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Invitation to the Life Span 2nd Edition Berger Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1429283526

ISBN-10: 1429283750

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Invitation to the Life Span 2nd Edition Berger Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1429283526

ISBN-10: 1429283750

 

 

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TestBanks Chapter 11 Emerging Adulthood: Body, Mind, and Social
World

Part 1
1
A person between the ages of 18 and 25 is entering a stage developmentalists call:
A. adulthood.
B. emerging adulthood.
C. post-adolescence.
D. young adulthood.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

2
Which statement about emerging adults is true around the world?
A. They are marrying later than their parents
did only in the United States and Europe.
B. Their college graduation rates are about
75 percent.
C. They have more years of education and
marry later than their parents did.
D. They are marrying at younger ages than
their parents did.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

3
Emerging adulthood has traditionally been the optimal time for hard physical work, athletic
achievement, and:
A. job success.
B. relationship satisfaction.
C. peer relationships.
D. childbearing.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

4
Generally, early adulthood is characterized by _____ health.
A. optimal
B. failing
C. slowly improving
D. fair to poor
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

5
Which statement is false about people between the ages of 18 and 25?
A. Death from disease at this age is rare.
B. Some people outgrow childhood ailments
like asthma at this age.
C. Diet and exercise practices tend to
improve during this time period.
D. They undergo routine diagnostic tests
such as colonoscopies.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

6
Low birth weight, undernutrition in infancy, and rapid weight gain in early childhood are
associated with _____ in emerging adulthood.
A. risk-taking behaviors
B. psychopathology
C. a higher risk of disease
D. asthma
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

7
During emerging adulthood, all body systems function:
A. poorly.
B. optimally.
C. to the same as those of adolescents.
D. to the same as those of middle-aged
adults.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

8
Claudia lives in the United States. She began using an IUD at age 18 but became pregnant
and had her first baby. Claudia’s case is:
A. typical of a first pregnancy in the United
States.
B. an illustration of the high failure rate of
IUDs.
C. atypical because IUDs rarely fail.
D. atypical because she is 18 years old.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

9
Many emerging adults want to engage in sexual activity but know that they are not
emotionally ready to be parents. Their solution is:
A. cohabitation.
B. monogamy.
C. contraception.
D. early marriage.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

10
About one-fourth of emerging adults believe that living together before marriage is bad for
society, but over half of _____ do.
A. married people
B. older adults
C. children
D. teenagers
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

11
With regard to modern contraception, _____ has a failure rate of about 1 in 400 women.
A. the pill
B. the hormone implant
C. the condom
D. abstinence
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

12
Delilah is currently a 22-year-old college student. Like most of her peers she believes that
premarital sex is:
A. okay if you plan to get married.
B. wrong.
C. acceptable.
D. very risky.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

13
About _____ percent of all new cases of STIs worldwide occur in people under the age of 26.
A. 10
B. 25
C. 50
D. 75.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

14
A vector is:
A. a person who dies from a disease.
B. a type of sexually transmitted disease.
C. a person who spreads a disease.
D. someone who has a communicable illness.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

15
Which phenomenon has contributed to the worldwide spread of sexually transmitted
infections?
A. serial monogamy
B. easy international travel
C. localized prostitution
D. modern contraception
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

16
About _____ percent of females with AIDS contracted it through rape.
A. 5
B. 10
C. 20
D. 50
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

17
Largely due to the sexual activities of young adults, _____ has become a worldwide epidemic
in the past 20 years.
A. premarital sex
B. HIV
C. teenage pregnancy
D. contraception
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

18
Which behavior is NOT due to the risk taking so common in emerging adulthood?
A. joining the Peace Corps
B. enlisting in the army
C. avoiding contact sports
D. moving away to college
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

19
Risk taking during early adulthood:
A. is usually beneficial to society.
B. is usually harmful to society.
C. rarely has an effect on society.
D. may benefit or harm society.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

20
Joya is 22 years old. Statistically, she is MOST likely to:
A. smoke cigarettes.
B. binge drink.
C. use illegal drugs.
D. be an addict.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

21
Emerging adults are in a high-risk category for:
A. serious injury and violent death.
B. complications from surgery.
C. age discrimination.
D. infertility.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

22
Shaun has just taken a position as a nurse in the emergency room at a local hospital. He is
likely to notice:
A. an absence of young adults in the
emergency room.
B. young adults who do not respond to typical
doses of medications.
C. young adults with a variety of injuries.
D. young adults suffering from heart disease,
cancer, and stroke.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

23
Using a drug in a quantity or a manner that harms physical, cognitive, or psychosocial wellbeing
is called drug:
A. abuse.
B. use.
C. addiction.
D. dependence.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

24
Statistically, which of these 20-year-olds would be the most likely to engage in extreme
drinking?
A. Henry, who did not go to college and
works full-time
B. Stanley, who is a college junior
C. Hillary, who graduated from college ten
years ago
D. Jessica, who did not go to college and
works part-time
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

25
A possible fifth stage of cognitive development that characterizes adult thinking is:
A. preformal thought.
B. semiformal thought.
C. informal thought.
D. postformal thought.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

26
Some researchers believe there is a fifth stage of cognition called postformal thought, which
is characterized by:
A. analytic thinking.
B. problem solving.
C. problem finding.
D. intuition.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

27
A longitudinal study showed that recent college graduates _____ in critical thinking, analysis,
and communication as compared to graduates twenty years ago.
A. performed equally well
B. made half the growth
C. made twice the growth
D. did not improve
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

28
In late adolescence and emerging adulthood, people are able to use both emotion and logic
when grappling with personal and social problems; such thinking demonstrates _____
thought.
A. postformal
B. informal
C. preformal
D. nonformal
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

