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Introduction to Sociology 11th Edition Tischler Test Bank

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Introduction to Sociology 11th Edition Tischler Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1133588085

ISBN-10: 1133588085

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Introduction to Sociology 11th Edition Tischler Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1133588085

ISBN-10: 1133588085

 

 

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Chapter 7—Deviant Behavior and Social Control

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Joe’s boss, Jessica, catches him taking money from the office coffee fund. Joe explains he was not stealing, but rather getting “what was owed him.” He argues that Jessica not only charges a dollar for a cup of coffee costing only thirty cents, but also uses the company’s napkins without paying for them. Which technique of neutralization is Joe using?
a. denial of responsibility
b. denial of victim
c. condemnation of the authorities
d. appeal to group loyalties

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. _____ are rewards and penalties that group members use to regulate an individual’s behavior.
a. Punishments
b. Felonies
c. Anomie
d. Sanctions
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.4

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What percent of crime in the United States constitutes crimes against property?
a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. 75%
e. 80%

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Kinds of Crime in the United States

OBJ:   7.7                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Deion is strong and muscular. Men with this body type are often expected to be:
a. reserved.
b. timid.
c. easy-going.
d. aggressive.
e. slow learners.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In order to decide whether a specific act is deviant, it is necessary to know:
a. exactly what primary socializers taught the deviant.
b. how many people commit the same act.
c. the social context of the act.
d. how state law defined deviance.
e. the duration of the act.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following would be considered a dysfunction of deviance?
a. It makes life difficult and unpredictable.
b. It causes confusion about society’s norms and values.
c. It undermines trust.
d. It diverts valuable resources.
e. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Carol engages in  several acts of nonconformity that violate her community’s norms. Sociologists would call her actions:
a. insanity.
b. eccentric behavior.
c. moral failure.
d. deviance.
e. inconsistency.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of deviance?
a. It helps to maintain group boundaries.
b. It helps to reinforce appropriate behavior.
c. It is rare in highly-structured societies.
d. It provides a societal safety valve.
e. It can be instrumental in affecting social change.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a function of deviance?
a. reinforcing group attachments
b. helping teach society’s rules
c. ensuring that others will not violate the same norm
d. sometimes preventing more serious acts of deviance
e. defining group boundaries

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which deviance is dysfunctional to society?
a. It forces the group to organize in order to limit future acts of deviance.
b. It causes confusion about norms and values of society.
c. It undermines members’ trust in the predictability of social relationships.
d. It diverts valuable resources that could be used for meeting other social needs.
e. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. People conform to social norms because:
a. they fear external punishments.
b. they have internalized the standards.
c. they crave law and order.
d. fines are expensive.
e. most people cannot afford good attorneys.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. It is 3 a.m. and Tracy is driving home from work when she comes to an intersection where the light is red. Although she can see no other cars on the road in any direction, Tracy waits until the light turns green. Sociologically, this is an example of:
a. deterrence.
b. internal means of control.
c. external means of control.
d. sanctions.
e. operant conditioning.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.3

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following statements include characteristics of sanctions?
a. They can be negative or positive.
b. They can be formal or informal.
c. They are part of external means of control.
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.4

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Giving a child a hug for doing something right would be an example of a(n):
a. informal positive sanction.
b. informal removal of a sanction.
c. formal positive sanction.
d. informal deterrent for deviance.
e. natural parental behavior.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.4

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A university places a fraternity on probation because some of its members served alcoholic drinks to minors. The university in this case was using:
a. informal sanctions.
b. formal sanctions.
c. an internal means of social control.
d. a moral judgment to make its decision.
e. prejudice against social groups.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.4

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Honking your horn at someone who cuts into your lane in a dangerous fashion is an example of a(n):
a. formal negative sanction.
b. informal negative sanction.
c. formal positive sanction.
d. informal positive sanction.
e. spontaneous sanction.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.4

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of Sheldon’s basic body types?
a. ectomorph
b. mesomorph
c. paleomorph
d. endomorph
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What data was used by Lombroso to predict deviant behavior?
a. head shape and size
b. birth order
c. personality
d. family size
e. arrest records

