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Legal and Ethical Issues for Health Professions 3rd Edition Elsevier Test Bank

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Legal and Ethical Issues for Health Professions 3rd Edition Elsevier Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0443069093

ISBN-10: 1455733660

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Legal and Ethical Issues for Health Professions 3rd Edition Elsevier Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0443069093

ISBN-10: 1455733660

 

 

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Chapter 02: The Basics of Ethics

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The definition of ethics is:
a. the values that influence human behavior.
b. tying our actions to what is right or wrong.
c. one’s moral principles.
d. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:  D

When discussing the definition of ethics, it can mean several things. As a branch of philosophy, ethics studies the values that influence human behavior, tying our actions to a sense of right and wrong. A second aspect is an individual’s ethics; this refers to one person’s moral principles, the values that govern a single person’s decisions with a goal of maintaining one’s integrity or conscience.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 18

 

  1. Values are:
a. thoughts a person has.
b. principles one chooses to live by.
c. knowing right from wrong.
d. one’s integrity.

 

 

ANS:  B

Values are the principles that an individual chooses to live by. Although these may be personal values, they are also the qualities that drive most ethical behavioral models for groups.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 19

 

  1. The principle of “doing no harm” is called:
a. integrity.
b. beneficence.
c. nonmaleficence.
d. autonomy.

 

 

ANS:  C

Nonmaleficence is part of a physician’s oath to do no harm. In bioethical terms, the principle of nonmaleficence means that healthcare professionals should avoid harming a patient.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 25

 

  1. If there is one heart available for transplant and healthcare professionals must make the decision as to who gets the heart, which bioethical principle is involved?
a. Integrity
b. Beneficence
c. Nonmaleficence
d. Justice

 

 

ANS:  D

The principle of justice means treating everyone fairly, and distributing healthcare justly or fairly is a key issue in many ethical debates.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application           REF:   pp. 25, 27

 

  1. The reason that most people enter the healthcare field is grounded in the principle of:
a. nonmaleficence.
b. integrity.
c. beneficence.
d. justice.

 

 

ANS:  C

Beneficence is another word for doing good, or being kind, which is a predominant reason that most people enter the healthcare field.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 25

 

  1. Actions that show respect for human dignity, such as being honest and putting the patient first, reflect which of the following principles?
a. Integrity
b. Justice
c. Beneficence
d. Nonmaleficence

 

 

ANS:  A

Integrity is part of the standards of the healthcare profession and the actions that show respect for human dignity.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   pp. 18-19

 

  1. Who is the most important person in the healthcare organization’s code of ethics?
a. Healthcare professional
b. Patient
c. Physician
d. Hospital administrator

 

 

ANS:  B

Usually a healthcare organization’s code of ethics will include statements regarding the treatment and care of the patient as the most important priority, emphasizing handling all with dignity and respect. These in turn dictate such standards as guarding and respecting patient confidentiality.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 19

 

  1. When healthcare professionals attempt to improve the situations surrounding the patient, they are practicing which of the following principles?
a. Autonomy
b. Beneficence
c. Bioethics
d. Nonmaleficence

 

 

ANS:  B

Beneficence means doing good or being kind, and the actions taken on behalf of the patient should always be aimed at helping the patient.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 25

 

  1. Respect for others whose beliefs, practices, religions, or customs may differ from our own is called:
a. integrity.
b. values.
c. utilitarianism.
d. tolerance.

 

 

ANS:  D

Tolerance is respect for others whose beliefs, practices, religions, or customs may differ from our own. Tolerance must be practiced by all healthcare providers in all fields. We do not have to agree with or condone the behaviors, beliefs, or practices of another individual but can never pass judgment by our actions or words against another.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 20

 

  1. Unwavering adherence to an individual’s values and principles with dedication to high standards is:
a. integrity.
b. values.
c. utilitarianism.
d. tolerance.

 

 

ANS:  A

Integrity is part of one’s individual ethics, which refers to one person’s moral principles, the values that govern a single person’s decisions with a goal of maintaining one’s integrity or conscience.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   pp. 18-19

 

  1. Principles that individuals choose to live by are called:
a. integrity.
b. values.
c. utilitarianism.
d. tolerance.

 

 

ANS:  B

Although these may be personal values, they are also the qualities that drive most ethical behavioral models for groups. Individually, a person may value loyalty or privacy as well as freedom. For a group, the code of ethics would mirror these values and require that all employees or individuals involved in that group adhere to the principles prescribed in that organizations’ code of ethics.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 19

 

  1. Ethical theory based on the greatest good for the greatest number is called:
a. integrity.
b. values.
c. utilitarianism.
d. tolerance.