29
A shift from “problem solving” to “problem finding” reflects the development of:
A. stereotype threat.
B. postformal thought.
C. vocational identity.
D. massification.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

30
Which continues to improve in MOST people beyond the age of emerging adulthood whether
or not they go to college?
A. analytic thought
B. intuitive thought
C. hypothetical thought
D. social understanding
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

31
Most contemporary cognitive scientists _____ Piaget’s last stage of cognitive development
(formal operational).
A. agree with
B. seek to replicate
C. find fault with
D. base their research on
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

32
According to Labouvie-Vief, _____ describes the cognitive development of the emerging
adult.
A. critical, emotional thinking
B. logical thinking without emotion
C. complex, integrated, logical thinking
D. hypothetical logic
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

33
On average, emerging adults today show _____ compared to older adults.
A. implicit signs of prejudice
B. unconscious tolerance
C. increased stereotyping
D. less prejudice overall
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

34
The possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misused to confirm another person’s
oversimplified, prejudiced attitude is referred to as:
A. overcompensation.
B. dialectical thought.
C. stereotype threat.
D. disidentification.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

35
Grant is a fun-loving, intelligent, responsible teenager who likes to dye his hair different
colors. However, he is concerned that other people might construe his hair color as a
reflection of poor academic achievement. His concern is an example of:
A. cognitive flexibility.
B. effortful control.
C. postconventional thinking.
D. stereotype threat.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

36
Identify the possible reaction to stereotype threat.
A. the high school drop-out rate for African
American males
B. young girls’ preferences for playing with
dolls over trucks
C. married couples’ arguments about money
D. college students’ practice of referring to
professors by their last names
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

37
In the stereotype-threat study in which college students were taught about intelligence
research, which group showed the most improvement in attitudes about academic
achievement and grades?
A. European American students who were
taught that intelligence is plastic.
B. African American students who were
taught that intelligence is plastic.
C. European American students who were
taught about multiple intelligences.
D. African American students who were
taught about multiple intelligences.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

38
According to theory of stereotype threat, thinking that one may be negatively compared to
another group is MOST apt to:
A. cause one to try harder.
B. have no effect on one.
C. cause one to underperform.
D. cause one to dislike that group.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

39
Jackson is experiencing stereotype threat. Research indicates its effects can be reduced by:
A. convincing Jackson that his achievement
depends on hard work.
B. raising Jackson’s self-esteem through
positive feedback.
C. showing Jackson that other groups
perform worse.
D. giving Jackson additional tutoring in
material he finds challenging.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

40
Which statement made by a teacher is MOST likely to activate stereotype threat?
A. “This exam will show what you have
learned in this chapter.”
B. “This exam counts 30 percent towards
your final grade.”
C. “Your grade on this exam will show the
amount of effort you’ve put into the class.”
D. “This exam will show which gender has
better grammatical skills.”
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

41
Compared to individuals without a college education, those with a college education tend to
be:
A. healthier and wealthier.
B. more intelligent.
C. married.
D. more likely to smoke.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

42
The term massification means that:
A. college gives people better long-term
health.
B. mass practice can defeat stereotype
threat.
C. obesity increases for every year of
education a person has.
D. college could benefit everyone.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

43
Genevieve is about to complete her bachelor’s degree. If she is typical, once she is
established in her career she will earn approximately _____ more per year than a peer
without a college degree.
A. $10,000
B. $15,000
C. $20,000
D. $30,000
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

44
The people MOST apt to become postformal thinkers are those who:
A. do not go to college.
B. attend college part time after emerging
adulthood.
C. attend universities instead of community
colleges.
D. have friends from diverse backgrounds.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

45
The recent effort by countries around the world to increase the number of young people
attending college is prompted by national governments’ belief in:
A. stereotype threat.
B. moratorium.
C. massification.
D. linked lives.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

46
According to Perry’s research, the first phase of college students’ thinking is:
A. questioning personal and social values.
B. believing in the existence of absolute right
and wrong.
C. carefully considering many opposing
ideas.
D. becoming committed to a set of personal
values.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

47
Perry found that over the four years of their college careers, students typically:
A. move from a relativistic to a dualistic
approach.
B. change their viewpoints very little.
C. stick to their own views when faced with
conflicts.
D. move through nine levels of complexity in
their thinking
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

48
Jordan is a freshman in college and is at the very beginning of Perry’s scheme of cognitive
development. He believes that:
A. everyone has the right to his or her own
opinion.
B. authorities know what is right.
C. authorities don’t know everything.
D. everything is relative.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

49
A longitudinal study done by Arum and colleagues on a cross-section of U.S. college
students found that students’ cognitive growth was _____ that of college students 20 years
ago.
A. half of
B. comparable to
C. twice
D. three times
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

50
In almost every developed nation today, it is true that _____ are college students.
A. more females than males
B. more males than females
C. an equal number of males and females
D. more middle aged adults than emerging
adults
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

51
What is decreasing in the U.S. higher education system?
A. the number of part-time students
B. the number of students from nonEuropean
backgrounds
C.
the number of students over the age of 24
D.
the number of single-sex campuses
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

52
Compared to 1970, today’s college population in developed countries worldwide:
A. has a larger proportion of males.
B. is more diverse.
C. includes more liberal arts majors.
D. has fewer minority students.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

53
Which statement is true?
A. The increased diversity of the college
atmosphere encourages cognitive
development.
B. A college education had more positive
effects on cognitive development in the past
than today.
C. Since many students drop out of college,
estimating the effect of college education on
cognitive development is complicated.
D. Diversity has decreased the long-term
effects of a college education
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

