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Life Span Development 13th Edition Santrock Test Bank

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Life Span Development 13th Edition Santrock Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0077611594
  • ISBN-13:978-0077611590

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Life Span Development 13th Edition Santrock Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0077611594
  • ISBN-13:978-0077611590

 

 

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CHAPTER 7: PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The Reggio Emilia approach is a(n):
  2. nutrition program for young children.
  3. educational program for young children.
  4. program for training kindergarten and elementary school teachers.
  5. parenting education program.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 213

 

  1. Her pediatrician has just told Karly that her 4-year-old son, Manuel, has gained 6 pounds in the last year. Karly should:
  2. be alarmed, because this is too much weight gain.
  3. be alarmed, because this is too little weight gain.
  4. change Manuel’s diet.
  5. understand that this is normal weight gain.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 214

 

  1. During early childhood, on average, girls are _____ than boys.
  2. much larger
  3. much smaller
  4. slightly larger
  5. slightly smaller

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 214

 

  1. By the end of early childhood, compared to each other, boys have _____, whereas girls have _____.
  2. more muscle; more fat
  3. less muscle; less fat
  4. more strength; more endurance
  5. a larger weight gain; a larger height gain

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 214

 

  1. When looking at the heights and weights of preschool children, we know that:
  2. there are ethnic differences.
  3. there are no ethnic differences.
  4. there are ethnic differences in average weight but not average height.
  5. environmental factors are more important than genetic factors.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 214

 

  1. What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?
  2. Nutrition and exercise
  3. Ethnic origin and social class
  4. Prenatal care and emotional difficulties
  5. Ethnic origin and nutrition

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Who among the following 5-year olds is likely to be the tallest?
  2. Tyrone, African American boy, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and firstborn
  3. Tina, White girl, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and firstborn
  4. Timothy, White boy, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and later born
  5. Tucker, African American boy, rural, lower-socioeconomic-status, and later-born

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Which of the following statements about brain development and early childhood is true?
  2. The brain grows more rapidly in early childhood than it did in infancy.
  3. By the time a child is 3 years of age, the brain is 25 percent of its adult size.
  4. By age 6, the brain has reached about 95 percent of its adult size
  5. The development that occurs inside the brain ends at the onset of adolescence.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Myelination is important:
  2. in developing the height and weight of children.
  3. in the development of a number of children’s abilities.
  4. because the pituitary does not function until the brain is almost completely myelinated.
  5. in how the brain grows anatomically in early childhood.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 215

 

  1. By repeatedly obtaining brain scans of the same children for up to four years, researchers found that the children’s brains experience _____ between the ages of 3 and 15.
  2. a marked deceleration of growth
  3. a drastic loss of tissue and little growth
  4. barely noticeable growth
  5. rapid, distinct spurts of growth

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Scientists found that the _____ did not show dramatic growth in the 3- to 15-year age range, but that the _____ dramatically changed.
  2. brain material; brain size
  3. overall size of the brain; local patterns within the brain
  4. local pattern within the brain; size of the brain
  5. frontal lobes; overall size of the brain

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Researchers have found that in children from 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the _____ lobe areas.
  2. temporal
  3. parietal
  4. frontal
  5. occipital

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Brendan is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still through dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan’s parents to:
  2. have Brendan tested for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  3. start Brendan on a behavior modification program to substitute productive behaviors for the running and jumping.
  4. provide structured, cognitively challenging activities for Brendan to build his attention span.
  5. recognize that there is no abnormality in Brendan’s behavior as such activity is a source of considerable pride and accomplishment for a 3-year-old.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Hallie is very active. She loves to tumble and show off. She is always trying out what her parents consider to be hair-raising stunts. She also loves running races and believes she is faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of the:
  2. 1-year-old.
  3. 2-year-old.
  4. 3-year-old.
  5. 5-year-old.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 215

 

  1. When 4 and 5-year olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they are demonstrating their:
  2. cognitive skills
  3. fine motor skills.
  4. gross motor skills.
  5. reflexive skills.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Sanjay and Ryan are 4-year-old friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that this activity will:
  2. help the boys develop gross motor skills.
  3. stop when their brains become better myelinated.
  4. be temporary, because it is not normal for children this age.
  5. help the boys develop the fine motor skills they will need in kindergarten.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Gross motor skills are to fine motor skills as _____ is to _____.
  2. jumping; balancing
  3. balancing; jumping
  4. hopping; writing
  5. writing; hopping

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 215

 

  1. 3-year old Emily-Rose is doing a puzzle, and, as is typical of her age, she:
  2. is still somewhat clumsy at the task.
  3. excels at the task.
  4. cannot concentrate on the task at hand.
  5. places the pieces precisely.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 215