 

 

ANS:  C

Also called beneficence, utilitarianism is doing the “most good” and/or benefiting the largest number, which is one of the four foundational principles emphasized by the American Medical Association.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   pp. 25-26

 

  1. This ethical theory is based on the obligation of the individual to perform his or her responsibility no matter the circumstance.
a. Teleology
b. Deontology
c. Rights-based ethics
d. Justice-based ethics

 

 

ANS:  A

The general principle of teleology includes impartial thinking with respect to individuals. All individuals are considered equal and rules are absolute and should be obeyed by everyone. In other words, it is the duty of an individual to adhere to universal rules and regulations, regardless of circumstances.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   pp. 25-26

 

  1. This type of ethics theory emphasizes the specific person and does not consider the general population.
a. Teleology
b. Deontology
c. Rights-based ethics
d. Justice-based ethics

 

 

ANS:  C

This theory is based on the individual’s rights. The emphasis is on the specific person and does not always take the consequences of the general population into consideration, asserting instead that those rights should be upheld no matter what the circumstances. If misused, this could lead to individual gain without regard for damage or harm that can be caused to others.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 25, 27

 

  1. “Justice is blind” ethics theory is considered:
a. teleology.
b. virtue-based ethics.
c. rights-based ethics.
d. justice-based ethics.

 

 

ANS:  D

This theory is that all individuals should be treated with impartiality and there should be no advantages or disadvantages to individuals. Many believe this theory would prevent unfairness and injustice under social contracts, such as the distribution of organ donations.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   pp. 25, 27

 

  1. This ethics theory is based on character traits and qualities of individuals.
a. Teleology
b. Virtue-based ethics
c. Rights-based ethics
d. Justice-based ethics

 

 

ANS:  B

The traits include honesty, integrity, and hard work. Its focus is the individual striving for a better life, and is considered virtue-based ethics.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   pp. 25, 28

 

  1. What is the first question one should ask when making ethical business decisions?
a. Is it true?
b. Is it legal?
c. Is it balanced?
d. How does it make me feel?

 

 

ANS:  B

When facing a difficult choice, keep in mind that no ethical decision should be based on emotions. Ethical dilemmas should be faced and handled with logic and facts, weighing the alternatives and the consequences, and keeping an objective mind.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 29

 

  1. In the seven-step decision-making model, what is the first step that should be taken?
a. Determine the exact ethical issue involved.
b. Determine the rules, laws, principles, or values are involved.
c. Determine all the facts of the situation.
d. List all possible courses of action.

 

 

ANS:  C

The first step to be taken should be to determine the what, when, where, who, and why of the situation. The other options should be done after the facts are determined.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 29

 

  1. In the Dr. Bernard Lo clinical model method of decision making, one should first:
a. clarify the ethical issue.
b. determine the pros and cons of each option.
c. determine the exact ethical issue involved.
d. gather information.

 

 

ANS:  D

One should first gather the patient’s mental status, comorbidities, views of the other healthcare providers for the patient, and other issues that might complicate the patient’s case when making an ethical decision.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   pp. 29-30

 

  1. Medical ethics committees formed in very large medical facilities:
a. make decisions with the physicians’ input only.
b. make decisions based on logic and the codes and standards of the facility.
c. make decisions based on emotions.
d. make decisions with the patient’s input only.

 

 

ANS:  B

Ethics committees generally see or speak with the patients themselves but focus solely on the facts involved in the situation. This helps them make ethical determinations on the issues or cases brought before them based on logic, on the codes and standards, as opposed to emotions.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 30

 

  1. What is accreditation?
a. Officially recognizing a person or organization for meeting standards established by an industry
b. Obtaining enough continuing education credits
c. Recognizing the achievements of healthcare providers publicly
d. Recognizing a healthcare provider for their years of service

 

 

ANS:  A

Accreditation uses standards of care established by an industry to officially recognize an individual or organization. Many facilities and organizations maintain voluntary participation with accreditation organizations, who routinely examine the organization or facility to verify (as an objective party) that the standards of care and procedures of the organizations are in compliance.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge            REF:   p. 30

 

  1. An important program each healthcare facility should have is:
a. an open policy to speak to any physician.
b. educational assistance for continuing education.
c. employee benefits that include healthcare.
d. quality assurance programs.

 

 

ANS:  D

These programs are formed to evaluate and ideally prevent situations that arise and cause ethical dilemmas. They evaluate patient satisfaction, complaints, and outcomes of treatment. These programs focus on prevention and improvement of policies and recommend and monitor actions that noncompliant healthcare facilities can take for improvement.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 30

 

  1. What is the principle that ethics should be based on what is consistent and fair to everybody?
a. Beneficence
b. Nonmaleficence
c. Autonomy
d. Justice

 

 

ANS:  D

The four main principles of ethics are doing the most good for the most people, doing the least harm to the least amount of people, giving people the right to make their own decisions, and ensuring justice, which requires consistency and fairness to all involved.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   pp. 25, 27

 

  1. What is medical etiquette when dealing with patients?
a. Sharing their file with others
b. Treating them with respect and tolerance
c. Letting their family know what is happening with the patient
d. Treating them like family members

 

 

ANS:  B

The standards of professionalism expected in the medical field need to include showing patients respect and tolerance no matter the circumstances.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 24

 

  1. What is the difference between ethics and laws?
a. Illegal acts are most likely unethical.
b. Unethical acts are illegal.
c. Ethical acts are legal.
d. Legal acts are ethical.

 

 

ANS:  A

As allied health professionals, it is vital that we understand all legal and ethical ramifications of our actions and behaviors. Most would agree that illegal acts are most likely unethical, but there are many unethical behaviors or actions that are not necessarily illegal.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension     REF:   p. 23

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