54
Compared to college students 30 years ago, more students today are:
A. seeking a well-rounded education.
B. interested in gaining critical thinking skills.
C. focusing on career preparation.
D. majoring in liberal arts.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

55
According to the 2011 research conducted by Pryor et al, the number one reason more than
9 out of 10 U.S. students cite for selecting a major is based on:
A. gaining career training.
B. getting a better job.
C. preparing for graduate school.
D. becoming more cultured.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

56
Research indicates that if a person wants to increase his or her critical thinking ability in
college, that person should take a:
A. a business class heavy on statistics.
B. a philosophy class graded with multiplechoice
exams.
C.
a biology class requiring lots of
memorization.
D.
a sociology class that requires lots of
reading
and writing.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

57
Professor Mtukudzi finished school in 1960 and loved his experience. He is MOST apt to
believe the reason for a student to attend college should be to increase the student’s:
A. earning potential.
B. personal and intellectual growth.
C. specific skills and knowledge.
D. social skills.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

58
Erikson’s fifth stage of development is:
A. integrity vs. despair.
B. initiative vs. guilt.
C. identity vs. role confusion.
D. industry vs. inferiority.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

59
Approximately what percentage of 18 to 25 year olds in the United States and Canada are of
African, Latino, Asian, or Native American descent?
A. 10
B. 40
C. 80
D. 50
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

60
Between the ages of 18 and 27, the average adult in the United States:
A. buys a first house.
B. has had eight jobs.
C. has had two or three children.
D. has a 20 percent chance of divorce.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

61
Raul’s family maintains a strong ethnic identity. To increase his chances of doing well in
college he should:
A. assimilate with non-Hispanic students.
B. hide his ethnic identity and attempt to
blend in.
C. remain alienated from non-Hispanic
students.
D. resist both assimilation and alienation.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

62
Akila loves to theorize about how the physical world works. She believes there are advanced
civilizations on other planets. According to John Holland’s six categories of people, she is
MOST likely in the _____ category.
A. enterprising
B. investigative
C. realistic
D. artistic
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

63
Dimitri, age 26, is studying to take the CPA exam in order to become a certified public
accountant. According to John Holland’s six categories of people, Dimitri is MOST likely in
the _____ category.
A. enterprising
B. investigative
C. realistic
D. conventional
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

64
EJ attends community college working on a degree in automotive technology. He plans to
take a series of rigorous national exams in order to become a master technician. According
to John Holland’s six categories of people, EJ is MOST likely in the _____ category.
A. enterprising
B. investigative
C. realistic
D. conventional
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

65
Talal is 23 and works in an entry-level sales position at a local company. If he is typical, in
the next few years, he will:
A. change jobs more than once.
B. stay with his current company for decades.
C. change jobs only if he gets laid off.
D. remain in his entry-level position longterm.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

66
In a study of Hispanic college students, those who most likely to maintain their ethnic identity,
deflect stereotype threat, and be good students were those who:
A. assimilated.
B. were isolated.
C. were alienated.
D. resisted alienation and assimilation.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

67
Which is generally the most fluid during emerging adulthood?
A. one’s gender identity
B. one’s political identity
C. one’s vocational identity
D. one’s religious identity
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

68
Recent research suggests that commitment to one career may _____ compared to
vocational flexibility.
A. lead to more wealth
B. increase vocational success
C. restrict vocational success
D. lead to job security
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

69
Statistically, which statement regarding emerging adults is true?
A. Due to the new challenges and stressors
that they face, their self-esteem tends to drop
initially and then rise again in later adulthood.
B. Their self-esteem often takes a dramatic
dip immediately after they leave home but
begins to rise again after a few years.
C. In spite of the new challenges and
stressors that they face, their self-esteem is
higher than earlier and continues to rise
throughout emerging adulthood.
D. Their self-esteem will fluctuate as they
work through the new challenges and
stressors of adulthood.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

70
During emerging adulthood, self-esteem and happiness _____ for most people.
A. decrease
B. increase
C. stay the same
D. fluctuate
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

71
Joel was a very aggressive 4-year-old boy. During emerging adulthood, he is MOST likely to:
A. drop out of school.
B. be arrested.
C. have no friends.
D. find no vocation.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

72
Which statement about personality in emerging adulthood is true?
A. After the age of 12, personality is pretty
much static.
B. Personality is flexible and subject to
change throughout life.
C. College success can improve one’s
personality.
D. Personality rarely changes after
adolescence.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

73
According to research, who is MOST likely to experience the greatest gain in well-being
during emerging adulthood?
A. Kaitlyn, who lives with her parents
B. Eric, who lives in a dorm
C. Leah, who just had a baby boy and is
caring for him on her own
D. Derrick, who lives with his parents and
siblings
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

74
According to one study (Asendorf et al., 2008), which personality traits were still evident in
individual emerging adults after first being observed in them at the age of 4?
A. habituation
B. aggressiveness
C. happiness
D. compulsiveness
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

75
On average, well-being increases in emerging adulthood, as does the incidence of:
A. night terrors.
B. physical ailments.
C. vivid dreams.
D. psychological disorders.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

76
The onset of _____ peaks around age 21, with men more likely to develop the disorder than
women.
A. schizophrenia
B. post-traumatic stress disorder
C. anxiety
D. bipolar
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

77
Janel is a 19-year-old who has developed a fear of interacting with people, particularly in
crowded or unfamiliar settings. She has been diagnosed with:
A. schizophrenia.
B. emerging adulthood.
C. social phobia.
D. plasticity.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

78
Personality is plastic, but a person’s personality will be affected lifelong by::
A. economic upswings and downturns.
B. career and partner choice.
C. new friends’ viewpoints.
D. childhood experiences.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