 

  1. 4-year old Bobby has grown to be very good at stacking blocks into tall “buildings.” However, she still occasionally knocks over towers, most likely because:
  2. she is still somewhat clumsy at the task.
  3. she tries to place each block perfectly on top of the other.
  4. she is not being very careful about stacking them properly.
  5. that is more interesting than building them up.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Experts recommend that young children get _____ hours of a sleep each night.
  2. 8 to 9
  3. 11 to 13
  4. 9 to 10
  5. 7 to 8

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Children can experience a number of sleep problems, including narcolepsy which is characterized by:
  2. extreme daytime sleepiness.
  3. difficulty going to sleep.
  4. difficulty staying asleep.
  5. nightmares.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Researchers have found children who have sleep problems:
  2. exhibit no related outcomes in adolescence.
  3. are usually underweight.
  4. are more likely to show depression and anxiety.
  5. were no more likely to use drugs or suffer from depression.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 216

 

  1. A recent national study revealed all of the following about the eating habits of children today except:
  2. 45 percent of children’s meals exceed recommendations for saturated and trans fat.
  3. one-third of children’s daily caloric intake comes from restaurants.
  4. children eat out half as less today than they did in the 1980s.
  5. most choices at a fast food chain exceed the recommended daily calories intake for 8-year olds.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Which of the following should be minimized in order to improve the eating behavior of children?
  2. Competing activities
  3. A predictable schedule
  4. Eating healthy food yourself
  5. Making mealtimes pleasant occasions

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 217

 

  1. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk for being overweight are determined by:
  2. weight.
  3. average calories consumed daily.
  4. waist-to-hips ratio.
  5. body mass index.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 217

 

  1. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only children and adolescents at or above the _____ percentile are classified as obese
  2. 97th
  3. 95th
  4. 90th
  5. 99th

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 217

 

  1. A large-scale study relating to obesity in the United States in the years 2003 to 2006 indicates that the percentages of obese, overweight, and at risk for being overweight have:
  2. drastically increased from previous decades.
  3. have fallen when compared to previous decades.
  4. started to level off rather than increase.
  5. increased at lower levels than in previous decades.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 217

 

  1. Gina, 6, is in the 95th percentile for weight for her age. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, she would be classified as:
  2. obese.
  3. overweight.
  4. at risk for being overweight.
  5. not at risk for being overweight.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 217

 

  1. Which of the following statements about childhood obesity is true?
  2. Children who are overweight at age 3 are also at risk of being overweight at age 12.
  3. There is no indication that overweight young children will become overweight adults.
  4. Childhood obesity has not been linked to type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes in children.
  5. The United States had the highest rate of child obesity in the world.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 217

 

  1. Guidelines recommend that preschool children engage in _____ of physical activity per day.
  2. half an hour
  3. two hours
  4. one hour
  5. 45 minutes

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 217

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a factor in increasing the physical activity of preschool children?
  2. Family members engaging in sports together
  3. Parents’ perception that it is safe for their children to play outside
  4. Participating in sedentary outdoor play
  5. Incorporation of a “move and learn” physical activity curriculum

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 217

 

  1. Quentin’s mother took him to the doctor since he complained of chronic fatigue. His doctor diagnosed his condition as _____ that results from a failure to eat adequate amounts of quality meats and dark green vegetables.
  2. growth hormone deficiency
  3. dwarfism
  4. iron deficiency anemia
  5. hemophilia

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 218

 

  1. Young children from _____ families are the most likely to develop iron deficiency anemia.
  2. urban
  3. broken
  4. Asian
  5. low-income

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 218

 

  1. The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is:
  2. heart disease.
  3. malnutrition.
  4. motor vehicle accidents.
  5. cancer.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 218

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding parental smoking is true?
  2. Children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes.
  3. Most children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to tobacco smoke in the home.
  4. Children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home are no more likely to develop asthma than children in nonsmoking homes.
  5. Parental smoking is the leading cause for death in young children in the United States.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 219

 

  1. The negative effects of high lead levels in children’s blood include:
  2. low blood pressure.
  3. asthma and wheezing.
  4. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  5. anemia.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 219

 

  1. Each year _____ produces a report entitled “The State of the World’s Children.”
  2. the WHO
  3. The World Bank
  4. the Red Cross
  5. UNICEF

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 219

 

  1. The poor are the majority in nearly _____ of the nations of the world.
  2. one-fifth
  3. half
  4. all
  5. 10 percent