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Historically, the first attempts to scientifically explain deviant behavior focused on:
a. biological factors.
b. environmental factors.
c. the people with whom one associates.
d. individual personality.
e. peer group socialization.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Each in their own way, Lombroso and Sheldon attempted to explain deviant behavior on the basis of:
a. psychological orientation.
b. anatomical characteristics.
c. early childhood experiences.
d. differential association.
e. neighborhood experiences.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Who of the following is known for his work on psychoanalytic theories?
a. Émile Durkheim
b. Robert K. Merton
c. Sigmund Freud
d. James Q. Wilson
e. Cesare Lombroso

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Psychoanalytic theory defines that part of the personality that represents the demands and restrictions of society as the:
a. id.
b. ego.
c. superego.
d. unconscious.
e. thantos.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Psychoanalytic approaches to deviance are criticized because they:
a. are too specific in their focus.
b. cannot easily be tested.
c. ignore the role of society.
d. ignore an individual’s past experiences.
e. rely too much on genetic endowment.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which theories of deviance are based on the idea that people adjust their behavior in response to the rewards and punishments they receive?
a. biological
b. psychoanalytic
c. anomic
d. behavioral
e. environmental

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Theorists who view crime as individual choice state that crime is more likely to occur when:
a. benefits lie in the future.
b. benefits for committing crime are greater than for not committing crime.
c. peers disapprove of the act.
d. punishment is immediate rather than uncertain in the future.
e. the individual has no other behavioral choice.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Wilson and Herrnstein state that people become deviant because:
a. their families have failed to socialize them properly.
b. failing to get jobs, they have nowhere else to turn in order to get by.
c. they have become part of a deviant subculture.
d. they feel the rewards of crime outweigh the prospects of punishment.
e. they are genetically pre-programmed for criminal activity.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to Durkheim’s anomie theory, an act is deviant because it:
a. violates the common conscience.
b. violates universal norms.
c. decreases group interdependence.
d. violates an individual’s moral code.
e. is simply morally wrong.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.6

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Durkheim saw anomie as a condition of:
a. weak law enforcement.
b. dependency.
c. overemphasis on the welfare of the group.
d. normlessness where cultural guidelines are weak.
e. mental instability.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.6

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Merton would label a person who attempts to win a race by using steroids as a(n):
a. conformist.
b. retreatist.
c. innovator.
d. rebel.
e. ritualist.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Reggie has held the same bank job for 15 years. He is always on time, never misses a day, and follows every rule to the letter even though he knows he won’t be promoted. According to Merton’s theory, Reggie would be labeled a(n):
a. ritualist.
b. innovator.
c. retreatist.
d. conformist
e. rebel.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to Merton’s theory, a person who advocates the total abolition of capitalism and its replacement with socialism in American society would be called a (an):
a. conformist.
b. retreatist.
c. innovator.
d. rebel.
e. ritualist.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to control theory, a youth who stays out of trouble with the law most likely:
a. had few unpleasant experiences during childhood.
b. has no delinquent peers to put pressure on him or her.
c. has strong relationships with parents, teachers, and peers.
d. has confidence in his or her future occupational success.
e. has the mental ability to avoid slipping into deviant acts.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which theory of deviance assumes that deviance can be deterred by strengthening the bonds that tie the individual to society?
a. control
b. strain
c. cultural transmission
d. psychological

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Control theory is primarily concerned with the:
a. attachment of an individual to others in society.
b. way in which certain behaviors are labeled deviant.
c. problems faced by a person during his or her childhood.
d. conflict between social goals and means faced by some.
e. psychological makeup of deviants and non-deviants.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The theorist most closely associated with control theory is:
a. Lombroso.
b. Merton.
c. Freud.
d. Durkheim.
e. Hirschi.