79
Intimacy is the desire for:
A. social connection.
B. generativity.
C. sexual intercourse.
D. self-esteem.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

80
The decrease of marriage during emerging adulthood in recent years:
A. shows that people today need less face-toface
intimacy.
B. has been accompanied by an increase in
cohabitation.
C. shows that this generation has attachment
issues.
D. has been accompanied by an increase in
birth rate.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

81
Why does research suggest caution with regard to cohabitation?
A. Children of cohabitators tend to have more
physical ailments.
B. Cohabitators have high rates of domestic
violence.
C. Cohabitators who marry have a high rate
of divorce.
D. The only people who benefit from
cohabitation are those of low SES.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

82
According to Erikson, once an emerging adult has established a sense of identity, he or she
needs to resolve which crisis?
A. trust versus mistrust
B. generativity versus stagnation
C. identity versus role confusion
D. intimacy versus isolation
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

83
According to Erikson, the stage of intimacy versus isolation:
A. is followed by the search for identity.
B. is characterized by a need for generativity.
C. reflects the desire to share one’s life with
someone else.
D. occurs only if one avoids stagnation.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

84
Statistically, who is MOST apt to feel lonely?
A. Iris, a freshman at a residential college
B. Nathan, a freshman at a career institute,
living at home
C. Thomas, a senior at a residential college
D. Anja, a fifth-year senior at a residential
college
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

85
For most peopleRemember,cial networking has _____ social isolation in emerging adulthood.
A. increased
B. decreased
C. had no impact on
D. created
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

86
“Hooking up” involves a sexual encounter:
A. in a committed relationship.
B. between friends who are not dating.
C. without a relationship.
D. that is an extramarital affair.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

87
In what proportion of families around the world does arranged marriage occur?
A. 1/2
B. 1/3
C. 2/3
D. 3/4
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

88
For most Western emerging adults, what is considered the primary prerequisite for marriage?
A. love
B. commitment
C. passion
D. earning potential
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

89
What is rated as most important for successful marriage by Western emerging adults?
A. love
B. faithfulness
C. money
D. ethnic or religious similarity
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

90
Which BEST describes the 2008 data on interethnic marriage in the United States?
A. The official data underestimate the rate of
such marriages.
B. Nineteen percent of marriages are
interethnic.
C. Ninety-three percent of interethnic dating
results in marriage.
D. Just 3 percent of all marriages are
interethnic.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

91
In 2008, members of which group were LEAST apt to marry someone of another ethnicity?
A. Blacks
B. Asians
C. Hispanics
D. Whites
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

92
According to the text, the relatively low rate of interethnic marriages is attributable to:
A. bonding due to similarities, which occurs
most often in one’s own group.
B. the very specific definitions of ethnic
categories used in calculating these rates.
C. disapproval of interethnic marriage by
emerging adults.
D. disapproval of interethnic marriage by
parents.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

93
Social networking may lead to ______, which happens when there are too many people
available to meet and evaluate as potential life partners.
A. hookups
B. choice overload
C. romance
D. matchmaking
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

94
Patricia and Raul live together as a romantic couple, but they are not married. Their living
arrangement is called:
A. a filial relationship.
B. a common-law marriage.
C. adultery.
D. cohabitation.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

95
How many emerging adults in the United States, Canada, northern Europe, England, and
Australia cohabit during emerging adulthood?
A. less than 1 percent
B. about 17 percent
C. nearly one-third
D. the majority
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

96
All members of a family have _____, as the experiences and needs of individuals at one
stage of life are affected by all those at other stages.
A. linked lives
B. cohabitation
C. cohort changes
D. familiality
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

97
Research has shown that parents are _____ in the lives of today’s emerging adults.
A. crucial
B. unimportant
C. a burden
D. a barrier
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

98
Lee is clingy and very jealous, fearing that other men are after his wife. We might suspect
that his early attachment pattern was:
A. avoidant.
B. disorganized.
C. attached.
D. anxious.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

99
According to recent research, agreement between parents and adult children regarding
politics, religion, and controversial issues is MOST likely to be:
A. similar.
B. dissimilar.
C. dependent upon the educational level of
the family.
D. less likely when an adult child lives with
parents.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: A

100
Emerging adults who were insecurely attached as infants are more likely to _____ than those
who were securely attached.
A. never marry
B. never divorce
C. marry early and divorce
D. delay marriage
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: C

101
In which nation do most unmarried young adults live in their childhood home, regardless of
economic circumstances?
A. the United States
B. Italy
C. England
D. Canada
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: B

102
When parents disagree with an emerging adult’s choice of partner, the young adult in _____
will be MOST apt to stop dating that person.
A. the United States
B. England
C. Canada
D. China
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: D

103
The period of development characterized by things like the postponement of marriage and
attainment of education is now referred to as late adolescence.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

104
The years between 18 and 25 are optimal for reproduction, hard physical work, and athletic
achievement.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

105
Young adults require more medical attention for disease than any other age group except the
elderly.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

106
Emerging adults rarely experience serious illness.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

107
In the twentieth century, often several children were born before their mothers reached 18
years of age.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

108
Around the world, emerging adults are the prime vectors of STIs.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

109
Emerging adults end up in the emergency room more often than any other age group in the
lifespan.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

110
Most often, drug abusers are also addicts.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

111
Emerging adults who are not in college are more likely to use drugs than their college
counterparts.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

112
Many developmentalists now believe there is actually a fourth stage of cognitive development
called postformal thought.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

113
Postformal thought is more practical, more creative, and more imaginative than earlier stages
of thinking.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