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Deaths in young children due to HIV/AIDS especially occur in countries:
  2. in the northern hemisphere.
  3. with high rates of poverty and low levels of education.
  4. where other common children’s health problems like malnutrition do not exist.
  5. where the majority are rich and educated.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 220

 

  1. The second Piagetian stage is the preoperational stage, which lasts from approximately _____ years of age.
  2. 1 to 3
  3. 2 to 7
  4. 4 to 10
  5. 5 to 12

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Ingrid, 6, loves to make little books by drawing pictures and putting in words to describe them. She has formed stable concepts and has started to reason. At the same time, she is egocentric and holds what her parents describe as “magical beliefs.” Ingrid is in Piaget’s _____ of development.
  2. sensorimotor stage
  3. concrete operational stage
  4. formal operational stage
  5. preoperational stage

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 220-221

 

  1. Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thoughtRemember, named because he believed that:
  2. children at this age do not yet perform reversible mental actions.
  3. children’s cannot yet form stable concepts at this age.
  4. children’s ability to reason is not yet operational at this age.
  5. children at this age are not yet able to represent the world in words and images.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 221

 

  1. 3-year-old Sally’s favorite pastime is drawing scribble designs that she says represent her parents, cat, bicycle, and home. This indicates that Sally is in the _____ substage of Piaget’s preoperational stage.
  2. symbolic function
  3. intuitive thought
  4. operational
  5. sensorimotor

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 221

 

  1. 3½ -year-old Michell draws a picture with pretty lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. “It’s a boat on the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!” she explains to her teacher. Marta is showing clear evidence of:
  2. animism.
  3. conservation.
  4. intuitive thought.
  5. symbolic function.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 221

 

  1. The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective is known as _____.
  2. animism
  3. empathy
  4. egocentrism
  5. symbolism

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 221

 

  1. While talking with Grandma on the phone, little Marcelo suddenly exclaims, “Oh, look at that pretty bird!” When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Marcelo says, “Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!” He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of:
  2. animism.
  3. egocentrism.
  4. intuitive thought.
  5. symbolic function.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 221

 

  1. A young child might be heard saying, “That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down.” The child’s belief that the tree is capable of action is referred to as _____.
  2. egocentrism
  3. conservation
  4. animism
  5. kineticism

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 221

 

  1. “My computer doesn’t like me—it keeps eating my pictures,” says 3-year old Sarah. This is an example of _____.
  2. animism
  3. intuitive thinking
  4. conservation
  5. egocentrism

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 221

 

  1. The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between approximately 4 and 7 years of age, is characterized by the emergence of:
  2. functionalism.
  3. egocentrism.
  4. intuitive thought.
  5. symbolic thought.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 222

 

  1. Justin, age 4, reasons that every time she sees a lightning bolt in the sky, angels are turning on their flashlights. Justin’s primitive reasoning about lightning is characteristic of:
  2. symbolic reasoning.
  3. intuitive thought.
  4. egocentrism.
  5. concrete thought.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 222

 

  1. Piaget called the second substage in preoperational thought “intuitive” because of the absence of the use of _____ in children in that stage.
  2. symbolic reasoning
  3. intuitive thought
  4. centration
  5. rational thinking

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 222

 

  1. Howie and his little sister, Stephie, are each given one large cookie. Their mother breaks Stephie’s cookie into four pieces to help her eat it more easily. Howie immediately begins to cry and says that it isn’t fair for Stephie to get so many cookies when he only has one. Howie is showing a lack of:
  2. constancy.
  3. conservation.
  4. intuitive thought.
  5. symbolic function.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 222

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?
  2. Conservation requires centration.
  3. Centration is due to lack of conservation.
  4. Lack of conservation is reflected in centration.
  5. Conservation is independent of centration.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 222

 

  1. Centration inhibits the ability to categorize items because it prevents one from:
  2. focusing only on one feature.
  3. considering combinations of features.
  4. taking a perspective that is different from one’s own.
  5. distinguishing between animate and inanimate objects.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 222

 

  1. In Piaget’s theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates:
  2. that the child is still at the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
  3. that the child is unable to think symbolically.
  4. centration.
  5. rational thought.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 222

 

  1. In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement:
  2. does not change an object’s basic properties.
  3. significantly affect an object’s basic properties.
  4. determine the total amount needed for a given task.
  5. must be considered before the total amount can be determined.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 222-223

 

  1. According to Rochel Gelman, _____ is especially important in explaining conservation.
  2. the age of the child
  3. heredity
  4. attention
  5. centration

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 223

 

  1. Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for:
  2. the cognitive development achieved by discovering which answers will lead to rewards.
  3. the range of tasks that a child should be able to do with ease at his or her stage of cognitive development.
  4. how the environment and genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.
  5. the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 224