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Techniques of neutralization help people to:
a. control deviant acts.
b. justify deviant acts.
c. decrease deviant acts.
d. turn major crimes into minor ones.
e. avoid prosecution for their acts.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Willie occasionally bets on sports events even though this is illegal. Willie says no one really gets hurt as all involved are consenting adults. This rationale:
a. denies responsibility.
b. denies the injury.
c. denies the victim.
d. appeals to higher principles.
e. is a condemnation of the authorities.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. “I’m not really a bad person. It’s just that I was drunk and I didn’t know what I was doing.” This is an example of which technique of neutralization?
a. denial of responsibility
b. denial of injury
c. appeal to a higher principle
d. denial of the victim
e. condemning the authorities

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Frank uses the copy machine at work for personal reasons, arguing that he does not pay because the company charges too much for personal copies. This explanation is a:
a. denial of injury.
b. denial of victim.
c. denial of reality.
d. condemnation of the authorities.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to Sykes and Matza, the process that makes it possible for us to justify illegal or deviant behavior is called:
a. drop-out.
b. external means of social control.
c. commitment to deviant conformity.
d. deviant socialization.
e. techniques of neutralization.

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Control         OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Cultural transmission theory is based on the idea that deviant and conforming behaviors are:
a. something an individual is born with.
b. due to labeling.
c. rational and personal choices.
d. learned from others.
e. biological predispositions passed through family lines.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The research of Shaw and McKay, which linked crime to certain types of urban neighborhoods, provided the foundation for which theories of deviance?
a. labeling
b. control
c. anomie
d. cultural transmission

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The idea that deviance is culturally transmitted or learned in neighborhoods and through personal contacts is basic to which of the following theories?
a. differential association
b. labeling
c. strain
d. anomie
e. neutralization

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. An investment banker who sold bundles of home mortgages with high interest even though he knew there was a high risk of loss or default without warning his clients was engaged in:
a. white collar crime.
b. property crimes.
c. capitalist crimes.
d. crimes against the state.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Kinds of Crime in the United States

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which country has the highest rate of inmates per 100,000 people?
a. India
b. Russia
c. South Africa
d. United States

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Criminal Justice in the United States

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Elderly victims of violent crime are most likely to be assaulted by:
a. a young minority male outside the home.
b. a young male of their own ethnicity outside the home.
c. a relative inside the home.
d. a male or female from a low income background engaged in mail theft.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Kinds of Crime in the United States

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is true about violent victimization rates in the U.S. today?
a. Victimization rates for people 16 to 19 are 15 to 20 times higher than for people 65 and older.
b. Victimization rates rise with age, peaking among people over 50.
c. Victimization rates for people over 65 are disproportionately high.
d. Victimization rates for people under 30 are most likely to be related to property crimes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Kinds of Crime in the United States

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What is the funnel effect?
a. The number of people convicted of crimes is much larger than the number of beds in prisons, leading judges to accept plea bargains and compromise sentences.
b. The number of people in prison is much larger than the number of people released every year, trapping millions of inmates in a culture of violence.
c. Only a few people will be able to take advantage of programs to help prisoners prepare for the job market after release.
d. The number of crimes is much greater than the number of people who are punished for committing a crime, leading people to have less confidence in the system.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Criminal Justice in the United States

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What are the three levels in the police system in the United States?
a. city, county, and state
b. city, state, and federal region
c. federal, state, and local
d. National Security Administration, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and State Police

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Criminal Justice in the United States

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Inmates must serve a substantial portion of their sentence, according to:
a. truth in sentencing laws.
b. zero tolerance laws.
c. mandatory 10 sentences.
d. federal prison guidelines.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Criminal Justice in the United States

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Factual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Moral code is the symbolic system by which behavior is viewed as right or wrong.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Normal behavior conforms to the norms of the group in which it occurs.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Consensus model of law is a functionalist model.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   The Importance of Law                   OBJ:   7.4

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. To be a crime, a deviant act must be defined in a formal code upheld by political authority.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   The Importance of Law                   OBJ:   7.4

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Scholars have been unsuccessful at proposing theories to address crime and deviance.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Together, norms and values make up the moral code of a culture.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The decline in death row inmates is related to the fact that it costs much more money to keep an inmate on death row than in federal prison.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Criminal Justice in the United States

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. From a sociological perspective, behavior can be classified as normal or deviant only with reference to the group in which it occurs.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. According to DurkheimRemember,me deviance can be healthy for societies.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. There are extremely few instances in which deviance can be beneficial for a society.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Internal means of control consist of how the individual learned other people’s responses to norms of behavior.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.3

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Guilt is an example of an internal social control mechanism.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.3