114
Young adults who believe in the incremental theory of intelligence can overcome stereotype
threat.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

115
The number of students in college is increasing in every nation in the world; this
phenomenon is known as massification.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

116
Every year of college appears to improve cognitive abilities, including intellectual flexibility.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

117
Due to their skepticism, college graduates tend to think more narrowly and rigidly than those
who did not attend college.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

118
Students who are about to graduate from college are likely to believe that there are clear and
absolute truths to discover.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

119
As students progress through college, they usually are more able to see multiple
perspectives.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

120
According to current research, college students today are more concerned with getting a well
-rounded education than in being able to find a good-paying job upon graduation.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

121
The vast majority of college freshmen rate “becoming a more cultured person” as essential or
very important to them.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

122
More of today’s college students enroll in career-based studies and fewer in the liberal arts
than did the students of several decades ago.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

123
Being exposed to a diverse array of people in college likely contributes to deeper thought and
intellectual challenge.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

124
Today identity struggles are usually resolved in adolescence.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

125
Almost 80 percent of emerging adults in the United States and Canada are of Asian, African,
Latino, or Native American descent.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

126
The average young adult holds two jobs between the ages of 18 and 27.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

127
During emerging adulthood, those who did not attend college are more likely to change jobs
than those who attended college.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

128
A person’s personality can change after adolescence.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

129
Emerging adults tend to feel better about themselves than they did during adolescence.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

130
Longitudinal research found that aggressive 4-year-old children grew up to be emerging
adults that have fewer friends than their peers.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

131
Longitudinal research found that shy 4-year-old children grew up to be emerging adults who
chose a career and a romantic partner later than their peers.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

132
The rate of psychopathology increases in late adolescence and early adulthood.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

133
Emerging adult men are less apt to suffer from schizophrenia than emerging adult women
are.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

134
The incidence of psychological disorders rises during the emerging adulthood years.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

135
The rates of suicide and substance abuse fall in early adulthood.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

136
Emerging adults tend to become self-centered, which may explain their rising levels of selfesteem.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

137
An adult’s need for intimacy can be fulfilled only by a romantic partner.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

138
Erik Erikson’s sixth developmental crisis occurs during emerging adulthood and is known as
intimacy versus isolation.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

139
About two-thirds of marriages worldwide are arranged.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

140
In a survey conducted with emerging adults in North America, they indicated that faithfulness
was the most important factor in a successful marriage or committed long-term relationship.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

141
Research has shown that the majority of college students choose to date people of a
different ethnicity.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

142
Social networking may lead to choice overload for emerging adults’ romantic prospects.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

143
Emerging adults today often have stronger links with their parents than young adults did in
the past.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: True

144
A detailed Dutch study found that most parents and their emerging adult children disagree on
significant issues.
True
False
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: False

145
The period of life during which 18- to 25-year-old men and women continue their education
and exploration, often postponing marriage, parenthood, and career, is called
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: emerging adulthood

146
The optimal years in a person’s life for reproduction, hard physical work, and athletic
achievement are between the ages of 18 and
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: 25

147
In a 2010 study, nearly 96 percent of young adults rated their
____ as good, very good, or excellent.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: health

148
Only 27 percent of emerging adults think living together without marriage is bad for society;
however, 64 percent of those over age
____ think it is.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: 65

149
____ fuels every contagious disease, including sexually transmitted infections.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: Globalization

150
Young adults are the prime
____ for sexually transmitted infections, spreading disease globally.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: vectors

151
The low rate of serious disease between ages 18 and 25 is counterbalanced by a high rate of
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: injuries (accidents)

152
The risk of accidents, homicides, and
____ is higher during emerging adulthood than later in adult life.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: suicides

153
Motocross and other such forms of recreation that include the risk of injury or death are
called
____ sports.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: extreme

154
Many developmentalists now believe there is actually a fifth stage of cognitive development
called
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: postformal thought

155
____ is defined as ingesting a drug that impairs the user’s biological or psychological wellbeing.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: Drug abuse

156
Building on Piaget’s four stages of cognitive developmentRemember,me developmentalists have
proposed an additional stage of thought characterized by “problem finding;” this fifth stage is
referred to as
____ thought.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: postformal

157
The possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person’s
oversimplified, prejudiced attitude is referred to as
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: stereotype threat

158
William Perry suggests that over the course of their college careers, students’ thinking
progresses through
____ levels of complexity.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: nine

159
College students—usually freshman—at Perry’s level of
____ think in terms of success versus failure and right versus wrong.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: simplistic dualism

160
Over the past several decades, a larger proportion of college students are choosing careerbased
degrees rather than

____ degrees.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: liberal arts

161
In recent years the college population in the United States has become more
____ in many ways, including gender, ethnicity, SES, and religious and cultural
backgrounds.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: diverse

162
In terms of gender, now most college students in every developed nation are
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: female

163
The fifth stage of Erikson’s stages of development is
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: identity versus role confusion

164
In Erikson’s theory of development, after achieving identity, the sixth developmental crisis a
person must face is
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: intimacy versus isolation

165
The four components of identity development are religious, ethnic/political, sex/gender, and
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: vocational

166
Between the ages of 18 and 27, the average worker in the United States holds
____ jobs.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: eight

167
A relatively new understanding is that a person’s personality is
____ rather than fixed (as it was once thought to be) and can change in reaction to life
events.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: plastic

168
Compared to adolescence, self-esteem tends to
____ through the emerging adult years.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: increase (rise, improve)

169
Although most emerging adults enjoy good physical health,
____ disorders are likely to be diagnosed during early adulthood.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: emotional (psychological, mental health)