 

  1. A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if:
  2. the toddler has mastered all the skills necessary.
  3. parents or teachers do not interfere.
  4. the task is more difficult than the child can do alone.
  5. the toddler needs little or no help from a parent or teacher.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 224

 

  1. Brendan is just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by himself if he uses both hands to hold on to a piece of furniture for support, but he can walk out into the middle of the room only if one of his parents holds his hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Brendan’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for walking?
  2. Brendan learning to run after he has mastered walking
  3. Brendan going back to crawling when he becomes frustrated trying to walk
  4. Brendan walking alone by holding onto a piece of furniture with one hand
  5. Brendan learning to walk by having his parents hold one of his hands

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 224

 

  1. Peach, 3, can do 4-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own, but needs her parents’ help to do 6-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Peach’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?
  2. Peach moving on to 10-piece puzzles.
  3. Peach doing a 6-piece puzzle on her own.
  4. Peach helping her 2-year old brother with 4-piece puzzles.
  5. Peach mastering 4-piece puzzles.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 224

 

  1. Vygotsky called these the “buds” or “flowers” of development.
  2. The tasks the child already can accomplish independently
  3. Intuitive thinking and rational thinking
  4. The child’s cognitive skills that are in the process of maturing
  5. The child’s cognitive skills that are fully developed

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 224

 

  1. When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instruction, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw these supports. This shows the adults’ involvement in the children’s:
  2. zone of proximal development (ZPD).
  3. ability to use operations in their thinking.
  4. level of intuitive reasoning.
  5. level of attentional functioning and memory capacity.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 224

 

  1. When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called:
  2. modeling.
  3. assimilating.
  4. scaffolding.
  5. linking.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 224

 

  1. Over the past week, Vicky has been trying to learn to tie his shoelaces. Initially his mother was holding his hands and working his fingers through the process, but now that Vicky’s gotten better at it, she only guides him verbally. This is an instance of:
  2. how heredity shapes cognitive development.
  3. intuitive reasoning.
  4. scaffolding.
  5. reinforcing helpless behavior.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 224

 

  1. This use of language for self-regulation is called:
  2. social speech.
  3. egocentric speech.
  4. toddler speech.
  5. private speech.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 224

 

  1. Rachel, age 3, walks by her grandmother’s collection of glass animals and says, “Those are a ‘no-no’; don’t touch.” It would appear that Rachel is using _____ to self-regulate her behavior.
  2. social speech
  3. thoughts
  4. private speech
  5. memories

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 224

 

  1. Which of the following describes what Lev Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language?
  2. Thought and language are merged early in development and later separate.
  3. Thought depends on languageRemember, they are merged throughout development.
  4. Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.
  5. Thought and language are two separate functions that remain independent throughout development.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 224

 

  1. In the development of language and thought:
  2. internal speech precedes external speech.
  3. internal and external speech are developed at the same time.
  4. external speech precedes internal speech.
  5. external speech develops at 3 years of age.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 224

 

  1. Latoya talks to herself frequently, especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Lev Vygotsky would say that Latoya is:
  2. engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.
  3. likely to be more socially competent than her peers who don’t engage in private talk.
  4. functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development (ZPD).
  5. engaging in scaffolding.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 224

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Lev Vygotsky’s educational applications?
  2. IQ should be assessed to test a child’s learning.
  3. Skilled teachers should be sought to help a child learn.
  4. The child’s use of private speech should not be encouraged.
  5. Practical teaching should begin toward the upper limit of the zone of proximal development (ZPD).

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 225

 

  1. Which scenario best represents Lev Vygotsky’s view of mental and behavioral development?
  2. A teacher assigns challenging tasks that students must complete on their own.
  3. An instructor helps students do laboratory work, showing them how to do things the students cannot yet do.
  4. A teacher waits patiently for students to come up with good answers and then reinforces them with praise and reward.
  5. An instructor systematically offers standardized tests to students to find out which mental abilities they do have and which they do not have.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Analysis

Page(s): 225

 

  1. Which of the following educational strategies would Vygotsky say should be incorporated into the classroom?
  2. Making each child responsible for his or her work, without relying on peers or teachers for support
  3. Offering abstract presentations of material
  4. Discouraging distractions like self-talk, or private talk
  5. Offering just enough assistance to the child to accomplish the task

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 225

 

  1. Vygotsky’s view of the importance of _____ on children’s development fits with the current belief that it is important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning.
  2. autonomy
  3. scaffolding
  4. economic status of teachers
  5. sociocultural influences

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 225

 