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Theories such as those proposed by Wilson and Herrnstein stressed the importance of inherited factors in producing deviance.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Psychological explanations emphasize cognitive or emotional factors within the individual as the cause of deviance.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The founder of criminology, Cesare Lombroso, viewed criminals as evolutionary throwbacks to lower forms of life.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Informal sanctions have greater impact than formal sanctions on individuals’ behavior and self-image.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. According to Freud, those with untamed ids are likely to have deviant tendencies.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to Durkheim, complex, industrialized societies are mechanically integrated.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Differential association theory suggests that criminals act on the irrational impulses of the id because they failed to develop a proper ego in the socialization process.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Laws emerge from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, according to Sutherland.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   The Importance of Law                   OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Wilson and Herrnstein proposed that criminal activity, like all human behavior, is a product of a rational choice by the individual as a result of weighing its costs and benefits.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Anomie is a condition fostered by community so moods are related to society.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.6

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Durkheim argued that in modern highly differentiated societies, individuals can become morally disoriented, a condition he called anomie.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.6

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Control theorists like Hirschi have argued that everyone has the potential to become deviant.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Control theory argues that deviance is primarily prevented by an individual’s strong internal moral compass, and the approval or disapproval of other people has little effect.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The lack of strong attachments to parents, teachers, and peers is a causal factor in the cultural transmission theory of deviance.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The theory of differential association predicts that regular and intimate relations with people holding deviant attitudes about obeying the community’s laws will produce deviant behavior.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Differential association holds that while criminal techniques are learned from others, criminal attitudes are biologically transmitted from generation to generation.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. When individuals have strong bonds to society, their behavior will conform to conventional social norms.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Sykes and Matza argue that secondary deviance refers to deviance committed in secondary groups.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Cultural transmission theory emphasizes the correctional context in which deviant behavior is forced upon people to survive.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Sutherland and Cressey developed the theory of differential association.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Labeling theory shifts the focus of attention from the deviant individual to the social processes by which a person comes to be labeled as deviant.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The Uniform Crime Reports are one of the most commonly utilized statistics we have for keeping track of crime rates.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Crime in the United States               OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The National Crime Victimization Survey involves statistics reported by the victims themselves.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Crime in the United States               OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The most frequent reason given by victims for not reporting a crime to the authorities is the belief that the police could not do anything about it.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Crime in the United States               OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Crime can be defined as behavior that violates a society’s criminal laws.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   Crime in the United States               OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The most serious crimes are misdemeanors.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Crime in the United States               OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. A major difference between adult and juvenile crime is that juveniles are much more likely to commit offenses in groups.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Kinds of Crime in the United States

OBJ:   7.7                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The National Crime Victimization Survey shows that most crimes are reported to authorities.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Crime in the United States               OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The goals of imprisonment are met in the United States.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   Criminal Justice in the United States

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Factual

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss Durkheim’s contention that deviant behavior is “an integral part of all healthy societies.” Why is this the case? Discuss the functions and dysfunctions of deviance in a society.

 

ANS:

Not Provided

 

REF:   Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior                             OBJ:   7.1

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Discuss the four main types of social sanctions. Be sure to differentiate between positive and negative, formal and informal. Can you place them in a social context or give examples?

 

ANS:

Not Provided

 

REF:   Mechanisms of Social Control         OBJ:   7.4                 MSC:  Conceptual | Applied

 

  1. Travis Hirschi contends that we all have the potential to commit deviant acts. Discuss four ways in which individuals become bonded to society and conventional behavior.

 

ANS:

Not Provided

 

REF:   Theories of Crime and Deviance      OBJ:   7.5                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Discuss Sutherland and Cressey’s theory of differential association.  Identify and discuss Sutherland’s principles of differential association.

 

ANS:

Not Provided

 

REF:   148                OBJ:   7.5                 MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Outline and discuss juvenile crime in the United States. Include differences between violent crime and property crime.

 

ANS:

Not Provided

 

REF:   Kinds of Crime in the United States                                  OBJ:   7.8

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why does imprisonment not work the way theory predicts as a way to deter crime and change behavior? Explain your answer as fully as possible, making reference to facts and information including patterns in age, gender, race, and ethnicity.

 

ANS:

Not Provided

 

REF:   Criminal Justice in the United States                                 OBJ:   7.8

MSC:  Applied

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