170
Longitudinal research found that shy 4-year-old children grew up to be
____ adults who were not more anxious or depressed than their peers.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: successful (competent, happy)

171
According to Erik Erikson, emerging adults face the developmental crisis he called
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: intimacy versus isolation

172
There is a noticeable trend among emerging adults to postpone, but not totally reject, the
commitment of
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: marriage

173
When Western emerging adults were asked to rate the most important factor for a successful
marriage, their choice was
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: faithfulness

174
Since people are apt to bond most easily with others who share a similar background,
culture, and experiences, only 15 percent of all
____ are interethnic.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: marriages

175
Having too many options for potential romantic partners as result of social networking can
produce a phenomenon called
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: choice overload

176
A living pattern in which an unmarried couple lives together is referred to as
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: cohabitation

177
Past research in the United States has found that people who cohabit before marrying have
higher rates of
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: divorce

178
Sophia is a 60-year-old retired woman whose daughter recently had her first child. Sophia
will be taking care of her grandchild so that her daughter can work outside the home. The
intertwining of the needs and experiences of these family members, all at a different stage of
life, is referred to as
____ .
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: linked lives

179
____ attached infants are those most likely to become happily-married adults.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: Securely

180
In the United States, studies have shown that family relationships
____ after emerging adults leave their parents’ home.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Answer Key: improve (get better)

181
Your friend has just celebrated her 21st birthday, and she is concerned that “it is all downhill
from here.” You want to be honest with her about what you have learned. Give your friend
two pieces of good news about the physical effects of emerging adulthood.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
While answers will vary, good news may include increased physical strength; that every body
system—including the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and sexual-reproductive
systems—functions optimally at the beginning of adulthood; and that many childhood
ailments, such as asthma, are outgrown.

182
How might risk taking by emerging adults be both destructive and beneficial? Include two
specific examples of both destructive and beneficial risk taking in your discussion.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Depending on the activity, risk taking can lead to new areas of growth and opportunity, or can
cause physical, emotional, or financial harm. Destructive risk taking may include having sex
without a condom, driving without a seat belt, carrying a loaded gun, or experimenting with
drugs. Beneficial risks may include enrolling in college, moving to a new place, getting
married, having a baby, starting a business, undertaking an artistic endeavor, or enlisting in
the military or Peace Corps.

183
Consider the many kinds of problem-solving skills that arise in the life of a college student.
Give three examples of problems encountered while in college that benefit most from
postformal thinking. Explain your choices.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Answers will vary, but should highlight problems that require an analysis of options,
compromises, and contradictions, and that involve multiple variables. Examples like selecting
an academic program and creating an annual budget illustrate the use of postformal thinking.

184
Examine the proposed existence of a fifth stage of cognitive development. What is it called?
Describe the characteristics of this fifth stage. What evidence is there to support its
existence? What doubts have been raised regarding its likelihood?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Postformal thought, the proposed fifth stage of cognitive development, is characterized by
problem finding rather than simply problem solving; it includes practical, flexible thinking in
anticipation of problems. Evidence for a fifth stage has been observed in the ability to use
emotion and logic together to address practical problems, a cognitive skill beyond that of
adolescents’ thinking skills, and the fact that neurological maturity is not achieved until one’s
early 20s. Doubts about its existence emerge because postformal thought is difficult to
measure empirically, as many factors influence how adults think. Also, adult thinking does
not clearly stem from a new set of abilities, and therefore does not form a new stage of
cognitive development.

185
Define stereotype threat. How might stereotype threat explain women’s comparatively low
participation in technological fields?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Stereotype threat is the possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misused to
confirm another person’s oversimplified, prejudiced attitude. There are three ways in which
stereotype threat might affect women’s participation in technological fields. Because of
stereotype threatRemember,me women might be afraid to pursue fields associated with technology –
an area sometimes thought to be a strength of men and weakness of women – because they
believe that they will do poorly and their performance will be evidence in support of a
stereotype. Women may come to believe the stereotype that they are not technologically
adept, and/or may tell themselves that technological abilities are unimportant and, as a
result, devalue these skills.

186
Describe the current trends in college education: type of students, reasons for attending,
majors selected, type of instruction, and type of institutions. Do you believe today’s college
students are getting a better education than students 40 years ago? Explain your response.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Answers should include current demographics (e.g., more women, more lower-income
students, more ethnic minorities), differences in patterns of education (e.g., more part-time
students, more working students, more career-based curriculum, a greater importance
placed on financial benefits of getting a degree), and the differences in structure (e.g.,
greater numbers of community colleges; more female and minority instructors). Students’
opinions will vary, but may include that any collegiate education heightens cognitive skills
regardless of where one goes to school; others may state that the lack of liberal arts majors
and the cultural life of the school could impact cognitive growth.

187
Describe three effects of college that extend beyond employment opportunities.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Answers will vary and may include descriptions of better health, acquisition of specific skills,
an opportunity for independence, increased lifespan, better chance at financial security,
deepened levels of thinking, and the development of a philosophy of life.

188
Explore the role of cognitive flexibility in reducing stereotype threat. What strategies can you
use with a group of first-generation bilingual college students in order to help them overcome
stereotype threat?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Cognitive flexibility, the ability to use emotion and logic to weigh options, can help reduce
stereotype threat by providing objective, logical information to counter real or perceived
stereotypes. Strategies like sharing data about the successes of students similar to
themselves and reviewing information on the plasticity of intelligence and the role of effort in
college success, may help these students overcome stereotype threat.

189
How has college affected your thinking so far? Describe cognitive shifts and/or deepening of
understanding you may have experienced as a result of your college attendance. What
contributed to the changes? Who (as in individuals and/or groups) has had the greatest
influence on your college experience?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Answers will vary and should be thoughtful and reflective. Students should be able to reflect
on what they have learned – and how they learned — from engagement with peers,
professors, coursework, and collegiate life.