  1. Tools of the Mind is a program that is grounded in _____ theory of cognitive development.
  2. Piaget’s
  3. Erikson’s
  4. Sternberg’s
  5. Vygotsky’s

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 226

 

  1. In a Tools of the Mind classroom, _____ has a central role.
  2. good nutrition
  3. didactic lecture
  4. dramatic play
  5. abstract presentations

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 226

 

  1. A teacher in a Tools of the Mind classroom guides a child in planning his own message by drawing a line to stand for each word the child says. The child then repeats the message, pointing to each line as she says the word. Then, the child writes on the lines, trying to represent each word with some letters or symbols. This process is called:
  2. modeling.
  3. scaffolding writing.
  4. visualizing.
  5. role-play.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 226

 

  1. In moving from Piaget to Vygotsky, the conceptual shift is one from:
  2. the individual to collaboration.
  3. social interaction to sociocultural activity.
  4. construction to discovery.
  5. socializing to operational thought.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 227

 

  1. Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through:
  2. self-discovery.
  3. social interaction.
  4. reorganization of existing knowledge.
  5. transforming previous knowledge.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 227

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Vygotsky’s theory?
  2. He overemphasized the role of language in thinking.
  3. He overemphasized autonomy and self-discovered learning.
  4. His emphasis on collaboration has drawbacks.
  5. His emphasis on guidance has drawbacks.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 227

 

  1. _____ attention involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
  2. Salient
  3. Relevant
  4. Executive
  5. Sustained

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 228

 

  1. _____ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.
  2. Salient
  3. Relevant
  4. Executive
  5. Sustained

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 228

 

  1. A police officer visits Laura’s and Brett’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Laura tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer presented. Laura obviously paid more attention to what was _____.
  2. salient
  3. relevant
  4. habituated
  5. dishabituated

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 228

 

  1. A police officer visits Laura’s and Brett’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Brett tells his parents all about the safety rules the officer discussed. Brett obviously paid attention to what was _____.
  2. salient
  3. relevant
  4. habituated
  5. dishabituated

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 228

 

  1. After the age of _____, children attend more efficiently to the dimensions of the task that are relevant.
  2. 3 or 4
  3. 4 or 5
  4. 6 or 7
  5. 5

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 228

 

  1. When experimenters ask children to judge whether two complex pictures are the same, preschool children tend to use a haphazard comparison strategy, not examining all of the details before making a judgment, exhibiting a lack of:
  2. intuitiveness.
  3. randomness
  4. playfulness.
  5. planfulness.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 228

 

  1. In Central European countries, such as Hungary, kindergarten children participate in exercises designed to improve their _____. An eye-contact exercise, in which the teacher sits in the center of a circle of children and each child is required to catch the teacher’s eye before being permitted to leave the group, is an example of this type of exercise.
  2. empathy.
  3. attention.
  4. respect.
  5. creativity.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 228

 

  1. In short-term memory, individuals retain information for up to _____ if there is no rehearsal of the information.
  2. 30 seconds
  3. 1 to 2 minutes.
  4. 2 to 3 days
  5. 1 to 2 weeks

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 229

 

  1. Shantal is taking a test where she hears a random list of numbers, which she is then asked to repeat in the right order. Shantal is having her _____ tested.
  2. attention span
  3. habituation span
  4. long-term memory span
  5. short-term memory span

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 229

 

  1. Using rehearsal, we can keep information in short-term memory for a much longer period. In this context, rehearsal means:
  2. preparing for a memory span test.
  3. doing mental exercises daily to keep the mind sharp.
  4. repeating information after it has been presented.
  5. taking regular memory span tests.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 229

 

  1. Research with the memory-span task suggests that:
  2. short-term memory increases during early childhood.
  3. short-term memory reaches maturation by early childhood.
  4. memory span is constant between individuals.
  5. memory-span tests are not always an accurate measure of short-term memory.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 229

 

  1. In a study comparing the memory spans of preschool and elementary school children, the latter group consistently scored better. This apparent increase in memory span with age could be explained partly by how:
  2. the peer group plays a part in short-term memory.
  3. older children rehearse the digits more than younger children do.
  4. schooling impacts short term memory.
  5. memory-span tests are not always an accurate measure of short-term memory.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Analysis

Page(s): 229

 

  1. Six-year-old Tracy was a witness to a robbery and has been asked to testify at the trial. The defense will argue that her testimony is invalid because:
  2. at her age, she has inaccurate long-term memories.
  3. interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events.
  4. young children are incapable of recalling anything relevant about an event.
  5. she will deliberately distort information, as is typical for her age.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 230

 

