.

a. marking a position
b. unknown
c. aggressive behavior

 

 

  1. Tail Slapping

 

  1. Tail Cocking

 

  1. Flipper Flapping

 

  1. ANS: A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   329

 

  1. ANS: C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   329

 

  1. ANS: B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   331

 

Match the purpose with the mechanism it is most closely associated with.

a. locate prey
b. trap prey near surface
c. filter feed

 

 

  1. Baleen plates

 

  1. Bubble net

 

  1. Strong sonar pulse

 

  1. ANS: C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   333

 

  1. ANS: B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   333

 

  1. ANS: A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   339

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. List the three major groups of pinnipeds and outline the anatomical differences between them.

 

ANS:

The pinnipeds families include Otaridae (eared seals), Phocidae (true seals), and Odobenidae (walruses). In the eared seals external ears are present and the hind limbs of these pinnipeds rotate at right angles to the body, which facilitates walking on land. In the true seals and walruses, there are no external ears. True seals are also not capable of rotating their hind limbs forward so these animals are rather clumsy on land. Walruses are the largest of the three pinnipeds and have tusks.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis       REF:   319–324

 

  1. Describe at least 3 physiological adaptations in pinnipeds that enable them to dive deep.

 

ANS:

They exhale before diving, slow their metabolism by 20% and reduce heart rate. Blood is redistributed to vital organs such as the brain and heart to maintain their essential functions. The other organs do not need to fully function on a dive.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall            REF:   319–320

 

  1. You are the aquarium keeper at a large oceanarium. The facility acquires a manatee, and you are charged with its care. Explain what you would feed it.

 

ANS:

Sirens feed exclusively on vegetation growing underwater, such as seagrasses. Fresh green produce such as spinach, lettuce, etc. could supplement its diet.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Application    REF:   325

 

  1. Describe the feeding behavior of humpback whales. Why do they employ this type of food capture method?

 

ANS:

Humpback whales feed on small schools of fishes and invertebrates. They feed by first circling the school from below while blowing a screen of bubbles around their food as a trap. Next they come up through the tube of bubbles they have created with mouths open and consume the food. This method of food capture concentrates the prey.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall            REF:   333

 

  1. List the 3 major groups of baleen whales and give their major features.

 

ANS:

The three major groups of baleen whales are the right whales, rorquals, and the gray whales. Right whales are characterized by having no dorsal fins and no pleats or grooves on their lower jaw. Rorquals have dorsal fins and grooves on their lower jaw that aid in the expansion of the mouth for feeding purposes. Gray whales lack grooves and a distinct dorsal fin but have a dorsal bump toward the rear third of the body.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall            REF:   331–334

 

  1. Why must sea otters consume 25% of their body weight in food every day?

 

ANS:

This is most likely the result of the necessity of maintaining a high metabolic rate in these warm-blooded animals that live in relatively cold waters.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall            REF:   317

 

  1. What reproductive benefit is obtained by the polygynous sexual habits of many marine mammals, such as elephant seals?

 

ANS:

In nature, reproductive output is usually limited by the availability of eggs produced by the females. Males produce many millions of sperm and can thus fertilize numerous females without effort. Having one dominant male fertilizing numerous females ensures that only the fittest males transfer their genes to the next generation. Those males that successfully obtain and defend a harem of females are thought to be genetically fit.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis       REF:   320

 

  1. Explain why phocids, especially ones living in polar areas, generally have very short lactation periods compared to eared seals.

 

ANS:

Many phocids live in polar waters, where the ice floes tend to break and crack. As a result the mothers want to ensure that the young develop as quickly as possible in order for them to enter the water as soon as possible. Another reason is that the mothers cannot sustain extended periods of lactation because they could eventually lose too much body fat.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall            REF:   320–321

 

  1. Compare sirenians and cetaceans, describing 4 ways that they are similar.

 

ANS:

Sirenians share many similar characteristics such as reduced body hair, disappearance of hindlimbs, possession of tail flukes, possession of flippers, and a completely aquatic existence.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis       REF:   325

 

  1. Describe the fossil and embryological evidence for the terrestrial origins of cetaceans.

 

ANS:

Fossil records show massive animals, with four limbs, that resemble modern day whales. Other evidence is observed in modern cetaceans. First, the embryos of whales, like all mammals, have four limbs. The hindlimbs eventually disappear during the development of the embryo and all that remains is an obsolete pelvic girdle. The embryos of whales also show a normal mammalian nostril arrangement, but this does not persist, as the nostrils migrate to the dorsal side of the animals to become the blow holes.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Recall            REF:   326

 

 

 

  1. Describe at least 3 adaptations of modern whales adapted for a completely aquatic existence.

 

ANS:

First and foremost is the overall shape of the cetacean body. It is shaped like that of a fish, which implies that this shape is ideally suited for aquatic habitats. The nostrils of whales, which are called blow holes, occupy the dorsal surface of the animals, making it much easier to breathe without having to lift the head completely out of the water. Whales are also covered by a thick layer of blubber in order to minimize heat loss and maximize buoyancy in cold waters. The ears of whales are blocked by wax to minimize possible damage from the marine environment and to eliminate any compressible air passages. These ears are also internal, which could eliminate possible drag effects. Finally, the whale circulatory system is designed to minimize heat loss by incorporating a heat exchange mechanism in the appendages.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis       REF:   326–327

 

Explain the unique purpose of baleen plates. What trophic position do baleen whales occupy, and what advantage is it to the baleen whales to consume the diet they do?

 

ANS:

The baleen replaced teeth and consists of keratin fibers fused together. They function to strain plankton, mainly krill, on which the whales feed from the sea. Krill feed on phytoplankton. As a secondary level consumer the baleen whales have access to ten or more times the energy and organic material available to the toothed whales who may be feeding at the third to sixth tropic level. This enables them to be the largest animals.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Synthesis       REF:   331 | 333

 

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