190
How does college change a student’s thinking? Briefly describe the changes over the four
years of college according to Perry’s scheme of cognitive and ethical development.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
According to Perry, college students advance through nine levels of cognitive and ethical
development during college. Freshmen start out believing in perfect truths and absolute right
and wrong, then move through skepticism, whereby facts must be supported by evidence
and analysis. By the end of the senior year, students are able to make a commitment to
certain values, while also understanding that these values may change.

191
Discuss how the motivation for attending college has changed over the past several
decades. Present the pros and cons associated with the current dominant motivation for
attendance.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Responses should include discussion of the current focus on career-based programs and
students’ increased selection of institutions and majors that they believe will increase their
earning potential or will serve as training for a specific career. Answers regarding the benefits
of such changes may include that students learn practical knowledge that will be useful in
their chosen career path and that such an approach makes a cost/benefit analysis of certain
programs and pathways more possible. Drawbacks include that students may receive a
narrower education, and potentially less skill development in the areas including critical
thinking, reading, and writing. Answers should also mention that these changes represent a
significant shift from the liberal arts-focused education popular years ago.

192
Discuss how emerging adults establish an ethnic identity. What are some particular
challenges faced by emerging-adult immigrants when establishing ethnic identity?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
As emerging adults come into contact with people from diverse backgrounds, they become
more conscious of their own background and begin to form an ethnic identity within the
context of their cultural history. Challenges for immigrants as they seek to establish an ethnic
identity can include the struggle of balancing their parents’ background and cultural practices
with their new social context, possible conflict over choice of vocation or romantic partner,
and the independent decision making of the emerging adults’ peer group that may clash with
their parents’ expectations.

193
Your younger brother is a senior in high school and does not want to attend college. He
hates school and doesn’t see the value of more years of education. As a sibling concerned
about his vocational identity as well as his future ability to support himself, outline at least
three reasons that your brother should reconsider his plan.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Responses will vary but should highlight benefits of a college education including the
opportunity to learn more about things that matter to him; to get a better job; to be able to
make more money; to get training for a specific career; and to gain a general education and
appreciation of ideas.

194
Alex and Cassie have decided to cohabit. Define cohabitation, give two reasons people
decide to cohabit, and identify potential outcomes of the situation.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Cohabitation is defined as living together in a sexual relationship without being married.
Reasons for cohabiting vary and include the following: it’s a stage toward marriage, it reflects
a desire to live tighter without planning to get married, or it’s a substitute for marriage. Past
research reflects that cohabitants tend to be less happy, less healthy, less satisfied, and – if
they eventually marry – more likely to divorce than married couples as a whole, though
research on cohabitation in other countries indicates that this is not true everywhere.

195
Discuss changes in self-esteem during early adulthood and the factors that influence it.
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Generally speaking, self-esteem increases in the transition from adolescence to early
adulthood, regardless of circumstances. Independence from parents and the ability to make
one’s own decisions appear to positively influence self-esteem, with those students who
move away to college showing the largest gains.

196
When is it a problem to be fertile?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Fertility can be a problem when couples become pregnant but are not yet mentally or
financially prepared to raise a child.

197
How can imagining other people’s stereotypes be harmful?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Imagining that people hold stereotypes or prejudices against one’s social group is the start of
stereotype threat, which can produce anxiety. Once an individual experiences anxiety, it can
interfere with the individual’s cognitive functioning and performance on any task.

198
Does cohabitation precede, ruin, or substitute for marriage?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
There are national differences in the acceptance and timing of cohabitation. Cohabitation can
be viewed as a prelude to marriage, a way to see if couples are compatible, a substitute for
marriage, or a practical way to save money. Although cohabitation has been associated with
later divorce in the United States, those results may be specific to a particular historical time.
At the same time, there is currently no research to suggest that cohabitation is beneficial over
time.

199
Is independence from parents a sign of healthy adulthood?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Emerging adults still rely upon their families for support and guidance, despite growing
independence and autonomy, and parents care about their grown children’s well-being.
There are cultural and cohort variations as to just how much independence emerging adults
have from their family.

200
What advantages do emerging adults have in terms of their health?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Every human body system is at optimal physical functioning during emerging adulthood.
Many serious diseases have not developed and childhood conditions (e.g., asthma) may
resolve during the emerging adulthood years.

201
Biologically, why is emerging adulthood the best time to have a baby?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
The sexual-reproductive system is at optimal functioning during the emerging adulthood
years. Women at this age usually have the easiest time becoming pregnant.

202
What cohort differences are evident in people’s attitudes toward premarital sex?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Younger adults do not view premarital sex as wrong and do not view living together before
marriage as bad for society. A majority of older adults view premarital sex as wrong and
living together before marriage bad for society.

203
Why has the AIDS epidemic slowed in recent years?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Younger adults are doing more to protect themselves against AIDS. Protective measures
include fewer sexual partners, later sexual onset, increased condom use, and, among males,
voluntary circumcision.

204
What are the pros and cons of risk taking in emerging adulthood?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Emerging adults are trying new things, such as going to college, starting a job, joining the
military or Peace Corps, or moving to a new state. There is risk associated with these
activities, but in most of these cases taking a risk may lead to a good outcome. In contrast,
emerging adults may also try other activities, for example abusing drugs or doing extreme
sports, where the associated risk can contribute to poor outcomes, such serious injury and
violent death.