  1. Josh, 6, is a much better problem solver than his younger sister, Madison, 2. This is because Josh rehearses information and organizes it, which his sister is still too young to do. Thus, Josh uses _____, or deliberate mental activities, to improve the processing of information.
  2. saliency
  3. strategies
  4. attention
  5. perception

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 230

 

  1. The _____ refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
  2. theory of self-awareness
  3. theory of empathy
  4. theory of mind
  5. theory of consciousness

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 230

 

  1. By _____ of age, a child recognizes that another person will see what’s in front of her own eyes instead of what’s in front of the child’s eyes.
  2. 1 year
  3. 2 years
  4. 3 years
  5. 4 years

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 230

 

  1. Alan, 18 months old, hates spinach but says “Yum!” when he sees his mother eating her favorite spinach casserole, indicating that:
  2. he will also like spinach when he grows up.
  3. he recognizes that someone else may have different desires from his own.
  4. he has started to recognize false beliefs.
  5. he has started to understand that people can have ambivalent feelings.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 231

 

  1. One of the criticisms of “false belief tasks” as indicators of understanding the thoughts of others is that:
  2. the false-belief task is a complicated one that involves a number of factors.
  3. this kind of task has at least four possible outcomes.
  4. the false belief tasks are too simple.
  5. It is only by the preschool years that children have a deepening appreciation of the mind itself.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 232

 

  1. The realization that people can have false beliefs—beliefs that are not true—develops in a majority of children by the time they are _____ old.
  2. 2 years
  3. 3 years
  4. 4 years
  5. 5 years

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 232

 

  1. By age 7, children begin to recognize all of the following EXCEPT that:
  2. there can be more than one correct opinions on an issue.
  3. people’s behaviors do not necessarily reflect their thoughts and feelings.
  4. people have different interpretations of the same event.
  5. people can have ambivalent feelings.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 232

 

  1. Several functions, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and may also be connected to theory of mind development are known as:
  2. activities of daily living.
  3. instrumental activities of daily living.
  4. executive function.
  5. associative function.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 233

 

  1. A group of children were put through a task where they were asked to say the word “night” when they see a picture of a sun, and the word “day” when they see a picture of a moon and stars. This is an example of a(n) _____, which describes several functions—such as inhibition and planning—that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior.
  2. executive function
  3. social function
  4. recall function
  5. dynamic function

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 233

 

  1. Approximately _____ children is estimated to have some sort of autism spectrum disorder
  2. 1 in 1000
  3. 1 in 150
  4. 10 in 150
  5. 1 in 10,000

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 233

 

  1. It now is accepted that autism is linked to:
  2. genetic and brain abnormalities.
  3. personality characteristics of the parents.
  4. vaccines.
  5. proximity to toxic waste disposal sites.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 233

 

  1. Gina is showing a number of behaviors different from children her age, including deficits in social interaction and communication as well as repetitive behaviors or interests. She is indifferent toward others and prefers to be alone. She is more interested in objects than people. It is likely that she suffers from _____, a condition linked to genetic and brain abnormalities.
  2. Down syndrome
  3. cerebral palsy
  4. ADHD
  5. autism

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 233

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding autism in children is true?
  2. Deficits in social interactions in autistic children are generally greater than deficits in children of the same mental age with mental retardation.
  3. Autistic children’s difficulty in understanding the emotions of others is due solely to theory of mind deficits.
  4. Children with autism are a homogeneous group.
  5. Children with autism usually perform well on false belief tasks.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 233

 

  1. Pointing to a tree, young Ramal says, “Bird flied away.” Ramal’s interesting but incorrect use of the “-ed” word ending shows that he is trying to learn the _____ rules of language.
  2. phonological
  3. morphological
  4. pragmatic
  5. syntactic

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 234

 

  1. Jean Berko’s experiment involving “wugs” demonstrated that the young children who took part in the experiment:
  2. knew the phonological rules.
  3. did not have a good grasp of morphological rules.
  4. knew the pragmatic rules.
  5. knew the morphological rules.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 234-235

 

  1. Berta, 3, is always asking questions like “Where Daddy is going?” and “What Mommy is doing?” This indicates that she is yet to learn the auxiliary-inversion rule and to apply rules of:
  2. pragmatics.
  3. morphology.
  4. syntax.
  5. phonology.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 235

 

  1. By the time they enter first grade, it is estimated that children know about _____ words.
  2. 500
  3. 5000
  4. 14,000
  5. 50,000

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 235

 

  1. Around _____ years of age, children learn to change their speech style to suit the situation.
  2. 6 to 7
  3. 7 to 8
  4. 2 to 3
  5. 4 to 5

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 235

 