205
Why are emerging adults more likely than people of other ages to take part in risky sports?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Emerging adults may take part in risky sports because they seek an adrenalin rush. The
desire to experience a thrill may also overwhelm their ability to evaluate the possible risk
associated with the activity, making emerging adults less concerned with the possibility of a
negative outcome such as injury or death.

206
Why is drug abuse common among emerging adults?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Emerging adults may experience drug abuse because of the thrill associated with drug use,
such as getting high or engaging in an activity that is disapproved of or illegal.

207
What are the differences between formal operational thought and postformal thought?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
In contrast to formal operational thought, postformal thought is more practical, flexible, and
dialectical. It engages in problem finding in addition to problem solving and has the ability to
combine emotion and logic.

208
How is adult thinking different from adolescent thinking?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Emerging adults tend to be more practical, creative, and innovative in thinking than
adolescents. Emerging adults, in contrast to adolescents, combing both emotions and logic
in thought.

209
In what ways does cognition continue to change throughout adulthood?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Cognition may increase in complexity and integration. Adults may continue to advance in
logical reasoning and social understanding as they age.

210
How does flexible thinking affect social understanding?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Emerging adults who understand that there are different ways to interact with others due to
cohort changes, cultural variation, or genetic uniqueness are likely to advance in social
understanding. Social understanding allows individuals to know how to best interact with
others.

211
How do current college enrollment patterns differ from those of 50 years ago?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
There is more diversity in the student body, including gender, ethnic, economic, religious,
and cultural. Courses of study–and reasons for attending college–have changed, reflected
in the fact that 50 years ago most colleges featured four-year liberal arts-focused programs
and today business is the most popular major. More students who are over age 24 now
attend college, and many students attend college part-time.

212
According to Perry, how does students’ thinking change during their college career? What
factors explain this change?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Perry argued that thinking progresses through nine levels of complexity over the college
years due to social interaction and intellectual challenge. In general, there is a positive
association between higher education and postformal thinking. The greater the number of
years of higher education individuals pursue the greater the likelihood their thinking is
characterized as postformal, probably due to factors including academic exploration,
exposure to professors and peers, class discussions, increasing independence, and the
experience caused by living away from home.

213
Why are some current researchers criticizing college education?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Recent research suggests that college students today are not making the intellectual
advances they did in previous years. Reasons for a lack of intellectual advancement may be
due to the emphasis on career courses and a changing higher education culture in which
students avoid intellectually rigorous courses so faculty offer less intellectually rigorous
courses.

214
In what way does diversity affect college students’ learning?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Discussion and interaction with individuals of different backgrounds, ages, and experiences
leads to intellectual challenges and more advanced thought.

215
How does ethnic pride change from early adolescence to adulthood?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
As individuals develop from early adolescence into adulthood, many become proud, or at
least accepting, of their ethnic background. This is done through formal exploration (as with
education) and informal exploration (as with the establishment of friendships).

216
Why might vocational identity be an outdated social construction?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Due to changes in the world of work (e.g., commitment to a particular career may limit
vocational success) and the larger society (e.g., economic recessions), achieving a single
vocational identity may not be possible nor even desirable. It has been suggested that
flexibility with respect to vocation may be needed for future generations.

217
What is the general trend of self-esteem during emerging adulthood?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer: Self-esteem and happiness tend to increase during the emerging
adulthood years.

218
What reassurance might you offer the parents of an aggressive teen and of a shy teen as
their children enter emerging adulthood?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Although these individuals may continue to display some aggressive tendencies and shyness
in emerging adulthood, the traits are not likely to be as extreme or debilitating as they were
earlier in development. It is expected that these individuals will form social relationships and
be employed during their emerging adulthood years.

219
What factors might explain personality shifts–both positive and negative–after adolescence?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Individual experiences such as making new friends and moving to a new city may contribute
to personality shifts. Also, increased self-esteem and maturation may contribute to shifts.
Societal changes (e.g., economic recession) also play a role.

220
In what three main ways do young adults meet their need for intimacy?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Emerging adults often meet their need for intimacy by forming friendships, maintaining family
ties, and establishing romantic relationships.

221
In what three main ways do emerging adults meet their romantic partners?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Romantic partnerships can form in several ways. Families can arrange for the couple to
marry in an arranged marriage. Individuals might also select a partner from a pre-selected
group of partners, but the identified romantic relationship partner needs to be approved of by
the individuals’ families. Finally, individuals can choose any romantic partner from among all
possible partners.

222
How has social networking changed the process of mate selection?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Although social networking is used to develop romantic relationships, one potential problem
is choice overload with too many options for a romantic partner are available. Too many
choices may contribute to slow analysis of information to ensure the right decision is made,
which could explain why couples slow down the selection of a romantic relationship partner
to ensure that the individual is the right partner.

223
Why do many emerging adults cohabit instead of marrying?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
There are national differences in the acceptance and timing of cohabitation. Cohabitation
can be viewed as a prelude to marriage, a way to see if couples are compatible, a substitute
for marriage, or a practical way to save money.

224
Why do people assume that emerging adults are not influenced by their parents?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
Many emerging adults establish their own homes. They also desire independence and
postpone the formation of new family commitments. Yet research has shown that parents
still have a major impact on emerging adults’ lives.

225
What surprises have emerged from studies of the attitudes of emerging adults and their
parents?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer: The attitudes, aspirations, and actions of parents and their adult
children often similar.

226
Why might family relationships sometimes improve when young adults leave home?
Answer Point Value: 1.0 points
Model Short Answer:
When parents and young adults no longer share a home, each experience a new freedom.
Parents are relieved of direct caregiving and the children have freedom from parental limits.
Family members, however, feel obligated to one another no matter where they live so despite
not living together, most family members remain close.

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