  1. 5-year old Norma speaks in shorter, simpler sentences to her baby brother, in a very informal way with friends and uses a more formal language with her father’s friends. Norma is demonstrating her grasp of:
  2. pragmatics.
  3. morphology.
  4. syntax.
  5. phonology.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 235

 

  1. Developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarten level are likely to be:
  2. child-centered.
  3. standardized.
  4. academic-centered.
  5. achievement-oriented.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 237

 

  1. The kindergarten director says, “We believe that there is a specific set of skills children need to do well in first grade, and we make sure the children learn those skills in our kindergarten. We spend as little time as possible on social and physical things and concentrate on teaching them the facts. If children aren’t keeping up, we provide them with extra opportunities to practice until they learn the material.” This kindergarten program is:
  2. child-centered.
  3. not child-centered.
  4. developmentally appropriate.
  5. developmentally comprehensive.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 237

 

  1. Alicia is enrolled in a preschool where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. What approach is Alicia’s preschool using?
  2. Kindergarten
  3. Rogerian
  4. Montessori
  5. Success-oriented

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 237-238

 

  1. Identify a criticism related to the Montessori approach.
  2. It lays too much emphasis on social interaction.
  3. It is still an evolving concept.
  4. It lays too much emphasis on imaginative play.
  5. It deemphasizes verbal interaction between the teacher and child and peer interaction.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Application

Page(s): 238

 

  1. Educators refer to this type of schooling as _____, which is based on knowledge of the typical development of children within an age span, as well as the uniqueness of the child.
  2. the child-centered kindergarten
  3. developmentally appropriate practice (DAP)
  4. the Montessori approach
  5. the success-oriented approach

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 238

 

  1. In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for young children in the United States through:
  2. the Maria Montessori Program.
  3. the Perry Preschool Program.
  4. Early Head Start.
  5. Project Head Start.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 238-239

 

  1. Early Head Start was established in 1995 to serve children from _____ of age.
  2. 1 to 3 years
  3. 2 to 4 years
  4. 2 to 5 years
  5. birth to 3 years

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 239

 

  1. Identify a disadvantage related to Head Start programs.
  2. It only includes low-income families.
  3. It utilizes unreasonably high amounts of tax-payer money.
  4. Many Head Start programs are of questionable quality.
  5. It is biased toward some races.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 239-240

 

  1. Two current controversies in early childhood education, as given in the text, involve:
  2. what the curriculum for early childhood education should be and whether preschool education should be universal in the United States.
  3. the quality of inner-city schools and if school education should be free of charge to all.
  4. the use of corporal punishment in school and the singing of the national anthem.
  5. prayer in schools and balancing science with religious and cultural beliefs.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 240-241

 

  1. Competent early childhood programs also should focus:
  2. on both cognitive development and socioemotional development.
  3. mostly on cognitive development and preoperational skills.
  4. on socioemotional development alone.
  5. the academic approach to education.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 241

 

  1. Which of the following is research in support of universal preschool in the United States cited by Zigler and his colleagues?
  2. It is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather than funding preschool education for all 4-year-old children.
  3. The quality of inner-city schools has often been found to be of questionable quality.
  4. Research has proven that nondisadvantaged children improve as a result of attending a preschool.
  5. Universal preschool would bring billions of dollars of cost savings because of a diminished need for remedial and justice services.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 241

 

  1. Critics of universal preschool education argue that:
  2. quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
  3. it is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather than funding universal preschool education.
  4. the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often understated.
  5. quality preschool programs increase the likelihood that the child will drop out of school later.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Bloom’s: Comprehension

Page(s): 241

 

Identification Questions: Researchers / Theorists:

 

  1. This theorist showed that when the child’s attention to relevant aspects of the conservation task is improved, the child is more likely to conserve.

Answer: Rochel Gelman

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 223

 

  1. A cognitive theorist who emphasized the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.

Answer: Lev Vygotsky

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 224

 

  1. An Italian physician-turned-educator, who at the beginning of the twentieth century crafted a revolutionary approach to young children’s education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

Answer: Maria Montessori

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 237

 

Identification Questions: Terms:

 

  1. A common nutritional problem in early childhood which results from the failure to eat adequate amounts of quality meats and dark green vegetables and causes chronic fatigue.

Answer: Iron deficiency anemia

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 219

 

  1. The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and the perspective of another.

Answer: Egocentrism

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 221

 

  1. The substage of preoperational thought in which the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.

Answer: Symbolic function substage

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 221

 

  1. The knowledge that superficial changes in appearance in objects do not change the fundamental attributes of objects (such as mass or volume).

Answer: Conservation

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 222

 

  1. The range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but that can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children.

Answer: Zone of proximal development

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 224

 

  1. The awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

Answer: Theory of mind

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 230

 

  1. A developmental disorder of the brain characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behaviors or interests.

Answer: Autism

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 233

 

  1. The largest federally funded program for U.S. children with almost 1 million U.S. children enrolled annually, it is a compensatory program designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for success in school.

Answer: Project Head Start

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 239

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Define what Piaget meant by an operation.

Answer: An operation is a reversible mental action that allows children to do mentally what before they could only do physically.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 221

 

  1. Briefly describe the two stages of preoperational thought.

Answer: The Piagetian preoperational stage in cognitive development can be divided into two substages: the symbolic function substage and the intuitive thought substage. The symbolic function substage occurs roughly between the ages of 2 and 4. In this substage, the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present but still suffer from limitations like egocentrism and animism. The intuitive thought substage occurs between approximately 4 and 7 years of age when children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions, but cannot use rational reasoning.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 221-222

 

  1. What is the zone of proximal development (ZPD)? What are its lower and upper limits?

Answer: The zone of proximal development (ZPD), developed by Lev Vygotky, consists of the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children. The lower limit comprises tasks that a child can accomplish independently, and the upper limit comprises tasks that a child can accomplish with assistance.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 224

 

  1. List three ways that Lev Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms.

Answer: Here are some ways Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms:

1) Assess the child’s zone of proximal development.

2) Use the child’s zone of proximal development in teaching.

3) Use more-skilled peers as teachers.

4) Place instruction in a meaningful context.

5) Transform the classroom with Vygotskian ideas.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 225

 

  1. What are the criticisms leveled against Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development?

Answer: Some critics of Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development point out that Vygotsky was not specific enough about age-related changes. Another criticism is that Vygotsky did not adequately describe how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development. Yet another criticism is that he overemphasized the role of language in thinking. Also, his emphasis on collaboration and guidance has potential pitfalls. The facilitators could be too helpful in some cases, as when a parent becomes too overbearing and controlling. FurtherRemember,me children might become lazy and expect help when they might have done something on their own.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 227

 

  1. Research with the memory-span task suggests that short-term memory increases during early childhood. Why does memory span change with age?

Answer: One of the reasons that memory span improves with age is that rehearsal of information is important in increasing short-term memory. Older children rehearse the digits more than younger children do and thus exhibit longer memory spans. Speed – especially the speed with which memory items can be identified – and efficiency of processing information are important factors too.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Analysis

Page(s): 229

 

  1. Identify the factors that can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory?

Answer: Several factors can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory. There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion. Preschoolers are the most suggestible age group in comparison with older children and adults. There are individual differences in susceptibility. Some preschoolers are highly resistant to interviewers’ suggestions, whereas others immediately succumb to the slightest suggestion. Plus, interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 229-230

 

  1. Connect the concept of the overextension of words by infants discussed in chapter 5 with the concept of overgeneralization of morphological rules discussed in this chapter.

Answer: Overextension is the tendency to apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the word’s meaning. For example, an infant may call all animals “doggie.” A preschooler, on the other hand, may overgeneralize morphological rules by saying “mouses” instead of “mice” or “goed” instead of “went.”

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Synthesis

Page(s): 234-235

 

  1. What are the criticisms of the Montessori approach to early education?

Answer: Critics of the Montessori approach believe that it neglects children’s socioemotional development. For example, although Montessori fosters independence and the development of cognitive skills, it deemphasizes verbal interaction between the teacher and child and peer interaction. Montessori’s critics also argue that it restricts imaginative play and that its heavy reliance on self-corrective materials may not adequately allow for creativity and for a variety of learning styles.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Page(s): 237-238

 

  1. In the Reggio Emilia approach, children are encouraged to learn by investigating and exploring topics that interest them. A wide range of stimulating media and materials is available for children to use as they learn and children often explore topics in a group with two co-teachers present to serve as guides for children. Connect this approach to the concept of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) in children’s education.

Answer: The Reggio Emilia approach aligns closely with the developmentally appropriate practice (DAP). DAP is based on knowledge of the typical development of children within an age span (age-appropriateness), as well as the uniqueness of the child (individual-appropriateness). It emphasizes the importance of creating settings that encourage children to be active learners and reflect children’s interests and capabilities. The emphasis in DAP is on the process of learning rather than its content. It encourages active, hands-on teaching methods such as games and dramatic play. It recognizes that children develop at varying rates and that schools need to allow for these individual differences. It also argues that schools should focus on improving children’s socioemotional development, as well as their cognitive development.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Bloom’s: Synthesis

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